Publications (9)0 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In the town of Edea, where falciparum malaria is hyperendemic, an in vivo study of amodiaquine sensitivity of the local strain of the parasite is performed in school children 6 to 12 years of age: 184 children with parasites in their blood and no chloroquine in their urine are given amodiaquine orally. In 96 children having taken 35 mg per kg body weight of amodiaquine base, none is any longer harboring parasites in his blood as soon as the second day following the end of the 3 days treatment (15 mg/kg body weight the first day, 12 mg/kg the second day and 8 mg/kg the third day). The 73 children having taken 27 mg/kg body weight of amodiaquine base are cleared of their parasites at the rate of 93% on the seventh day of the experiment. The 15 children having only taken 15 mg/kg body weight of amodiaquine base are cleared of their parasites at the rate of 54%. At the utilized doses, amodiaquine is generally well tolerated. Conjunctival hyperhaemia has only been observed as a secondary effect in 9 children among the 184 children treated but this side symptom disappeared soon after the end of the treatment. Aminotransferases blood levels are not modified in the course of the amodiaquine treatment.
    Bulletin de la Société de pathologie exotique 02/1989; 82(2):208-16.
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    ABSTRACT: In the host, the antigen excreted by schistosomes in the circulating blood is concentrated in the urine. A mouse monoclonal antibody of the IgM class type lambda, directed against an epitope of the intestinal epithelium of the adult worm, is obtained. The antigen found in the urine of the host as well as the monoclonal antibody has been previously characterized. It is of a polysaccharidic nature, is thermostable and specific for the genus Schistosoma. The antigen is found at all stages of the life cycle and, particularly, in the egg where it is found in large amounts. Detection of the antigen is by means of inhibition of the passive haemagglutination test. There is a fundamental advantage in detecting the metabolic antigen excreted by schistosomes instead of looking for circulating antibodies. The antigen is directly released by the parasite itself, antibodies being, by contrast, produced by the host, indirectly therefore, and in a way that varies from one individual to the next. Collecting urine specimens is, for field workers, easier than obtaining blood from the inhabitants. The detection of the antigen in the urine is made a rather simple procedure since the antigen is concentrated by the kidney and free in urine, instead of remaining conjugated with antibodies like it is in the blood. When used in the Cameroon for the study of prevalence in two foci of schistosomiasis, intestinal (Nalassi Emana) and urinary (Barombi Kotto), the test detecting the antigen in urine gives good correlations with the parasitological examinations looking for eggs of S. mansoni and S. haematobium in feces and urine.
    Tropical medicine and parasitology: official organ of Deutsche Tropenmedizinische Gesellschaft and of Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) 07/1988; 39(2):131-5.
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    ABSTRACT: The authors report the results of sample surveys carried out in september 1986 in Yaounde and Nanga-Eboko and in january 1987 in Edea (Cameroon) to evaluate the main malarial indexes among 0-15 years old children. These investigations suggest that malaria is hypoendemic in Yaounde and mesoendemic in Nanga-Eboko during the rainy months. In Edea malaria is hyperendemic.
    Médecine tropicale: revue du Corps de santé colonial 01/1988; 48(3):201-8.
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  • M Le Bras · G Soubiran · A Baraze · B Meslet · A Combe · G Giap · A Fabre ·
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    ABSTRACT: In Niger, two communities, a urban one (Maradi) and a rural one (Tarna), living in a same malarious Soudano-Sahelian climatic area, were compared during wet and dry seasons by different methods (spleen rate, parasite rate, parasite count, level of immunity). During wet and dry season, spleen rates (0.7% and 2.6%) and parasite rates (1% and 1.6%) are considerably lower at Maradi than those observed at Tarna (spleen rates: 38% and 42%; parasites rates: 10% and 22.5%). It is shown that seroconversion occurs later in urban sector (100% between 20 and 29 year age) than in rural sector (100% between 10 and 15 year age). All malarious indicators were negative in a high percentage of Maradi-born children under 9 (79% during wet season and 81% during dry season) against respectively 28% and 31% at Tarna. Better paludometric index in urban community is a favourable sanitary indication. But epidemiological control must be prosecuted since the number of non-immune subjects is increased.
    Bulletin de la Société de pathologie exotique 02/1986; 79(5 Pt 2):695-706.
  • C P Raccurt · M Le Bras · J Le Bras · J Beylot · A Combe · C Ripert ·
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    ABSTRACT: A death from chloroquinoresistant falciparum malaria contracted by a traveller under chloroquine chemoprophylaxis during a stay in the Cameroon provides the authors with an opportunity to analyze the extension of chloroquinoresistance in Africa. Having appeared there about 10 years ago, it remained for a long time localized in East Africa. In recent years, it has moved West. Today, 17 countries located from the North to the South between Sudan and Mozambique, and from East to West between Kenya and the Cameroon are affected, as are the Malagasy Republic, the Comores and Zanzibar. The strains resistant to chloroquine are still sensitive to amodiaquine. In certain regions which are widespread in the continent, resistance to pyrimethamine has become evident in the last 30 years; resistance to pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine-dapsone has appeared in the last 3 years in East Africa. In the light of the complexity of the problem of malaria chemoprophylaxis, the authors emphasize the necessity of resensitizing the public at large with respect to personal protection against biting anopheline mosquitos, especially during the hours of darkness. The medical profession should equally be made aware of these new problems. Three types of chemoprophylaxis in relation to the areas visited are proposed: the first for West Africa; the second for Central Africa, neighbouring regions and the Malagasy Republic and the Comores; the third for the 3 East Africa countries the most affected, which are Kenya, Burundi and Tanzania.
    Bulletin de la Société de pathologie exotique 02/1986; 79(1):39-49.
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    ABSTRACT: The authors report the results of 4 sample surveys carried out in Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon in the Bonny's Bay area, to evaluate the main malarial indexes. In rural and semi-rural areas one notice a high rate of fever attacks and splenomegaly. Parasitaemia is more important in rural areas than in urban areas and is decreasing where the therapeutic pressure is strong and long-lasting. Immunological indexes are high everywhere.
    Bulletin de la Société de pathologie exotique 02/1986; 79(5 Pt 2):707-20.
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of the bancroftian filariasis on the health of the inhabitants are minimal in the study area, where the prevalence of the disease (nocturnal microfilaremia) is 0.4% only. But skin snips harboring Onchocerca microfilariae are seen in 12.1% of the sample studied. Onchocerciasis skin lesions, low visual acuity and blindness are often seen in the villages where the prevalence is high, among inhabitants more than 40 years of age. Simulium damnosum is seldom seen in the area, except in the large streams and rivers like the mayo Tsanaga and the mayo Djingliya. Larvae and nymphae of this species hardly succeed in developing on the overspelling of the small dams, this being due more to a discontinuous run of the water in the overspilling than to a to high speed of the water.
    Bulletin de la Société de pathologie exotique 02/1986; 79(5 Pt 2):755-65.
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    ABSTRACT: In terms of parasitaemia in blood, the prevalence was 18.7% for Plasmodium falciparum, 10.5% for P. ovale and 1% for P. malariae in the villages of Mungo Ndor and Kokobuma. The plasmodial index of children from 2 to 9 years of age was 38.2% and the spleen index 26.6%, with a mean HACKETT score of 1.56. Malaria is thus meso-endemic in the region. The immunofluorescent test performed with a P. falciparum antigen was positive in 66% of the children in the same age group. Parasites were seen in 15% of new-born children. The malaria infection indices were higher in Mungo Ndor, which is located on the main road in the vicinity of the Manyemen hospital, than in Kokobuma. Morbidity and mortality due to malaria remain major problems in this part of the South-West Province, in spite of improving primary health care facilities and free chloroquine distribution. Anopheles gambiae is the main vector of malaria in the area, and transmission is interrupted only during the short dry season.
    Médecine tropicale: revue du Corps de santé colonial 01/1986; 46(2):131-40.