[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species are byproducts of mitochondrial respiration and thus potential regulators of mitochondrial function. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 (PDHK2) inhibits the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, thereby regulating entry of carbohydrates into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Here we show that PDHK2 activity is inhibited by low levels of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) generated by the respiratory chain. This occurs via reversible oxidation of cysteine residues 45 and 392 on PDHK2 and results in increased pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity. H(2)O(2) derives from superoxide (O(2)()), and we show that conditions that inhibit PDHK2 also inactivate the TCA cycle enzyme, aconitase. These findings suggest that under conditions of high mitochondrial O(2)() production, such as may occur under nutrient excess and low ATP demand, the increase in O(2)() and H(2)O(2) may provide feedback signals to modulate mitochondrial metabolism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in mitochondrial oxidative damage and redox signaling is poorly understood, because it is difficult to measure H(2)O(2) in vivo. Here we describe a method for assessing changes in H(2)O(2) within the mitochondrial matrix of living Drosophila. We use a ratiometric mass spectrometry probe, MitoB ((3-hydroxybenzyl)triphenylphosphonium bromide), which contains a triphenylphosphonium cation component that drives its accumulation within mitochondria. The arylboronic moiety of MitoB reacts with H(2)O(2) to form a phenol product, MitoP. On injection into the fly, MitoB is rapidly taken up by mitochondria and the extent of its conversion to MitoP enables the quantification of H(2)O(2). To assess MitoB conversion to MitoP, the compounds are extracted and the MitoP/MitoB ratio is quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry relative to deuterated internal standards. This method facilitates the investigation of mitochondrial H(2)O(2) in fly models of pathology and metabolic alteration, and it can also be extended to assess mitochondrial H(2)O(2) production in mouse and cell culture studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is central to mitochondrial oxidative damage and redox signaling, but its roles are poorly understood due to the difficulty of measuring mitochondrial H(2)O(2) in vivo. Here we report a ratiometric mass spectrometry probe approach to assess mitochondrial matrix H(2)O(2) levels in vivo. The probe, MitoB, comprises a triphenylphosphonium (TPP) cation driving its accumulation within mitochondria, conjugated to an arylboronic acid that reacts with H(2)O(2) to form a phenol, MitoP. Quantifying the MitoP/MitoB ratio by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry enabled measurement of a weighted average of mitochondrial H(2)O(2) that predominantly reports on thoracic muscle mitochondria within living flies. There was an increase in mitochondrial H(2)O(2) with age in flies, which was not coordinately altered by interventions that modulated life span. Our findings provide approaches to investigate mitochondrial ROS in vivo and suggest that while an increase in overall mitochondrial H(2)O(2) correlates with aging, it may not be causative.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mitochondria-targeted quinone MitoQ protects mitochondria in animal studies of pathologies in vivo and is being developed as a therapy for humans. However, it is unclear whether the protective action of MitoQ is entirely due to its antioxidant properties, because long-term MitoQ administration may alter whole-body metabolism and gene expression. To address this point, we administered high levels of MitoQ orally to wild-type C57BL/6 mice for up to 28 weeks and investigated the effects on whole-body physiology, metabolism, and gene expression, finding no measurable deleterious effects. In addition, because antioxidants can act as pro-oxidants under certain conditions in vitro, we examined the effects of MitoQ administration on markers of oxidative damage. There were no changes in the expression of mitochondrial or antioxidant genes as assessed by DNA microarray analysis. There were also no increases in oxidative damage to mitochondrial protein, DNA, or cardiolipin, and the activities of mitochondrial enzymes were unchanged. Therefore, MitoQ does not act as a pro-oxidant in vivo. These findings indicate that mitochondria-targeted antioxidants can be safely administered long-term to wild-type mice.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine 10/2009; 48(1):161-72. DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2009.10.039 · 5.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO(*)) competitively inhibits oxygen consumption by mitochondria at cytochrome c oxidase and S-nitrosates thiol proteins. We developed mitochondria-targeted S-nitrosothiols (MitoSNOs) that selectively modulate and protect mitochondrial function. The exemplar MitoSNO1, produced by covalently linking an S-nitrosothiol to the lipophilic triphenylphosphonium cation, was rapidly and extensively accumulated within mitochondria, driven by the membrane potential, where it generated NO(*) and S-nitrosated thiol proteins. MitoSNO1-induced NO(*) production reversibly inhibited respiration at cytochrome c oxidase and increased extracellular oxygen concentration under hypoxic conditions. MitoSNO1 also caused vasorelaxation due to its NO(*) generation. Infusion of MitoSNO1 during reperfusion was protective against heart ischemia-reperfusion injury, consistent with a functional modification of mitochondrial proteins, such as complex I, following S-nitrosation. These results support the idea that selectively targeting NO(*) donors to mitochondria is an effective strategy to reversibly modulate respiration and to protect mitochondria against ischemia-reperfusion injury.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2009; 106(26):10764-9. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0903250106 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial oxidative damage is thought to contribute to a wide range of human diseases; therefore, the development of approaches to decrease this damage may have therapeutic potential. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants that selectively block mitochondrial oxidative damage and prevent some types of cell death have been developed. These compounds contain antioxidant moieties, such as ubiquinone, tocopherol, or nitroxide, that are targeted to mitochondria by covalent attachment to a lipophilic triphenylphosphonium cation. Because of the large mitochondrial membrane potential, the cations are accumulated within the mitochondria inside cells. There, the conjugated antioxidant moiety protects mitochondria from oxidative damage. Here, we outline some of the work done to date on these compounds and how they may be developed as therapies.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 01/2009; 1147(1):105-11. DOI:10.1196/annals.1427.003 · 4.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondria-targeted molecules comprising the lipophilic TPP (triphenylphosphonium) cation covalently linked to a hydrophobic bioactive moiety are used to modify and probe mitochondria in cells and in vivo. However, it is unclear how hydrophobicity affects the rate and extent of their uptake into mitochondria within cells, making it difficult to interpret experiments because their intracellular concentration in different compartments is uncertain. To address this issue, we compared the uptake into both isolated mitochondria and mitochondria within cells of two hydrophobic TPP derivatives, [3H]MitoQ (mitoquinone) and [3H]DecylTPP, with the more hydrophilic TPP cation [3H]TPMP (methyltriphenylphosphonium). Uptake of MitoQ by mitochondria and cells was described by the Nernst equation and was approximately 5-fold greater than that for TPMP, as a result of its greater binding within the mitochondrial matrix. DecylTPP was also taken up extensively by cells, indicating that increased hydrophobicity enhanced uptake. Both MitoQ and DecylTPP were taken up very rapidly into cells, reaching a steady state within 15 min, compared with approximately 8 h for TPMP. This far faster uptake was the result of the increased rate of passage of hydrophobic TPP molecules through the plasma membrane. Within cells MitoQ was predominantly located within mitochondria, where it was rapidly reduced to the ubiquinol form, consistent with its protective effects in cells and in vivo being due to the ubiquinol antioxidant. The strong influence of hydrophobicity on TPP cation uptake into mitochondria within cells facilitates the rational design of mitochondria-targeted compounds to report on and modify mitochondrial function in vivo.