Jeffrey J Iliff

University Center Rochester, Rochester, Minnesota, United States

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Publications (21)130.66 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: CSF from the subarachnoid space moves rapidly into the brain along paravascular routes surrounding penetrating cerebral arteries, exchanging with brain interstitial fluid (ISF) and facilitating the clearance of interstitial solutes, such as amyloid β, in a pathway that we have termed the "glymphatic" system. Prior reports have suggested that paravascular bulk flow of CSF or ISF may be driven by arterial pulsation. However, cerebral arterial pulsation could not be directly assessed. In the present study, we use in vivo two-photon microscopy in mice to visualize vascular wall pulsatility in penetrating intracortical arteries. We observed that unilateral ligation of the internal carotid artery significantly reduced arterial pulsatility by ∼50%, while systemic administration of the adrenergic agonist dobutamine increased pulsatility of penetrating arteries by ∼60%. When paravascular CSF-ISF exchange was evaluated in real time using in vivo two-photon and ex vivo fluorescence imaging, we observed that internal carotid artery ligation slowed the rate of paravascular CSF-ISF exchange, while dobutamine increased the rate of paravascular CSF-ISF exchange. These findings demonstrate that cerebral arterial pulsatility is a key driver of paravascular CSF influx into and through the brain parenchyma, and suggest that changes in arterial pulsatility may contribute to accumulation and deposition of toxic solutes, including amyloid β, in the aging brain.
    Journal of Neuroscience 11/2013; 33(46):18190-9. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The conservation of sleep across all animal species suggests that sleep serves a vital function. We here report that sleep has a critical function in ensuring metabolic homeostasis. Using real-time assessments of tetramethylammonium diffusion and two-photon imaging in live mice, we show that natural sleep or anesthesia are associated with a 60% increase in the interstitial space, resulting in a striking increase in convective exchange of cerebrospinal fluid with interstitial fluid. In turn, convective fluxes of interstitial fluid increased the rate of β-amyloid clearance during sleep. Thus, the restorative function of sleep may be a consequence of the enhanced removal of potentially neurotoxic waste products that accumulate in the awake central nervous system.
    Science 10/2013; 342(6156):373-7. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the brain, a paravascular space exists between vascular cells and astroglial end-foot processes, creating a continuous sheath surrounding blood vessels. Using in vivo two-photon imaging we demonstrate that the paravascular circulation facilitates selective transport of small lipophilic molecules, rapid interstitial fluid movement and widespread glial calcium signaling. Depressurizing the paravascular system leads to unselective lipid diffusion, intracellular lipid accumulation and pathological signaling in astrocytes. As the central nervous system is devoid of lymphatic vessels, the paravascular space may serve as a lymphatic equivalent that represents a separate highway for the transport of lipids and signaling molecules.
    Scientific Reports 09/2013; 3:2582. · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's are associated with the aggregation of endogenous peptides and proteins that contribute to neuronal dysfunction and loss. The glymphatic system, a brain-wide perivascular pathway along which cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) rapidly exchange, has recently been identified as a key contributor to the clearance of interstitial solutes from the brain, including amyloid beta. These findings suggest that measuring changes in glymphatic pathway function may be an important prognostic for evaluating neurodegenerative disease susceptibility or progression. However, no clinically acceptable approach to evaluate glymphatic pathway function in humans has yet been developed. METHODS: Time-sequenced ex vivo fluorescence imaging of coronal rat and mouse brain slices was performed at 30--180 min following intrathecal infusion of CSF tracer (Texas Red- dextran-3, MW 3kD; FITC- dextran-500, MW 500 kD) into the cisterna magna or lumbar spine. Tracer influx into different brain regions (cortex, white matter, subcortical structures, and hippocampus) in rat was quantified to map the movement of CSF tracer following infusion along both routes, and to determine whether glymphatic pathway function could be evaluated after lumbar intrathecal infusion. RESULTS: Following lumbar intrathecal infusions, small molecular weight TR-d3 entered the brain along perivascular pathways and exchanged broadly with the brain ISF, consistent with the initial characterization of the glymphatic pathway in mice. Large molecular weight FITC-d500 remained confined to the perivascular spaces. Lumbar intrathecal infusions exhibited a reduced and delayed peak parenchymal fluorescence intensity compared to intracisternal infusions. CONCLUSION: Lumbar intrathecal contrast delivery is a clinically useful approach that could be used in conjunction with dynamic contrast enhanced MRI nuclear imaging to assess glymphatic pathway function in humans.
    Journal of Translational Medicine 05/2013; 11(1):107. · 3.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The glymphatic system is a recently defined brain-wide paravascular pathway for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) exchange that facilitates efficient clearance of solutes and waste from the brain. CSF enters the brain along para-arterial channels to exchange with ISF, which is in turn cleared from the brain along para-venous pathways. Because soluble amyloid β clearance depends on glymphatic pathway function, we proposed that failure of this clearance system contributes to amyloid plaque deposition and Alzheimer's disease progression. Here we provide proof of concept that glymphatic pathway function can be measured using a clinically relevant imaging technique. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was used to visualize CSF-ISF exchange across the rat brain following intrathecal paramagnetic contrast agent administration. Key features of glymphatic pathway function were confirmed, including visualization of para-arterial CSF influx and molecular size-dependent CSF-ISF exchange. Whole-brain imaging allowed the identification of two key influx nodes at the pituitary and pineal gland recesses, while dynamic MRI permitted the definition of simple kinetic parameters to characterize glymphatic CSF-ISF exchange and solute clearance from the brain. We propose that this MRI approach may provide the basis for a wholly new strategy to evaluate Alzheimer's disease susceptibility and progression in the live human brain.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 03/2013; 123(3):1299-309. · 15.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral edema is a major contributor to morbidity associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The methods involved in most rodent models of TBI, including head fixation, opening of the skull, and prolonged anesthesia, likely alter TBI development and reduce secondary injury. We report the development of a closed-skull model of murine TBI, which minimizes time of anesthesia, allows the monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP), and can be modulated to produce mild and moderate grade TBI. In this model, we characterized changes in aquaporin-4 (AQP4) expression and localization after mild and moderate TBI. We found that global AQP4 expression after TBI was generally increased; however, analysis of AQP4 localization revealed that the most prominent effect of TBI on AQP4 was the loss of polarized localization at endfoot processes of reactive astrocytes. This AQP4 dysregulation peaked at 7 days after injury and was largely indistinguishable between mild and moderate grade TBI for the first 2 weeks after injury. Within the same model, blood-brain barrieranalysis of variance permeability, cerebral edema, and ICP largely normalized within 7 days after moderate TBI. These findings suggest that changes in AQP4 expression and localization may not contribute to cerebral edema formation, but rather may represent a compensatory mechanism to facilitate its resolution.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 27 February 2013; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2013.30.
    Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 02/2013; · 5.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microinfarcts are a common clinical feature of the aging brain, particularly in patients with cognitive decline or vascular or Alzheimer's dementia. However, the natural history of these lesions remains largely unexplored. Here we describe a mouse (C57BL/6J) model of multiple diffuse microinfarcts induced by unilateral internal carotid artery injection of cholesterol crystals (40-70 μm). Microinfarcts were spread throughout the deep cortex, subcortical tissue, and hippocampus and were comprised of a core positive for CD68 (a marker for reactive microglia and macrophages), surrounded by large regions of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive reactive astrogliosis. Widespread reactive gliosis, including mislocalization of the astrocytic water channel aquaporin 4 persisted long after injury, recovering only after 1 month after stroke. Within the cortex, neuronal cell death progressed gradually over the first month, from ∼35% at 3 d to 60% at 28 d after stroke. Delayed demyelination was also observed in lesions, beginning 28 d after stroke. These findings demonstrate that microinfarct development follows a distinct course compared to larger regional infarcts such as those induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. The long-lasting gliosis, delayed neuronal loss, and demyelination suggest that the therapeutic window for microinfarcts may be much wider (perhaps days to weeks) than for larger strokes.
    Journal of Neuroscience 12/2012; 32(50):17948-60. · 6.91 Impact Factor
  • Jeffrey J Iliff, Maiken Nedergaard
    Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 12/2012; · 5.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Because it lacks a lymphatic circulation, the brain must clear extracellular proteins by an alternative mechanism. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) functions as a sink for brain extracellular solutes, but it is not clear how solutes from the brain interstitium move from the parenchyma to the CSF. We demonstrate that a substantial portion of subarachnoid CSF cycles through the brain interstitial space. On the basis of in vivo two-photon imaging of small fluorescent tracers, we showed that CSF enters the parenchyma along paravascular spaces that surround penetrating arteries and that brain interstitial fluid is cleared along paravenous drainage pathways. Animals lacking the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in astrocytes exhibit slowed CSF influx through this system and a ~70% reduction in interstitial solute clearance, suggesting that the bulk fluid flow between these anatomical influx and efflux routes is supported by astrocytic water transport. Fluorescent-tagged amyloid β, a peptide thought to be pathogenic in Alzheimer's disease, was transported along this route, and deletion of the Aqp4 gene suppressed the clearance of soluble amyloid β, suggesting that this pathway may remove amyloid β from the central nervous system. Clearance through paravenous flow may also regulate extracellular levels of proteins involved with neurodegenerative conditions, its impairment perhaps contributing to the mis-accumulation of soluble proteins.
    Science translational medicine 08/2012; 4(147):147ra111. · 10.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are bioactive eicosanoids produced from arachidonic acid by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases. We previously described the expression of cytochrome P450-2J epoxygenase in rat trigeminal ganglion neurons and that EETs signaling is involved in cerebrovascular dilation resulting from perivascular nerve stimulation. In this study, we evaluate the presence of the EETs signaling pathway in trigeminal ganglion neurons and their role in modulating the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) by trigeminal ganglion neurons. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry identified the presence of each of the four EETs regio-isomers within primary trigeminal ganglion neurons. Stimulation for 1 h with the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 channel agonist capsaicin (100 nmol/L) or depolarizing K(+) (60 mmol/L) increased CGRP release as measured by ELISA. Stimulation-evoked CGRP release was attenuated by 30 min pre-treatment with the EETs antagonist 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid (14,15-EEZE, 10 μmol/L). K(+) stimulation elevated CGRP release 2.9 ± 0.3-fold above control levels, whereas in the presence of 14,15-EEZE K(+)-evoked CGRP release was significantly reduced to 1.1 ± 0.2-fold above control release (p < 0.01 anova, n = 6). 14,15-EEZE likewise attenuated capsaicin-evoked CGRP release from trigeminal ganglion neurons (p < 0.05 anova, n = 6). Similarly, pre-treatment with the cytochrome P450 epoxygenase inhibitor attenuated stimulation-evoked CGRP release. These data demonstrate that EETs are endogenous constituents of rat trigeminal ganglion neurons and suggest that they may act as intracellular regulators of neuropeptide release, which may have important clinical implications for treatment of migraine, stroke and vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 10/2010; 115(6):1530-42. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Symptomatic ischemia following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is common but poorly understood and inadequately treated. Severe constriction of the major arteries at the base of the brain, termed vasospasm, traditionally has been thought to be a proximal event underlying these ischemias, although microvascular changes also have been described. The vast majority of studies aimed at understanding the pathogenesis of ischemic deficits, and vasospasm have focused on the interaction of the "spasmogen" of the extravasated blood with the smooth muscle and endothelium of the arteries. This has led to a comparative neglect of the contribution of the CNS to the maintenance of cerebral perfusion. In the present study, we focused on the role of the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) in modulating cerebral perfusion at rest and following an experimental SAH in the rat. Changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry and three-dimensional optical microangiography. Focal application of a GABA(A) receptor agonist and antagonist was used to respectively inactivate and activate the RVM. We show here that the RVM modulates cerebral blood flow under resting conditions, and further, contributes to restoration of cerebral perfusion following a high-grade SAH. Failure of this brainstem compensatory mechanism could be significant for acute perfusion deficits seen in patients following subarachnoid hemorrhage.
    Neuroscience 07/2009; 163(2):719-29. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are arachidonic acid metabolites of cytochrome P450 epoxygenase enzymes recognized as key players in vascular function and disease, primarily attributed to their potent vasodilator, anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic effects. Although EETs' actions in the central nervous system (CNS) appear to parallel those in peripheral tissue, accumulating evidence suggests that epoxyeicosanoid signaling plays different roles in neural tissue compared to peripheral tissue; roles that reflect distinct CNS functions, cellular makeup and intercellular relationships. This is exhibited at many levels including the expression of EETs-synthetic and -metabolic enzymes in central neurons and glial cells, EETs' role in neuro-glio-vascular coupling during cortical functional activation, the capacity for interaction between epoxyeicosanoid and neuroactive endocannabinoid signaling pathways, and the regulation of neurohormone and neuropeptide release by endogenous EETs. The ability of several CNS cell types to produce and respond to EETs suggests that epoxyeicosanoid signaling is a key integrator of cell-cell communication in the CNS, coordinating cellular responses across different cell types. Under pathophysiological conditions, such as cerebral ischemia, EETs protect neurons, astroglia and vascular endothelium, thus preserving the integrity of cellular networks unique to and essential for proper CNS function. Recognition of EETs' intimate involvement in CNS function in addition to their multi-cellular protective profile has inspired the development of therapeutic strategies against CNS diseases such as cerebral ischemia, tumors, and neural pain and inflammation that are based on targeting the cellular actions of EETs or their biosynthetic and metabolizing enzymes. Based upon the emerging importance of epoxyeicosanoids in cellular function and disease unique to neural systems, we propose that the actions of "neuroactive EETs" are best considered separately, and not in aggregate with all other peripheral EETs functions.
    Prostaglandins & other lipid mediators 07/2009; 91(3-4):68-84. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), a key enzyme in the metabolism of vasodilator eicosanoids called epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), is sexually dimorphic and suppressed by estrogen. We determined if the sex difference in blood flow during focal cerebral ischemia is linked to sEH. Soluble epoxide hydrolase expression in brain, hydrolase activity in cerebral vessels, and plasma 14,15-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (14,15-DHET) were determined in male and female wild-type (WT) and sEH knockout (sEHKO) mice. Male, female, and ovariectomized female WT and sEHKO mice were subjected to 2-h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and infarct size was measured at 24 h of reperfusion. Laser-Doppler cortical perfusion during MCAO was compared among groups and differences in cortical blood flow rates were confirmed using in vivo quantitative optical microangiography. Cerebrovascular expression and activity of sEH and plasma 14,15-DHET were lower in WT female than male mice, and blood flow during MCAO was higher and infarct size was smaller in WT female compared with male mice. Sex differences in cerebral blood flow and ischemic damage were abolished after ovariectomy and were absent in sEHKO mice. We conclude that sEH is an important mechanism underlying sex-linked differences in blood flow and brain damage after cerebral ischemia.
    Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 06/2009; 29(8):1475-81. · 5.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are potent vasodilators produced from arachidonic acid by cytochrome P-450 (CYP) epoxygenases and metabolized to vicinal diols by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). In the brain, EETs are produced by astrocytes and the vascular endothelium and are involved in the control of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Recent evidence, however, suggests that epoxygenases and sEH are present in perivascular vasodilator nerve fibers innervating the cerebral surface vasculature. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that EETs are nerve-derived relaxing factors in the cerebral circulation. We first traced these fibers by retrograde labeling in the rat to trigeminal ganglia (TG) and sphenopalatine ganglia (SPG). We then examined the expression of CYP epoxygenases and sEH in these ganglia. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis identified CYP2J3 and CYP2J4 epoxygenase isoforms and sEH in both TG and SPG, and immunofluorescence double labeling identified CYP2J and sEH immunoreactivity in neuronal cell bodies of both ganglia. To evaluate the functional role of EETs in neurogenic vasodilation, we elicited cortical hyperemia by electrically stimulating efferent cerebral perivascular nerve fibers and by chemically stimulating oral trigeminal fibers with capsaicin. Cortical blood flow responses were monitored by laser-Doppler flowmetry. Local administration to the cortical surface of the putative EET antagonist 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid (30 mumol/l) attenuated CBF responses to electrical and chemical stimulation. These results suggest that EETs are produced by perivascular nerves and play a role in neurogenic vasodilation of the cerebral vasculature. The findings have important implications to such clinical conditions as migraine, vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage, and stroke.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 04/2009; 296(5):H1352-63. · 3.63 Impact Factor
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    Jeffrey J Iliff, Nabil J Alkayed
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    ABSTRACT: Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a key enzyme in the metabolic conversion and degradation of P450 eicosanoids called epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Genetic variations in the sEH gene, designated EPHX2, are associated with ischemic stroke risk. In experimental studies, sEH inhibition and gene deletion reduce infarct size after focal cerebral ischemia in mice. Although the precise mechanism of protection afforded by sEH inhibition remains under investigation, EETs exhibit a wide array of potentially beneficial actions in stroke, including vasodilation, neuroprotection, promotion of angiogenesis and suppression of platelet aggregation, oxidative stress and post-ischemic inflammation. Herein we argue that by capitalizing on this broad protective profile, sEH inhibition represents a prototype "combination therapy" targeting multiple mechanisms of stroke injury with a single agent.
    Future Neurology 03/2009; 4(2):179-199.
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    ABSTRACT: Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) metabolizes epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids. EETs are formed from arachidonic acid during myocardial ischemia and play a protective role against ischemic cell death. Deletion of sEH has been shown to be protective against myocardial ischemia in the isolated heart preparation. We tested the hypothesis that sEH inactivation by targeted gene deletion or pharmacological inhibition reduces infarct size (I) after regional myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in vivo. Male C57BL\6J wild-type or sEH knockout mice were subjected to 40 min of left coronary artery (LCA) occlusion and 2 h of reperfusion. Wild-type mice were injected intraperitoneally with 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid butyl ester (AUDA-BE), a sEH inhibitor, 30 min before LCA occlusion or during ischemia 10 min before reperfusion. 14,15-EET, the main substrate for sEH, was administered intravenously 15 min before LCA occlusion or during ischemia 5 min before reperfusion. The EET antagonist 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid (EEZE) was given intravenously 15 min before reperfusion. Area at risk (AAR) and I were assessed using fluorescent microspheres and triphenyltetrazolium chloride, and I was expressed as I/AAR. I was significantly reduced in animals treated with AUDA-BE or 14,15-EET, independent of the time of administration. The cardioprotective effect of AUDA-BE was abolished by the EET antagonist 14,15-EEZE. Immunohistochemistry revealed abundant sEH protein expression in left ventricular tissue. Strategies to increase 14,15-EET, including sEH inactivation, may represent a novel therapeutic approach for cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 11/2008; 295(5):H2128-34. · 3.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 epoxygenase metabolizes arachidonic acid to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). EETs are produced in the brain and perform important biological functions, including vasodilation and neuroprotection. However, EETs are rapidly metabolized via soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs). We tested the hypothesis that sEH gene deletion is protective against focal cerebral ischemia through enhanced collateral blood flow. sEH knockout (sEHKO) mice with and without EETs antagonist 14, 15 epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid (EEZE) were subjected to 2-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and infarct size was measured at 24 hours of reperfusion and compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Local CBF rates were measured at the end of MCAO using iodoantipyrine (IAP) autoradiography, sEH protein was analyzed by Western blot and immunohistochemistry, and hydrolase activity and levels of EETs/DHETs were measured in brain and plasma using LC-MS/MS and ELISA, respectively. sEH immunoreactivity was detected in WT, but not sEHKO mouse brain, and was localized to vascular and nonvascular cells. 14,15-DHET was abundantly present in WT, but virtually absent in sEHKO mouse plasma. However, hydrolase activity and free 14,15-EET in brain tissue were not different between WT and sEHKO mice. Infarct size was significantly smaller, whereas regional cerebral blood flow rates were significantly higher in sEHKO compared to WT mice. Infarct size reduction was recapitulated by 14,15-EET infusion. However, 14,15-EEZE did not alter infarct size in sEHKO mice. sEH gene deletion is protective against ischemic stroke by a vascular mechanism linked to reduced hydration of circulating EETs.
    Stroke 08/2008; 39(7):2073-8. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and its associated peptides have been implicated in a number of physiologic processes including modulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and cardiovascular regulation. Recently, we reported that in isolated cerebral arterioles, CART peptide (CARTp) acts directly to produce endothelium-dependent constriction via the endothelin signaling pathway. We used the rat closed cranial window model to determine the in vivo effects of CARTp on pial arteriolar diameter. Intravenous administration of 30 microg/kg CARTp produced a significant pressor effect and constriction of pial arterioles. The pressor response to systemic CARTp was blocked by the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol (2 mg/kg IV). Direct application of 0.1 nM-1 microM CARTp to pial arterioles produced a dose-dependent and long-lasting constriction to approximately 88% of baseline diameter. The constriction response to topically applied 100 nM CARTp was blocked by both the endothelin A (ETA) receptor antagonist BQ-123 (10 microM) and the inhibitor of endothelin-converting enzyme, phosphoramidon (100 nM). These results demonstrate for the first time that CARTp constricts cerebral vessels in vivo, an action mediated by its effects on the endothelin system, specifically via activation of ETA receptors. This supports the notion that CARTp plays a physiologic role in cerebrovascular regulation, particularly during times of HPA axis activation.
    Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology 07/2008; 52(1):82-9. · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The P450 eicosanoids epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are endogenous lipid mediators produced in the brain by P450 epoxygenases and metabolized through multiple pathways, including soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids play important functions in the brain, including regulation of cerebral blood flow and protection from ischaemic brain injury. We previously demonstrated that ischaemic preconditioning induces cytochrome P450 2C11 epoxygenase (CYP2C11) expression in the brain, and that pharmacological inhibition and genetic deletion of sEH increases EETs and protects against stroke-induced brain damage. However, the expression profiles of CYP2C11 and sEH in normal brain remain unknown. In agreement with previous reports in peripheral vessels, we here demonstrate by immunofluorescence double-labelling that within cerebral parenchymal microvessels, sEH-immunoreactivity (IR) is localized to the vascular smooth muscle layer. Unexpectedly, however, analysis of large cerebral conduit arteries such as the middle cerebral artery revealed CYP2C11 and sEH expression in extrinsic perivascular nerves. Double-labelling studies revealed that CYP2C11- and sEH-IR predominantly colocalized with neuronal nitric oxide synthase-IR within perivascular nerve fibres. Significant colocalization for CYP2C11 and sEH was also observed with the parasympathetic markers vasoactive intestinal peptide and choline actetyltransferase, in addition to the sensory fibre markers calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P. No colocalization was observed for either CYP2C11 or sEH with the sympathetic nerve markers dopamine beta-hydroxylase or neuropeptide Y. The presence of enzymes involved in production and inactivation of EETs within extrinsic parasympathetic and sensory vasodilator fibres suggests a novel role for EETs in the neurogenic control of cerebral arteries.
    Experimental Physiology 08/2007; 92(4):653-8. · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The P450 eicosanoids epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are endogenous lipid mediators produced in brain by P450 epoxygenases and metabolized through multiple pathways including soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). EETs play important functions in brain, including cerebral blood flow regulation and protection from ischemic brain injury. We previously demonstrated that ischemic preconditioning induces cytochrome P450 2C11 epoxygenase (CYP2C11) expression in brain, and that pharmacological inhibition and genetic deletion of sEH increases bioavailable EETs and are protects against ischemic brain injury. However, the expression profiles of CYP2C11 and sEH in normal brain remain unknown. We demonstrate by immunofluorescence double-labeling that within cerebral parenchymal microvessels, sEH-immunoreactivity (IR) is localized to the vascular smooth muscle layer. Unexpectedly, analysis of large cerebral conduit arteries such as the middle cerebral artery (MCA) revealed CYP2C11 and sEH expression in extrinsic perivascular nerves. Double labeling studies revealed that CYP2C11- and sEH-IR predominantly co-localized with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-IR within perivascular nerve fibers. Significant co-localization for CYP2C11 and sEH was also observed with parasympathetic markers vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and choline actetyltransferase (ChAT), in addition to the sensory fiber markers calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P. No co-localization was observed for either CYP2C11 or sEH with the sympathetic nerve markers dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) or neuropeptide Y (NPY). The presence of enzymes involved in EETs production and inactivation within extrinsic parasympathetic and sensory vasodilator fibers suggests a novel role for EETs in the neurogenic control of cerebral arteries.
    Experimental Physiology 05/2007; · 2.79 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

289 Citations
11 Downloads
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130.66 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2013
    • University Center Rochester
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Rochester, Minnesota, United States
    • University of Rochester
      • Center for Translational Neuromedicine
      Rochester, NY, United States
    • Tongji Hospital
      Wu-han-shih, Hubei, China
  • 2005–2010
    • Oregon Health and Science University
      • • Department of Anesthesiology & Perioperative Medicine
      • • Department of Neurological Surgery
      Portland, OR, United States