Luisa Trombi

Università di Pisa, Pisa, Tuscany, Italy

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Publications (28)82.94 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, human dental pulp stromal cells (DPSCs) have received growing attention due to their characteristics in common with other mesenchymal stem cells, in addition to the ease with which they can be harvested. In this study, we demonstrated that the isolation of DPSCs from third molar teeth of healthy individuals allowed the recovery of dental mesenchymal stem cells that showed self-renewal and multipotent differentiation capability. DPSCs resulted positive for CD73, CD90, CD105, STRO-1, negative for CD34, CD45, CD14 and were able to differentiate into osteogenic and chondrogenic cells. We also assayed the angiogenic potential of DPSCs, their capillary tube-like formation was assessed using an in vitro angiogenesis assay and the uptake of acetylated low-density lipoprotein was measured as a marker of endothelial function. Based on these results, DPSCs were capable of differentiating into cells with phenotypic and functional features of endothelial cells. Furthermore, this study investigated the growth and differentiation of human DPSCs under a variety of bioengineering platforms, such as low frequency ultrasounds, tissue engineering and nanomaterials. DPSCs showed an enhanced chondrogenic differentiation under ultrasound application. Moreover, DPSCs were tested on different scaffolds, poly(vinyl alcohol)/gelatin (PVA/G) sponges and human plasma clots. We showed that both PVA/G and human plasma clot are suitable scaffolds for adhesion, growth and differentiation of DPSCs toward osteoblastic lineages. Finally, we evaluated the interactions of DPSCs with a novel class of nanomaterials, namely boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). From our investigation, DPSCs have appeared as a highly versatile cellular tool to be employed in regenerative medicine.
    Micron 01/2014; 67:155–168. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Due to their properties and characteristics human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) appear to have great therapeutic potential. Many different populations of MSCs have been described and to understand whether they have equivalent biological properties is a critical issue for their therapeutic application. We proposed to analyze the in vitro growth kinetics of MSCs derived from different body sites (iliac crest bone marrow, vertebrae bone marrow, colon mucosa, dental pulp). Mesenchymal stem cells derived from vertebrae can be maintained in culture for a greater number of steps and they also generate mature cells of all mesenchymal lineages with greater efficiency, when induced into osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. The ability of vertebrae-derived MSCs in terms of expansion and differentiation is very interesting at the light of a clinical application for bone fusion in spine surgery.
    European Spine Journal 09/2013; · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The traditional bone tissue engineering approach exploits mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to be seeded once only on 3D scaffolds, hence differentiated for a certain period of time and resulting in a homogeneous osteoblast population at the endpoint. However, after achieving terminal osteo-differentiation, cell viability is usually markedly compromised. On the other hand, naturally occurring osteogenesis results from the coexistence of MSC progenies at distinct differentiative stages in the same microenvironment. This diversification also enables long-term viability of the mature tissue. We report an easy and tunable in vitro method to engineer simple osteogenic cell niches in a biomimetic fashion. The niches were grown via periodic re-seeding of undifferentiated MSCs on MSC/scaffold constructs, the latter undergoing osteogenic commitment. Time-fractioning of the seeded cell number during differentiation time of the constructs allowed graded osteogenic cell populations to be grown together on the same scaffolds (i.e., not only terminally differentiated osteoblasts). In such cell-dynamic systems, the overall differentiative stage of the constructs could also be tuned by varying the cell density seeded at each shot. In this way, we generated two different biomimetic niche models able to host good reservoirs of pre-osteoblasts and other osteo-progenitors after 21 culture days. At that time, the niche type resulting in 40.8% of immature osteogenic progenies and only 59.2% of mature osteoblasts showed calcium content comparable to the constructs obtained with the traditional culture method (i.e., 100.03 ± 29.30 vs. 78.51 ± 28.50 pg/cell, respectively; p = n.s.), the latter colonized only by fully differentiated osteoblasts showing exhausted viability. This assembly method for tissue-engineered constructs enabled a set of important parameters, such as viability, colonization and osteogenic yield of the MSCs to be balanced on 3D scaffolds, thus achieving biomimetic in vitro models with graded osteogenicity, which are more complex and reliable than those currently used by tissue engineers.
    Tissue Engineering Part C Methods 03/2013; · 4.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In orthopedic field is growing interest in the use of stem cells: this mesenchymal multipotent line (MSCs) can lead to differentiation into osteocytes and thus the formation of bone tissue. In literature applications of this line are described in injuries of tendons and ligaments, small bony avulsions, nonunion fractures and cartilage defects. Utilize MSCs expanded in laboratory in case of atrophic pseudoarthrosis of the upper limb. We obtain the amount of cell necessary for the implant by the collaboration with the UO Haematological Department. For the procedure we make a blood sample from the iliac crest bone marrow and a subsequent phase of selection and cultivation of mesenchymal line for 3 weeks, to get a sufficient amount of tissue to be used, which is presented at the time of surgery on a scaffold made by autologous plasma gel and CaCl2. We reassessed our experience in 8 different types of upper limb fractures result in pseudarthrosis and delayed of consolidation: 4 women and 4 men, average 44 years old followed with a follow-up of 50.3 months. In all cases the site of non-union has been revitalized (by microfractures and drilling) and a synthesis was performed with a rigid plate. So we fill the bone gap with autologous bone and mesenchymal stem cells expanded in the laboratory. We have a radiographic healing in 8 cases and no adverse events were highlighted. Using this cells line we obtained encouraging but certainly not conclusive impressions, according to the limited number of cases and lack of adequate comparative studies. In tissue engineering are also certainly needed further investigations and developments.
    European review for medical and pharmacological sciences 01/2013; 17(2):224-7. · 1.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tissue engineering appears to be an attractive alternative to the traditional approach in the treatment of fracture non-unions. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are considered an appealing cell source for clinical intervention. However, ex vivo cell expansion and differentiation towards the osteogenic lineage, together with the design of a suitable scaffold have yet to be optimized. Major concerns exist about the safety of MSC-based therapies, including possible abnormal overgrowth and potential cancer evolution. We examined the long-term efficacy and safety of ex vivo expanded bone marrow MSCs, embedded in autologous fibrin clots, for the healing of atrophic pseudarthrosis of the upper limb. Our research work relied on three main issues: use of an entirely autologous context (cells, serum for ex vivo cell culture, scaffold components), reduced ex vivo cell expansion, and short-term MSC osteoinduction before implantation. Bone marrow MSCs isolated from 8 patients were expanded ex vivo until passage 1 and short-term osteo-differentiated in autologous-based culture conditions. Tissue-engineered constructs designed to embed MSCs in autologous fibrin clots were locally implanted with bone grafts, calibrating their number on the extension of bone damage. Radiographic healing was evaluated with short- and long-term follow-ups (range averages: 6.7 and 76.0 months, respectively). All patients recovered limb function, with no evidence of tissue overgrowth or tumor formation. Our study indicates that highly autologous treatment can be effective and safe in the long-term healing of bone non-unions. This tissue engineering approach resulted in successful clinical and functional outcomes for all patients.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(8):e73893. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human stromal stem cell populations reside in different tissues and anatomical sites, however a critical question related to their efficient use in regenerative medicine is whether they exhibit equivalent biological properties. Here, we compared cellular and molecular characteristics of stromal stem cells derived from the bone marrow, at different body sites (iliac crest, sternum and vertebrae) and other tissues (dental pulp and colon). In particular, we investigated whether homeobox genes of the HOX and TALE subfamilies might provide suitable markers to identify distinct stromal cell populations, as HOX proteins control cell positional identity and, together with their co-factors TALE, are involved in orchestrating differentiation of adult tissues. Our results show that stromal populations from different sources, although immunophenotypically similar, display distinct HOX and TALE signatures, as well as different growth and differentiation abilities. Stromal stem cells from different tissues are characterized by specific HOX profiles, differing in the number and type of active genes, as well as in their level of expression. Conversely, bone marrow-derived cell populations can be essentially distinguished for the expression levels of specific HOX members, strongly suggesting that quantitative differences in HOX activity may be crucial. Taken together, our data indicate that the HOX and TALE profiles provide positional, embryological and hierarchical identity of human stromal stem cells. Furthermore, our data suggest that cell populations derived from different body sites may not represent equivalent cell sources for cell-based therapeutical strategies for regeneration and repair of specific tissues. J. Cell. Physiol. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 09/2012; · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) remain poorly characterized because of the absence of manifest physical, phenotypic, and functional properties in cultured cell populations. Despite considerable research on MSCs and their clinical application, the biology of these cells is not fully clarified and data on signalling activation during mesenchymal differentiation and proliferation are controversial. The role of Wnt pathways is still debated, partly due to culture heterogeneity and methodological inconsistencies. Recently, we described a new bone marrow cell population isolated from MSC cultures that we named Mesodermal Progenitor Cells (MPCs) for their mesenchymal and endothelial differentiation potential. An optimized culture method allowed the isolation from human adult bone marrow of a highly pure population of MPCs (more than 97%), that showed the distinctive SSEA-4+CD105+CD90(neg) phenotype and not expressing MSCA-1 antigen. Under these selective culture conditions the percentage of MSCs (SSEA-4(neg)CD105+CD90(bright) and MSCA-1+), in the primary cultures, resulted lower than 2%. We demonstrate that MPCs differentiate to MSCs through an SSEA-4+CD105+CD90(bright) early intermediate precursor. Differentiation paralleled the activation of Wnt5/Calmodulin signalling by autocrine/paracrine intense secretion of Wnt5a and Wnt5b (p<0.05 vs uncondictioned media), which was later silenced in late MSCs (SSEA-4(neg)). We found the inhibition of this pathway by calmidazolium chloride specifically blocked mesenchymal induction (ID₅₀ =  0.5 µM, p<0.01), while endothelial differentiation was unaffected. The present study describes two different putative progenitors (early and late MSCs) that, together with already described MPCs, could be co-isolated and expanded in different percentages depending on the culture conditions. These results suggest that some modifications to the widely accepted MSC nomenclature are required.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(9):e25600. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We recently characterized a progenitor of mesodermal lineage (MPCs) from the human bone marrow of adults or umbilical cord blood. These cells are progenitors able to differentiate toward mesenchymal, endothelial and cardiomyogenic lineages. Here we present an extensive molecular characterization of MPCs, from bone marrow samples, including 39 genes involved in stem cell machinery, differentiation and cell cycle regulation. MPCs are cytofluorimetrically characterized and quantitative RT-PCR was performed to evaluate the gene expression profile, comparing it with MSCs and hESCs lines. Immunofluorescence and dot-blot analysis confirm qRT-PCR data. MPCs exhibit an increased expression of OCT4, NANOG, SALL4, FBX15, SPP1 and to a lesser extent c-MYC and KLF4, but lack LIN28 and SOX2. MPCs highly express SOX15. MPCs express many pluripotency-associated genes and show a peculiar Oct-4 molecular circuit. Understanding this unique molecular mechanism could lead to identifying MPCs as feasible, long telomeres, target cells for reprogramming with no up-regulation of the p53 pathway. Furthermore MPCs are easily and inexpensively harvested from human bone marrow.
    PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(3):e9861. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: When cells of the mouse plasmocytoma P3x63Ag8 were repeatedly exposed to high-voltage electric discharges (1.34 KV/cm, 1 sec between pulses; time constant, 25 μsec), they fused into multinuclear cells. Using the same procedure, myeloma cells were induced to form heterokarions by fusion with human or mouse lymphocytes, and to internalize formaldehyde-treated erythrocytes. Under optimal conditions, cells were fused extensively without substantial loss. Exposure of the cells to low-frequency (50 Hz) sinusoidal electromagnetic fields (magnetic field amplitude of 200 μT) did not appear to perturb membrane substructures in such a way as to influence the fusogenic effect induced in high electric fields.
    07/2009; 12(2):125-134.
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    ABSTRACT: Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) exert a relevant immunosuppressive activity by inhibiting T- and B-lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells and dendritic cell expansion. Nevertheless, a possible activity on gamma/delta T cells has still not been evaluated. Gamma-delta T lymphocytes play an important role in the control of cancer and they have been shown to be implicated in graft-vs.-host disease. Thus, modulation of activation and proliferation of these cells could be relevant for therapeutic purposes. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 21 healthy donors were used as source for gamma-delta T cells, expanded in presence of 10 IU mL(-1) interleukin-2 (IL-2) and 1 microM zoledronate. MSCs were recovered from patients undergoing routine total hip replacement surgery, and characterised by flow cytometry. Cytotoxicity on multiple myeloma and melanoma cell lines was assessed by measuring dilution of the carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimydylester dye (CFSE). Gamma-delta T cells were then incubated with MSCs in contact cultures, and with addition of MSC-conditioned medium. In this article we confirmed that (1) in vitro expanded gamma-delta T cells play a significant anti-proliferative effect on multiple myeloma and melanoma cells and (2) multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells effectively suppress the ex vivo expansion of T cells carrying a specific T-cell receptor gene (TCR) rearrangement, Vgamma9/Vdelta2, induced by the combination of IL-2 and zoledronate, without interfering with their cytotoxic activity. These findings contribute to explain the activity of ex vivo expanded mesenchymal cells, suggesting that MSCs would interact with gamma-delta T lymphocytes. This effect could be relevant in separating graft-vs.-host from the graft-vs.-tumour effect, especially considering the possibility of modulating T-lymphocytes activity by the immunomodulating drugs now available.
    European Journal of Clinical Investigation 07/2009; 39(9):813-8. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have recently identified mesodermal progenitor cells (MPCs) isolated from adult human bone marrow. These cells show unusual phenotypes, having putative embryonic markers and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. Interestingly, these resting cells, which have been selected by culturing them in the presence of adult human serum, can easily be induced to differentiate into mature mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) after substituting the adult human serum for fetal bovine serum (FBS) or human cord serum. MPC-derived MSCs are, in turn, able to differentiate toward osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. Furthermore, MPCs are able to differentiate into endothelial cells. MPCs have been proven to be strongly adherent to plastic culture bottles and to be trypsin-resistant. In the present article, we show a simple and inexpensive method to isolate highly selected mesodermal progenitors from bone marrow or cord blood. The optimization of standard culture conditions (using commercial human AB sera and appropriate concentrations for cell seeding in plastics) allows a pure population of MPCs to be obtained even after a short culture period. We believe that this simple, repeatable, and standardized method will facilitate studies on MPCs.
    Stem cells and development 04/2009; 18(8):1227-34. · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fiber mesh scaffolds were recently investigated in tissue engineering as possible support for stem cell growth and differentiation, in order to repair lesion areas in clinical practice. In particular, the literature is focused on fiber mesh scaffolds constituted of biocompatible and resorbable polymeric structures, like poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA). However, as regards the study of constructs constituted of PLLA microfibers and cells, only quantitative and SEM analyses were reported, lacking histological analysis. Histological evaluation of these constructs could give important information about cellular distribution in the scaffold, cell-scaffold interactions and extracellular matrix production. The purpose of our study was to find a valid method to analyze PLLA microfiber/cell constructs from both histological and histochemical angles. Biodegradable non-woven fiber meshes were prepared using hollow microfibers, based on PLLA. We first evaluated different embedding methods useable for histological analysis and the results showed that among the paraffin, Killik, and acrylic resin the only suitable medium was the latter. Then we employed the acrylic resin to embed the constructs made up of PLLA microfibers and bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stromal cells, which we then analyzed with Toluidine Blue, PAS and Alcian Blue staining. These constructs, previously analyzed for cell viability by MTT and CCK-8 tests, showed viable/proliferating cells until 6 weeks of culture. The stainings performed on constructs confirmed viability data obtained with SEM and MTT/CCK-8 and supplied other information on the cell behaviors such as the distribution and organization onto the scaffold and the production of extracellular matrix molecules. In conclusion, this methodological study mainly suggests a suitable method to analyze PLLA microfiber/cell constructs, at the same time confirming and enriching the literature data on the compatibility between PLLA microfibers and hMSCs.
    Micron 04/2009; 40(5-6):605-11. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bone marrow-derived mesodermal stem cells may differentiate toward several lines and are easily cultured in vitro. Some putative progenitors of these cells have been described in both humans and mice. Here, we describe a new mesodermal progenitor population [mesodermal progenitors cells (MPCs)] able to differentiate into mesenchymal cells upon appropriate culture conditions. When cultured in presence of autologous serum, these cells are strongly adherent to plastic, resistant to trypsin detachment, and resting. Mesodermal progenitor cells may be pulsed to proliferate and differentiate by substituting autologous serum for human cord blood serum or fetal calf serum. By these methods cells proliferate and differentiate toward mesenchymal cells and thus may further differentiate into osteoblats, chondrocytes, or adipocytes. Moreover MPCs are capable to differentiate in endothelial cells (ECs) showing characteristics similar to microvessel endothelium cells. Mesodermal progenitors cells have a defined phenotype and carry embryonic markers not present in mesenchymal cells. Moreover MPCs strongly express aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, usually present in hematopoietic precursors but absent in mesenchymal cells. When these progenitors are pulsed to differentiate, they lose these markers and acquire the mesenchymal ones. Interestingly, mesenchymal cells may not be induced to back differentiate into MPCs. Our results demonstrate the adult serum role in maintaining pluripotent mesodermal precursors and allow isolation of these cells. After purification, MPCs may be pulsed to proliferate in a very large scale and then induced to differentiate, thus possibly allowing their use in regenerative medicine.
    Stem cells and development 12/2008; 18(6):857-66. · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, there has been an increased interest in using mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in bone tissue engineering coupled with a suitable scaffold of both biological and synthetic origin. The cells and these constructs can be combined in vitro or directly in vivo to enhance tissue repair. MSCs are spindle-shaped cells capable of self-renewal and can be induced to differentiate mainly into osteo-, chondro-, and adipogenic-progeny types. Several biomaterials are currently available and, among them, fibrin-based constructs seem to be suitable for guiding the cells during tissue repair or regeneration due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. Here, this study describes a simple in vitro system using human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) and fibrin scaffold prepared at different concentrations in fibrinogen (1.5%-3% and 6%) to evaluate cell proliferation and viability inside these constructs. The data demonstrate that the constructs with 3 percent in fibrinogen resulted in the best scaffolds, because within them the cells were able to proliferate and were uniformly distributed. Finally, analyzing the capability of the clots to support osteogenic differentiation of MSCs, we observed that they differentiated into osteoblasts. These results suggest that fibrin gel could be useful as a delivery system for hMSCs.
    Transfusion 10/2008; 48(10):2246-51. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tissue engineering has the potential to supply constructs capable of restoring the normal function of native tissue following injury. Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) scaffolds are amongst the most commonly used biodegradable polymers in tissue engineering and previous studies performed on ovine fibroblasts have showed that addition of gelatin creates a favorable hydrophilic microenvironment for the growth of these cells. The attractiveness of using mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in tissue regeneration is that they are able to differentiate into several lines including osteoblasts. In this study, we investigated the ability of gelatin/PLLA sponges to support the adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of human MSCs isolated from the bone marrow of four donors. [Figure: see text].
    Macromolecular Bioscience 06/2008; 8(9):819-26. · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising source of progenitor cells having the potential to repair and to regenerate diseased or damaged skeletal tissues. Bone marrow (BM) has been the first source reported to contain MSCs. However, BM-derived cells are not always acceptable, due to the highly invasive drawing and the decline in MSC number and differentiative capability with increasing age. Human umbilical cord blood (UCB), obtainable by donation with a noninvasive method, has been introduced as an alternative source of MSCs. Here human UCB-derived MSCs isolation and morpho-functional characterization are reported. Human UCB-derived mononuclear cells, obtained by negative immunoselection, exhibited either an osteoclast-like or a mesenchymal-like phenotype. However, we were able to obtain homogeneous populations of MSCs that displayed a fibroblast-like morphology, expressed mesenchym-related antigens and showed differentiative capacities along osteoblastic and early chondroblastic lineages. Furthermore, this study is one among a few papers investigating human UCB-derived MSC growth and differentiation on three-dimensional scaffolds focusing on their potential applications in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. UCB-derived MSCs were proved to grow on biodegradable microfiber meshes; additionally, they were able to differentiate toward mature osteoblasts when cultured inside human plasma clots, suggesting their potential application in orthopedic surgery.
    Stem cells and development 05/2008; 18(2):293-305. · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent advances in the isolation, expansion, and characterization of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have raised the possibility of using them in cell therapies and tissue engineering for bone reconstruction. hMSCs, isolated from the bone marrow of eight normal adult patients, were minimally expanded ex vivo and pulsed twice toward osteogenic lineage. The cells were then included into autologous plasma-derived clots. Cytofluorimetric analysis, immunocytochemistry (osteopontin), histochemistry (alkaline phosphatase, Alcian blue, Von Kossa, and alizarin red staining), and viable/proliferation tests were performed to study both stem and differentiating cells. Although two short inductions increased osteogenic markers in hMSCs, inside the clot the cells were able to terminally differentiate into osteoblasts. Moreover, we show that the clot is able to sustain cell proliferation under appropriate cell culture conditions. Our results suggested that clot could be useful for hMSC delivery into the site of the lesion to promote bone formation. Moreover, the plasticity of this material allowed good in vitro hMSC spreading and proliferation. The advantages of using this autologous biological material are its biocompatibility and reabsorption; furthermore, using a gel as scaffold, it is possible to mold it to the shape of a bone cavity.
    Journal of Orthopaedic Research 03/2008; 26(2):176-83. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PS-341 (Bortezomib) is a dipeptide boronic acid proteasome inhibitor with antitumor activity that induces apoptosis in different human cancer cell lines. We investigated effects of PS-341 (Bortezomib) on cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, induction of apoptosis and differentiation in a megakaryoblastic (MO7-e) cell line. PS-341 was able to retain NF-kappaB in the cytoplasm and inhibit cell growth (IC(50)=22.5 nM), in a dose/time-dependent way. This anti-proliferative activity resulted to be lineage-specific, because other leukemic cell lines (KG1a, K562/R7, HL60/DNR) were unaffected by the PS-341 treatment. Moreover, PS-341 in MO7-e induced a significant pro-apoptotic effect from 10 nM concentration (40% versus 12% in the control, p<0.05). On the other hand, at lower concentration (5 nM), Bortezomib blocked cell cycle in the G2 phase. Finally, this compound was able to down-regulate WT1 expression. No significant effects on cell differentiation were found. Because a spontaneous NF-kappaB activation has been reported in megakaryocytes from patients affected by myeloproliferative disorders, Bortezomib would so be an attractive therapeutic tool for these malignancies, including essential thrombocythemia or idiopathic myelofibrosis. Preliminary data show an inhibiting activity of Bortezomib in the megakaryocytic colonies formation. Finally, also down-regulation of the WT1 gene Bortezomib-driven could be relevant, because of the role that this gene would play in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic myeloproliferative disorders.
    Leukemia Research 02/2008; 32(1):103-12. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been proven that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) can differentiate into tenocytes. Attempts to repair tendon lesions have been performed, mainly using scaffold carriers in experimental settings. In this article, we describe the clinical use of undifferentiated MSCs in racehorses. Significant clinical recovery was achieved in 9 of 11 horses evaluated using ultrasound analysis and their ability to return to racing. Our results show that the suspension of a small number of undifferentiated MSCs may be sufficient to repair damaged tendons without the use of scaffold support. Ultrasound scanning showed that fibers were correctly oriented. By using undifferentiated cells, no ectopic bone deposition occurred. A sufficient number of cells was recovered for therapeutic purposes in all but 1 case. We suggest that the use of autologous MSCs is a safe therapeutic method for treating incompletely (i.e., not full-thickness) damaged tendons.
    Tissue Engineering 01/2008; 13(12):2949-55. · 4.25 Impact Factor
  • Leukemia Research 11/2007; 31(10):1453-5. · 2.76 Impact Factor