Christopher K Glass

University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California, United States

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Publications (275)4166.58 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: When messenger RNA splicing occurs co-transcriptionally, the potential for kinetic control based on transcription dynamics is widely recognized. Indeed, perturbation studies have reported that when transcription kinetics are perturbed genetically or pharmacologically splice patterns may change. However, whether kinetic control is contributing to the control of splicing within the normal range of physiological conditions remains unknown. We examined if the kinetic determinants for co-transcriptional splicing (CTS) might be reflected in the structure and expression patterns of the genome and epigenome. To identify and then quantitatively relate multiple, simultaneous CTS determinants, we constructed a scalable mathematical model of the kinetic interplay of RNA synthesis and CTS and parameterized it with diverse next generation sequencing (NGS) data. We thus found a variety of CTS determinants encoded in vertebrate genomes and epigenomes, and that these combine variously for different groups of genes such as housekeeping versus regulated genes. Together, our findings indicate that the kinetic basis of splicing is functionally and physiologically relevant, and may meaningfully inform the analysis of genomic and epigenomic data to provide insights that are missed when relying on statistical approaches alone. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
    Nucleic Acids Research 12/2014; · 8.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophages reside in essentially all tissues of the body and play key roles in innate and adaptive immune responses. Distinct populations of tissue macrophages also acquire context-specific functions that are important for normal tissue homeostasis. To investigate mechanisms responsible for tissue-specific functions, we analyzed the transcriptomes and enhancer landscapes of brain microglia and resident macrophages of the peritoneal cavity. In addition, we exploited natural genetic variation as a genome-wide "mutagenesis" strategy to identify DNA recognition motifs for transcription factors that promote common or subset-specific binding of the macrophage lineage-determining factor PU.1. We find that distinct tissue environments drive divergent programs of gene expression by differentially activating a common enhancer repertoire and by inducing the expression of divergent secondary transcription factors that collaborate with PU.1 to establish tissue-specific enhancers. These findings provide insights into molecular mechanisms by which tissue environment influences macrophage phenotypes that are likely to be broadly applicable to other cell types. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Cell. 12/2014; 159(6):1327-40.
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    ABSTRACT: Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are an important constituent of the macrophage glycocalyx and extracellular microenvironment. To examine their role in atherogenesis, we inactivated the biosynthetic gene N-acetylglucosamine N-deacetylase-N-sulfotransferase 1 (Ndst1) in macrophages and crossbred the strain to Ldlr−/− mice. When placed on an atherogenic diet, Ldlr−/−Ndst1f/fLysMCre+ mice had increased atherosclerotic plaque area and volume compared to Ldlr−/− mice. Diminished sulfation of heparan sulfate resulted in enhanced chemokine expression; increased macrophages in plaques; increased expression of ACAT2, a key enzyme in cholesterol ester storage; and increased foam cell conversion. Motif analysis of promoters of upregulated genes suggested increased type I interferon signaling, which was confirmed by elevation of STAT1 phosphorylation induced by IFN-β. The proinflammatory macrophages derived from Ndst1f/fLysMCre+ mice also sensitized the animals to diet-induced obesity. We propose that macrophage HSPGs control basal activation of macrophages by maintaining type I interferon reception in a quiescent state through sequestration of IFN-β.
    Cell Metabolism 11/2014; 20(50):813–826. · 16.75 Impact Factor
  • David Gosselin, Christopher K. Glass
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophages play essential roles in tissue homeostasis, pathogen elimination, and tissue repair. A defining characteristic of these cells is their ability to efficiently adapt to a variety of abruptly changing and complex environments. This ability is intrinsically linked to a capacity to quickly alter their transcriptome, and this is tightly associated with the epigenomic organization of these cells and, in particular, their enhancer repertoire. Indeed, enhancers are genomic sites that serve as platforms for the integration of signaling pathways with the mechanisms that regulate mRNA transcription. Notably, transcription is pervasive at active enhancers and enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) are tightly coupled to regulated transcription of protein-coding genes. Furthermore, given that each cell type possesses a defining enhancer repertoire, studies on enhancers provide a powerful method to study how specialization of functions among the diverse macrophage subtypes may arise. Here, we review recent studies providing insights into the distinct mechanisms that contribute to the establishment of enhancers and their role in the regulation of transcription in macrophages.
    Immunological Reviews 11/2014; 262(1). · 12.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is a master regulator of angiogenesis, vascular development and function. In this study we investigated the transcriptional regulation of VEGF-A-responsive genes in primary human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using genome-wide global run-on sequencing (GRO-Seq). We demonstrate that half of VEGF-A-regulated gene promoters are characterized by a transcriptionally competent paused RNA polymerase II (Pol II). We show that transition into productive elongation is a major mechanism of gene activation of virtually all VEGF-regulated genes, whereas only ∼40% of the genes are induced at the level of initiation. In addition, we report a comprehensive chromatin interaction map generated in HUVECs using tethered conformation capture (TCC) and characterize chromatin interactions in relation to transcriptional activity. We demonstrate that sites of active transcription are more likely to engage in chromatin looping and cell type-specific transcriptional activity reflects the boundaries of chromatin interactions. Furthermore, we identify large chromatin compartments with a tendency to be coordinately transcribed upon VEGF-A stimulation. We provide evidence that these compartments are enriched for clusters of regulatory regions such as super-enhancers and for disease-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Collectively, these findings provide new insights into mechanisms behind VEGF-A-regulated transcriptional programs in endothelial cells.
    Nucleic Acids Research 10/2014; · 8.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Growth factor receptor levels are aberrantly high in diverse cancers, driving the proliferation and survival of tumor cells. Understanding the molecular basis for this aberrant elevation has profound clinical implications. Here we show that the pleckstrin homology domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase (PHLPP) suppresses receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling output by a previously unidentified epigenetic mechanism unrelated to its previously described function as the hydrophobic motif phosphatase for the protein kinase AKT, protein kinase C, and S6 kinase. Specifically, we show that nuclear-localized PHLPP suppresses histone phosphorylation and acetylation, in turn suppressing the transcription of diverse growth factor receptors, including the EGF receptor. These data uncover a much broader role for PHLPP in regulation of growth factor signaling beyond its direct inactivation of AKT: By suppressing RTK levels, PHLPP dampens the downstream signaling output of two major oncogenic pathways, the PI3 kinase/AKT and the Rat sarcoma (RAS)/ERK pathways. Our data are consistent with a model in which PHLPP modifies the histone code to control the transcription of RTKs.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Initiation and resolution of inflammation are considered to be tightly connected processes. Lipoxins (LX) are proresolution lipid mediators that inhibit phlogistic neutrophil recruitment and promote wound-healing macrophage recruitment in humans via potent and specific signaling through the LXA4 receptor (ALX). One model of lipoxin biosynthesis involves sequential metabolism of arachidonic acid by two cell types expressing a combined transcellular metabolon. It is currently unclear how lipoxins are efficiently formed from precursors or if they are directly generated after receptor-mediated inflammatory commitment. Here, we provide evidence for a pathway by which lipoxins are generated in macrophages as a consequence of sequential activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a receptor for endotoxin, and P2X7, a purinergic receptor for extracellular ATP. Initial activation of TLR4 results in accumulation of the cyclooxygenase-2-derived lipoxin precursor 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) in esterified form within membrane phospholipids, which can be enhanced by aspirin (ASA) treatment. Subsequent activation of P2X7 results in efficient hydrolysis of 15-HETE from membrane phospholipids by group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2, and its conversion to bioactive lipoxins by 5-lipoxygenase. Our results demonstrate how a single immune cell can store a proresolving lipid precursor and then release it for bioactive maturation and secretion, conceptually similar to the production and inflammasome-dependent maturation of the proinflammatory IL-1 family cytokines. These findings provide evidence for receptor-specific and combinatorial control of pro- and anti-inflammatory eicosanoid biosynthesis, and potential avenues to modulate inflammatory indices without inhibiting downstream eicosanoid pathways.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2014; · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatic myofibroblasts are activated in response to chronic liver injury of any etiology to produce a fibrous scar. Despite extensive studies, the origin of myofibroblasts in different types of fibrotic liver diseases is unresolved. To identify distinct populations of myofibroblasts and quantify their contribution to hepatic fibrosis of two different etiologies, collagen-α1(I)-GFP mice were subjected to hepatotoxic (carbon tetrachloride; CCl4) or cholestatic (bile duct ligation; BDL) liver injury. All myofibroblasts were purified by flow cytometry of GFP(+) cells and then different subsets identified by phenotyping. Liver resident activated hepatic stellate cells (aHSCs) and activated portal fibroblasts (aPFs) are the major source (>95%) of fibrogenic myofibroblasts in these models of liver fibrosis in mice. As previously reported using other methodologies, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the major source of myofibroblasts (>87%) in CCl4 liver injury. However, aPFs are a major source of myofibroblasts in cholestatic liver injury, contributing >70% of myofibroblasts at the onset of injury (5 d BDL). The relative contribution of aPFs decreases with progressive injury, as HSCs become activated and contribute to the myofibroblast population (14 and 20 d BDL). Unlike aHSCs, aPFs respond to stimulation with taurocholic acid and IL-25 by induction of collagen-α1(I) and IL-13, respectively. Furthermore, BDL-activated PFs express high levels of collagen type I and provide stimulatory signals to HSCs. Gene expression analysis identified several novel markers of aPFs, including a mesothelial-specific marker mesothelin. PFs may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of cholestatic liver fibrosis and, therefore, serve as an attractive target for antifibrotic therapy.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2014; · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A large portion of the human genome is transcribed into RNAs without known protein-coding functions, far outnumbering coding transcription units. Extensive studies of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have clearly demonstrated that they can play critical roles in regulating gene expression, development, and diseases, acting both as transcriptional activators and repressors. More recently, enhancers have been found to be broadly transcribed, resulting in the production of enhancer-derived RNAs, or eRNAs. Here, we review emerging evidence suggesting that at least some eRNAs contribute to enhancer function. We discuss these findings with respect to potential mechanisms of action of eRNAs and other ncRNAs in regulated gene expression.
    Trends in Biochemical Sciences 03/2014; · 13.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by an extended polyglutamine repeat in the N terminus of the Huntingtin protein (HTT). Reactive microglia and elevated cytokine levels are observed in the brains of HD patients, but the extent to which neuroinflammation results from extrinsic or cell-autonomous mechanisms in microglia is unknown. Using genome-wide approaches, we found that expression of mutant Huntingtin (mHTT) in microglia promoted cell-autonomous pro-inflammatory transcriptional activation by increasing the expression and transcriptional activities of the myeloid lineage-determining factors PU.1 and C/EBPs. We observed elevated levels of PU.1 and its target genes in the brains of mouse models and individuals with HD. Moreover, mHTT-expressing microglia exhibited an increased capacity to induce neuronal death ex vivo and in vivo in the presence of sterile inflammation. These findings suggest a cell-autonomous basis for enhanced microglia reactivity that may influence non-cell-autonomous HD pathogenesis.
    Nature Neuroscience 03/2014; · 14.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Eicosanoids, including prostaglandins (PG) and leukotrienes, are lipid mediators derived from arachidonic acid. A quantitative and biochemical level understanding of eicosanoid metabolism would aid in understanding the mechanisms that govern inflammatory processes. Here, we present a combined experimental and computational approach to understanding the biochemical basis of eicosanoid metabolism in macrophages. Lipidomic and transcriptomic measurements and analyses reveal temporal and dynamic changes of the eicosanoid metabolic network in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) upon stimulation of the Toll-like receptor 4 with Kdo2-Lipid A (KLA) and stimulation of the P2X7 purinergic receptor with adenosine 5'-triphosphate. Kinetic models were developed for the cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase branches of arachidonic acid metabolism, and then the rate constants were estimated with a data set from ATP-stimulated BMDM, using a two-step matrix-based approach employing a constrained least-squares method followed by nonlinear optimization. The robustness of the model was validated through parametric sensitivity, uncertainty analysis, and predicting an independent dataset from KLA-primed ATP-stimulated BMDM by allowing the parameters to vary within the uncertainty range of the calculated parameters. We analyzed the functional coupling between COX isozymes and terminal enzymes by developing a PGH2-divided model. This provided evidence for the functional coupling between COX-2 and PGE2 synthase, between COX-1/COX-2 and PGD2 synthase, and also between COX-1 and thromboxane A2 synthase. Further, these functional couplings were experimentally validated using COX-1 and COX-2 selective inhibitors. The resulting fluxomics analysis demonstrates that the "multi-omics" systems biology approach can define the complex machinery of eicosanoid networks.
    Biophysical Journal 02/2014; 106(4):966-75. · 3.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Global run-on sequencing (GRO-seq) is a recent addition to the series of high-throughput sequencing methods that enables new insights into transcriptional dynamics within a cell. However, GRO-sequencing presents new algorithmic challenges, as existing analysis platforms for ChIP-seq and RNA-seq do not address the unique problem of identifying transcriptional units de novo from short reads located all across the genome. Here, we present a novel algorithm for de novo transcript identification from GRO-sequencing data, along with a system that determines transcript regions, stores them in a relational database and associates them with known reference annotations. We use this method to analyze GRO-sequencing data from primary mouse macrophages and derive novel quantitative insights into the extent and characteristics of non-coding transcription in mammalian cells. In doing so, we demonstrate that Vespucci expands existing annotations for mRNAs and lincRNAs by defining the primary transcript beyond the polyadenylation site. In addition, Vespucci generates assemblies for un-annotated non-coding RNAs such as those transcribed from enhancer-like elements. Vespucci thereby provides a robust system for defining, storing and analyzing diverse classes of primary RNA transcripts that are of increasing biological interest.
    Nucleic Acids Research 12/2013; · 8.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 25-hydroxycholesterol (25OHC) is an enzymatically-derived oxidation product of cholesterol that modulates lipid metabolism and immunity. 25OHC is synthesized in response to interferons and exerts broad anti-viral activity by as yet poorly characterized mechanisms. To gain further insights into the basis for anti-viral activity, we evaluated time-dependent responses of the macrophage lipidome and transcriptome to 25OHC treatment. In addition to altering specific aspects of cholesterol and sphingolipid metabolism, we found that 25OHC activates integrated stress response (ISR) genes and reprograms protein translation. Effects of 25OHC on ISR gene expression were independent of liver X receptors (LXRs) and sterol response element binding proteins (SREBPs) and instead primarily resulted from activation of the GCN2/eIF2α/ATF4 branch of the ISR pathway. These studies reveal that 25OHC activates the integrated stress response, which may contribute to its anti-viral activity.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2013; · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • Dawn Zhang, C Glass
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    ABSTRACT: The ability to regulate gene expression in a cell-specific manner is a feature of many broadly expressed signal-dependent transcription factors, including nuclear hormone receptors and transcription factors that are activated by cell surface receptors for extracellular signals. As the most plastic cells of the hematopoietic system, macrophages are responsive to a wide spectrum of regulatory molecules and provide a robust model system for investigation of the basis for cell-specific transcriptional responses at a genome-wide level. Here, we review recent studies suggesting a model in which macrophage-specific actions of signal-dependent transcription factors are the consequence of priming functions of lineage-determining transcription factors that include PU.1, AP1 factors, and CEBPs. These mechanisms can be generalized to lineage-determining factors in other cell types. We also discuss recent findings relating lineage-determining and signal-dependent transcription factor activity to alterations in the epigenetic landscape as well as the production and function of enhancer RNAs. These findings have implications for the understanding of how natural genetic variation impacts cell-specific programs of gene expression and suggest new approaches for altering gene expression in vivo.
    Journal of Molecular Endocrinology 10/2013; · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms by which genetic variation affects transcription regulation and phenotypes at the nucleotide level are incompletely understood. Here we use natural genetic variation as an in vivo mutagenesis screen to assess the genome-wide effects of sequence variation on lineage-determining and signal-specific transcription factor binding, epigenomics and transcriptional outcomes in primary macrophages from different mouse strains. We find substantial genetic evidence to support the concept that lineage-determining transcription factors define epigenetic and transcriptomic states by selecting enhancer-like regions in the genome in a collaborative fashion and facilitating binding of signal-dependent factors. This hierarchical model of transcription factor function suggests that limited sets of genomic data for lineage-determining transcription factors and informative histone modifications can be used for the prioritization of disease-associated regulatory variants.
    Nature 10/2013; · 42.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophage-mediated inflammation is a major contributor to obesity-associated insulin resistance. The corepressor NCoR interacts with inflammatory pathway genes in macrophages, suggesting that its removal would result in increased activity of inflammatory responses. Surprisingly, we find that macrophage-specific deletion of NCoR instead results in an anti-inflammatory phenotype along with robust systemic insulin sensitization in obese mice. We present evidence that derepression of LXRs contributes to this paradoxical anti-inflammatory phenotype by causing increased expression of genes that direct biosynthesis of palmitoleic acid and ω3 fatty acids. Remarkably, the increased ω3 fatty acid levels primarily inhibit NF-κB-dependent inflammatory responses by uncoupling NF-κB binding and enhancer/promoter histone acetylation from subsequent steps required for proinflammatory gene activation. This provides a mechanism for the in vivo anti-inflammatory insulin-sensitive phenotype observed in mice with macrophage-specific deletion of NCoR. Therapeutic methods to harness this mechanism could lead to a new approach to insulin-sensitizing therapies.
    Cell 09/2013; 155(1):200-14. · 31.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophage activation, by lipopolysaccharide and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), has been studied extensively since this model system mimics the physiological context of bacterial infection and subsequent inflammatory responses. Previous studies on macrophages elucidated the biological roles of caspase-1 in post-translational activation of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 in inflammation and apoptosis. However, the results from these studies focused only on a small number of factors. To better understand the host response, we have performed a high-throughput study of Kdo2-Lipid A (KLA) primed macrophages stimulated with ATP(#). The study suggests that treating mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages with KLA and ATP produces "synergistic" effects that are not seen with treatment of KLA or ATP alone. The synergistic regulation of genes related to immunity, apoptosis and lipid metabolism is observed in a time-dependent manner. The synergistic effects are produced by nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and activator protein (AP)-1 through regulation of their target cytokines. The synergistically regulated cytokines then activate Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) factors that result in enhanced immunity, apoptosis and lipid metabolism; STAT1 enhances immunity by promoting anti-microbial factors, and STAT3 contributes to downregulation of cell cycle and upregulation of apoptosis. STAT1 and STAT3 also regulate glycerolipid and eicosanoid metabolism, respectively. Further, western blot analysis for STAT1 and STAT3 showed that the changes in transcriptomic levels were consistent with their proteomic levels. In summary, this study shows the synergistic interaction between the Toll-like receptor and purinergic receptor signaling during macrophage activation upon bacterial infection.(#) AVAILABILITY: Time-course data of transcriptomics and lipidomics can be queried or downloaded from http://www.lipidmaps.org/data/index.html. shankar@ucsd.eduSupplementary material is available from Bioinformatics online.
    Bioinformatics 08/2013; · 4.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has the unique property of inducing regression of pre-established murine atherosclerosis. Understanding the mechanism(s) involved may help identify endogenous pathways that reverse human atherosclerosis. Here, we provide evidence that CLA inhibits foam cell formation via regulation of the nuclear receptor coactivator, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ coactivator (PGC)-1α, and that macrophage PGC-1α plays a role in atheroprotection in vivo. PGC-1α was identified as a hub gene within a cluster in the aorta of the apoE(-/-) mouse in the CLA-induced regression model. PGC-1α was localized to macrophage/foam cells in the murine aorta where its expression was increased during CLA-induced regression. PGC-1α expression was also detected in macrophages in human atherosclerosis and was inversely linked to disease progression in patients with the disease. Deletion of PGC-1α in bone marrow derived macrophages promoted, whilst over expression of the gene inhibited foam cell formation. Importantly, macrophage specific deletion of PGC-1α accelerated atherosclerosis in the LDLR(-/-) mouse in vivo. These novel data support a functional role for PGC-1α in atheroprotection.
    EMBO Molecular Medicine 08/2013; · 7.80 Impact Factor
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    Nathanael J Spann, Christopher K Glass
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    ABSTRACT: Intermediates in the cholesterol-biosynthetic pathway and oxysterol derivatives of cholesterol regulate diverse cellular processes. Recent studies have expanded the appreciation of their roles in controlling the functions of cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Here we review recent literature reporting on the biological functions of sterol intermediates and oxysterols, acting through transcription factors such as the liver X receptors (LXRs), sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) and the G protein-coupled receptor EBI2, in regulating the differentiation and population expansion of cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems, their responses to inflammatory mediators, their effects on the phagocytic functions of macrophages and their effects on antiviral activities and the migration of immune cells. Such findings have raised many new questions about the production of endogenous bioactive sterols and oxysterols and their mechanisms of action in the immune system.
    Nature Immunology 08/2013; 14(9):893-900. · 24.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies suggest a hierarchical model in which lineage-determining factors act in a collaborative manner to select and prime cell-specific enhancers, thereby enabling signal-dependent transcription factors to bind and function in a cell-type-specific manner. Consistent with this model, TLR4 signaling primarily regulates macrophage gene expression through a pre-existing enhancer landscape. However, TLR4 signaling also induces priming of ∼3,000 enhancer-like regions de novo, enabling visualization of intermediates in enhancer selection and activation. Unexpectedly, we find that enhancer transcription precedes local mono- and dimethylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me1/2). H3K4 methylation at de novo enhancers is primarily dependent on the histone methyltransferases Mll1, Mll2/4, and Mll3 and is significantly reduced by inhibition of RNA polymerase II elongation. Collectively, these findings suggest an essential role of enhancer transcription in H3K4me1/2 deposition at de novo enhancers that is independent of potential functions of the resulting eRNA transcripts.
    Molecular cell 08/2013; 51(3):310-25. · 14.46 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

43k Citations
4,166.58 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1988–2014
    • University of California, San Diego
      • • Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine (CMM)
      • • Department of Medicine
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2013
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Medicine
      New York City, NY, United States
    • Tsinghua University
      • School of Medicine
      Beijing, Beijing Shi, China
  • 2011–2013
    • University of Eastern Finland
      • A.I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences
      Kuopio, Eastern Finland Province, Finland
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Division of Digestive Diseases
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 1990–2013
    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
      Ashburn, Virginia, United States
  • 1991–2012
    • Molecular and Cellular Biology Program
      • Department of Molecular Biology
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2007–2010
    • Spanish National Centre for Cardiovascular Research
      • Department of Vascular Biology and Inflammation (BVI)
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    • San Diego Supercomputer Center
      La Jolla, California, United States
  • 2000–2010
    • University of California, Riverside
      • Division of Biomedical Sciences
      Riverside, California, United States
    • University of Naples Federico II
      Napoli, Campania, Italy
  • 1990–2010
    • National University (California)
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2009
    • Saitama Medical University
      • Research Center for Genomic Medicine
      Saitama, Saitama-ken, Japan
  • 2006
    • Duke University Medical Center
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Durham, NC, United States
  • 2005
    • Georgia Institute of Technology
      • School of Biology
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • 2002
    • University of Vienna
      Wien, Vienna, Austria
    • CSU Mentor
      Long Beach, California, United States
  • 1999
    • University of South Florida
      Tampa, Florida, United States