[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few inhibitors exist for CD38, a multifunctional enzyme catalyzing the formation and metabolism of the Ca(2+)-mobilizing second messenger cyclic adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose (cADPR). Synthetic, non-hydrolyzable ligands can facilitate structure-based inhibitor design. Molecular docking was used to reproduce the crystallographic binding mode of cyclic inosine 5'-diphosphoribose (N1-cIDPR) with CD38, revealing an exploitable pocket and predicting the potential to introduce an extra hydrogen bond interaction with Asp-155. The purine C-8 position of N1-cIDPR (IC50 276 µM) was extended with an amino or diaminobutane group and the 8-modified compounds were evaluated against CD38-catalyzed cADPR hydrolysis. Crystallography of an 8-amino N1-cIDPR:CD38 complex confirmed the predicted interaction with Asp-155, together with a second H-bond from a realigned Glu-146, rationalizing the improved inhibition (IC50 56 µM). Crystallography of a complex of cyclic ADP-carbocyclic ribose (cADPcR, IC50 129 µM) with CD38 illustrated that Glu-146 hydrogen bonds with the ligand N6-amino group. Both 8-amino N1-cIDPR and cADPcR bind deep in the active site reaching the catalytic residue Glu-226, and mimicking the likely location of cADPR during catalysis. Substantial overlap of the N1-cIDPR "northern" ribose monophosphate and the cADPcR carbocyclic ribose monophosphate regions suggests that this area is crucial for inhibitor design, leading to a new compound series of N1-inosine 5'-monophosphates (N1-IMPs). These small fragments inhibit hydrolysis of cADPR more efficiently than the parent cyclic compounds, with the best in the series demonstrating potent inhibition (IC50 = 7.6 µM). The lower molecular weight and relative simplicity of these compounds compared to cADPR make them attractive as a starting point for further inhibitor design.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(6):e66247. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) is a novel second messenger that releases calcium from intracellular stores. Although first shown to release calcium in the sea urchin egg, cADPR has been shown since to be active in a variety of cells and tissues, from plant to human. cADPR stimulates calcium release via ryanodine receptors although the mechanism is still not completely understood. cADPR is produced enzymatically from NAD by ADP-ribosyl cyclases; several of these proteins have been identified including one isolated from Aplysia californica, two types found in mammals (CD38 and CD157), and three forms in sea urchin. A cyclase activity has been measured in extracts from Arabidopsis thaliana although the protein is still unidentified. Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is another novel messenger that releases calcium from internal stores and is produced by these same enzymes by an exchange reaction. NAADP targets lysosomal stores whereas cADPR releases calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum. Due to their importance in cell signaling, cADPR and NAADP have been the focus of numerous investigations over the last 25 years. This chapter describes several assay methods for the measurements of cADPR and NAADP concentration and cyclase activity in extracts from cells.
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2013; 1016:39-56.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein ADP-ribosylation, including mono- and poly-ADP-ribosylation, is increasingly recognized to play important roles in various biological pathways. Molecular understanding of the functions of ADP-ribosylation requires the identification of the sites of modification. Although tandem mass spectrometry is widely recognized as an effective means for determining protein modifications, identification of ADP-ribosylation sites has been challenging due to the labile and hydrophilic nature of the modification. Here we applied precursor ion scanning triggered MS/MS analysis on a hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer for selectively detecting ADP-ribosylated peptides and determining the auto-ADP-ribosylation sites of CD38 E226D and E226Q mutants. CD38 is an enzymethat catalyzes the hydrolysis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to ADP-ribose. Here we show that NAD can covalently label CD38 E226D and E226Q mutants, but not wild type CD38. In this study, we have successfully identified the D226/Q226 and K129 residues of the two CD38 mutants being the ADP-ribosylation sites using precursor ion scanning hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry. The results offer insights about the CD38 enzymatic reaction mechanism. The precursor ion scanning method should be useful for identifying the modification sites of other ADP-ribosyltransferases, such as PARPs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) are Ca(2+)-mobilizing nucleotides that were discovered in the late 1980s. Two decades of investigations have built up a considerable understanding about these two molecules that are related because both are derived from pyridine nucleotides and known to be generated by CD38/ADP-ribosyl cyclases. cADPR has been shown to target the ryanodine receptors in the endoplasmic reticulum whereas NAADP stimulates the two-pore channels in the endo-lysosomes. Accumulating results indicate that cADPR and NAADP are second messenger molecules mediating Ca(2+) signaling activated by a wide range of agonists. This article reviews what is known about these two molecules, especially regarding their signaling roles in the pancreatic cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transmembrane enzyme CD38, a multifunctional protein ubiquitously present in cells, is the main enzyme that synthesizes and hydrolyzes cyclic adenosine 5'-diphosphate-ribose (cADPR), an intracellular Ca(2+)-mobilizing messenger. CD38 is thought to be a type II transmembrane protein with its carboxyl-terminal catalytic domain located on the outside of the cell; thus, the mechanism by which CD38 metabolizes intracellular cADPR has been controversial. We developed specific antibodies against the amino-terminal segment of CD38 and showed that two opposing orientations of CD38, type II and type III (which has its catalytic domain inside the cell), were both present on the surface of HL-60 cells during retinoic acid-induced differentiation. When activated by interferon-γ, human primary monocytes and the monocytic U937 cell line exhibited a similar co-distribution pattern. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments showed that the membrane orientation of CD38 could be converted from a mixture of type II and type III orientations to all type III by mutating the cationic amino acid residues in the amino-terminal segment of CD38. Expression of type III CD38 construct in transfected cells led to increased intracellular concentrations of cADPR, indicating the importance of the type III orientation of CD38 to its Ca(2+) signaling function. The identification of these two forms of CD38 suggests that flipping the catalytic domain from the outside to the inside of the cell may be a mechanism regulating its signaling activity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD38 is a signaling enzyme responsible for catalyzing the synthesis of cyclic ADP ribose (cADPR) and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate; both are universal Ca(2+) messenger molecules. Ablation of the CD38 gene in mice causes multiple physiological defects, including impaired oxytocin release, that result in altered social behavior. A series of catalysis-based inhibitors of CD38 were designed and synthesized, starting with arabinosyl-2'-fluoro-2'-deoxynicotinamide mononucleotide. Structure-function relationships were analyzed to assess the structural determinants important for inhibiting the NADase activity of CD38. X-ray crystallography was used to reveal the covalent intermediates that were formed with the catalytic residue, Glu226. Metabolically stable analogues that were resistant to inactivation by phosphatase and esterase were synthesized and shown to be effective in inhibiting intracellular cADPR production in human HL-60 cells during induction of differentiation by retinoic acid. The inhibition was species-independent, and the analogues were similarly effective in blocking the cyclization reaction of CD38 in rat ventricular tissue extracts, as well as inhibiting the α-agonist-induced constriction in rat mesentery arteries. These compounds thus represent the first generally applicable and catalysis-based inhibitors of the Ca(2+) signaling function of CD38.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) is a calcium messenger that can mobilize intracellular Ca²⁺ stores and activate Ca²⁺ influx to regulate a wide range of physiological processes. Aplysia cyclase is the first member of the ADP-ribosyl cyclases identified to catalyze the cyclization of NAD⁺ into cADPR. The catalysis involves a two-step reaction, the elimination of the nicotinamide ring and the cyclization of the intermediate resulting in the covalent attachment of the purine ring to the terminal ribose. Aplysia cyclase exhibits a high degree of leniency towards the purine base of its substrate, and the cyclization reaction takes place at either the N1- or the N7-position of the purine ring. To decipher the mechanism of cyclization in Aplysia cyclase, we used a crystallization setup with multiple Aplysia cyclase molecules present in the asymmetric unit. With the use of natural substrates and analogs, not only were we able to capture multiple snapshots during enzyme catalysis resulting in either N1 or N7 linkage of the purine ring to the terminal ribose, we were also able to observe, for the first time, the cyclized products of both N1 and N7 cyclization bound in the active site of Aplysia cyclase.
Journal of Molecular Biology 11/2011; 415(3):514-26. · 3.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The concept advanced by Berridge and colleagues that intracellular Ca(2+)-stores can be mobilized in an agonist-dependent and messenger (IP(3))-mediated manner has put Ca(2+)-mobilization at the center stage of signal transduction mechanisms. During the late 1980s, we showed that Ca(2+)-stores can be mobilized by two other messengers unrelated to inositol trisphosphate (IP(3)) and identified them as cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR), a novel cyclic nucleotide from NAD, and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP), a linear metabolite of NADP. Their messenger functions have now been documented in a wide range of systems spanning three biological kingdoms. Accumulated evidence indicates that the target of cADPR is the ryanodine receptor in the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum, while that of NAADP is the two pore channel in endolysosomes.As cADPR and NAADP are structurally and functionally distinct, it is remarkable that they are synthesized by the same enzyme. They are thus fraternal twin messengers. We first identified the Aplysia ADP-ribosyl cyclase as one such enzyme and, through homology, found its mammalian homolog, CD38. Gene knockout in mice confirms the important roles of CD38 in diverse physiological functions from insulin secretion, susceptibility to bacterial infection, to social behavior of mice through modulating neuronal oxytocin secretion. We have elucidated the catalytic mechanisms of the Aplysia cyclase and CD38 to atomic resolution by crystallography and site-directed mutagenesis. This article gives a historical account of the cADPR/NAADP/CD38-signaling pathway and describes current efforts in elucidating the structure and function of its components.
Science China. Life sciences 08/2011; 54(8):699-711. · 2.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD38 catalyzes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR), a Ca(2+) messenger responsible for regulating a wide range of physiological functions. It is generally regarded as an ectoenzyme, but its intracellular localization has also been well documented. It is not known if internal CD38 is enzymatically active and contributes to the Ca(2+) signaling function. In this study, we engineered a novel soluble form of CD38 that can be efficiently expressed in the cytosol and use cytosolic NAD as a substrate to produce cADPR intracellularly. The activity of the engineered CD38 could be decreased by mutating the catalytic residue Glu-226 and increased by the double mutation E146A/T221F, which increased its cADPR synthesis activity by >11-fold. Remarkably, the engineered CD38 exhibited the ability to form the critical disulfide linkages required for its enzymatic activity. This was verified by using a monoclonal antibody generated against a critical disulfide, Cys-254-Cys-275. The specificity of the antibody was established by x-ray crystallography and site-directed mutagenesis. The engineered CD38 is thus a novel example challenging the general belief that cytosolic proteins do not possess disulfides. As a further refinement of this approach, the engineered CD38 was placed under the control of tetracycline using an autoregulated construct. This study has set the stage for in vivo manipulation of cADPR metabolism.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2011; 286(25):22170-7. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human CD38 is a novel multi-functional protein that acts not only as an antigen for B-lymphocyte activation, but also as an enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of a Ca(2+) messenger molecule, cyclic ADP-ribose, from NAD(+). It is well established that this novel Ca(2+) signaling enzyme is responsible for regulating a wide range of physiological functions. Based on the crystal structure of the CD38/NAD(+) complex, we synthesized a series of simplified N-substituted nicotinamide derivatives (Compound 1-14). A number of these compounds exhibited moderate inhibition of the NAD(+) utilizing activity of CD38, with Compound 4 showing the highest potency. The crystal structure of CD38/Compound 4 complex and computer simulation of Compound 7 docking to CD38 show a significant role of the nicotinamide moiety and the distal aromatic group of the compounds for substrate recognition by the active site of CD38. Biologically, we showed that both Compounds 4 and 7 effectively relaxed the agonist-induced contraction of muscle preparations from rats and guinea pigs. This study is a rational design of inhibitors for CD38 that exhibit important physiological effects, and can serve as a model for future drug development.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) is a universal calcium messenger molecule that regulates many physiological processes. The production and degradation of cADPR are catalyzed by a family of related enzymes, including the ADP-ribosyl cyclase from Aplysia california (ADPRAC) and CD38 from human. Although ADPRC and CD38 share a common evolutionary ancestor, their enzymatic functions toward NAD and cADPR homeostasis have evolved divergently. Thus, ADPRC can only generate cADPR from NAD (cyclase), whereas CD38, in contrast, has multiple activities, i.e. in cADPR production and degradation, as well as NAD hydrolysis (NADase). In this study, we determined a number of ADPRC and CD38 structures bound with various nucleotides. From these complexes, we elucidated the structural features required for the cyclization (cyclase) reaction of ADPRC and the NADase reaction of CD38. Using the structural approach in combination with site-directed mutagenesis, we identified Phe-174 in ADPRC as a critical residue in directing the folding of the substrate during the cyclization reaction. Thus, a point mutation of Phe-174 to glycine can turn ADPRC from a cyclase toward an NADase. The equivalent residue in CD38, Thr-221, is shown to disfavor the cyclizing folding of the substrate, resulting in NADase being the dominant activity. The comprehensive structural comparison of CD38 and APDRC presented in this study thus provides insights into the structural determinants for the functional evolution from a cyclase to a hydrolase.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2009; 284(40):27637-45. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mammalian CD38 and its Aplysia homolog, ADP-ribosyl cyclase (cyclase), are two prominent enzymes that catalyze the synthesis and hydrolysis of cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR), a Ca(2+) messenger molecule responsible for regulating a wide range of cellular functions. Although both use NAD as a substrate, the cyclase produces cADPR, whereas CD38 produces mainly ADP-ribose (ADPR). To elucidate the catalytic differences and the mechanism of cyclizing NAD, the crystal structure of a stable complex of the cyclase with an NAD analog, ribosyl-2'F-2'deoxynicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (ribo-2'-F-NAD), was determined. The results show that the analog was a substrate of the cyclase and that during the reaction, the nicotinamide group was released and a stable intermediate was formed. The terminal ribosyl unit at one end of the intermediate formed a close linkage with the catalytic residue (Glu-179), whereas the adenine ring at the other end stacked closely with Phe-174, suggesting that the latter residue is likely to be responsible for folding the linear substrate so that the two ends can be cyclized. Mutating Phe-174 indeed reduced cADPR production but enhanced ADPR production, converting the cyclase to be more CD38-like. Changing the equivalent residue in CD38, Thr-221 to Phe, correspondingly enhanced cADPR production, and the double mutation, Thr-221 to Phe and Glu-146 to Ala, effectively converted CD38 to a cyclase. This study provides the first detailed evidence of the cyclization process and demonstrates the feasibility of engineering the reactivity of the enzymes by mutation, setting the stage for the development of tools to manipulate cADPR metabolism in vivo.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2009; 284(40):27629-36. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD38 is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein with multiple functions. It acts as an ecto-enzyme as well as a receptor. The enzymatic activity catalyzes the formation of two potent Ca(2+) releasing agents: cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) from NAD phosphate (NADP). The receptor function of CD38 leads to the phosphorylation of intracellular signaling proteins and the up-regulation of cytokine production in immune cells. These two functions of CD38 underlie its involvement in various biological processes, such as hormone secretion, immune cell differentiation, and immune responses. Clinically, CD38 is used as a negative prognosis marker for chronic lymphatic leukemia (CLL). However, a clear molecular understanding of CD38's role in physiology and pathology is still lacking. To facilitate the study of CD38 at cellular and molecular levels, here we report a mechanism-based method for fluorescently labeling CD38 on live cells. This labeling method does not interfere with the receptor function of CD38 and the downstream signaling. The labeling method is thus a useful tool to study the receptor function of CD38 in live cells. In addition, since the mechanism-based labeling also inhibits the enzymatic activity of CD38, it should be useful for dissecting the receptor function of CD38 without interference from its enzyme function in complicated biological processes.
Journal of the American Chemical Society 03/2009; 131(5):1658-9. · 10.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cellular metabolism is required for cell proliferation. However, the way in which metabolic signals are conveyed to cell cycle decisions is unclear. Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR), the NAD(+) metabolite, mobilizes calcium from calcium stores in many cells. We found that dinoflagellate cells with higher metabolic rate underwent multiple fission (MF), a division mode in which cells can exceed twice their sizes at G1. A temperature shift-down experiment suggested that MF involves a commitment point at late G1. In fast-growing cells, cADPR level peaked in G(1) and increased with increasing concentrations of glucose in the medium. Addition of glycolytic poison iodoacetate inhibited cell growth, reduced cADPR levels as well as the commitment of cell cycles in fast-growing cells. Commitment of MF cell cycles was induced by a cell permeant cADPR agonist, but blocked by a specific antagonist of cADPR-induced Ca(2+) release. Our results establish cADPR as a link between cellular metabolism and cell cycle control.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: First identified on the surface of lymphoids as a type II transmembrane protein, CD38 has now been established to have dual functions not only as a receptor but also as a multifunctional enzyme,catalyzing the synthesis of and hydrolysis of a general calcium messenger molecule, cyclic ADP-ribose(cADPR). The receptorial functions of CD38 include the induction of cell adhesion, differentiation,apoptosis, and cytokine production upon antibody ligation. Here we determined the crystal structure of calcium-loaded human CD38 at 1.45 A resolution which reveals that CD38 undergoes dramatic structural changes to an inhibited conformation in the presence of calcium. The structural changes are highly localized and occur in only two regions. The first region is part of the active site and consists of residues 121-141.In the presence of calcium, W125 moves 5 A into the active site and forms hydrophobic interactions with W189. The movement closes the active site pocket and reduces entry of substrates, resulting in inhibition of the enzymatic activity. The structural role of calcium in inducing these conformational changes is readily visualized in the crystal structure. The other region that undergoes calcium-induced changes is at the receptor region, where a highly ordered helix is unraveled to a random coil. The results suggest a novel conformational coupling mechanism, whereby protein interaction targeted at the receptor region can effectively regulate the enzymatic activity of CD38.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclic ADP-ribose is an important Ca(2+)-mobilizing cytosolic messenger synthesized from beta-NAD(+) by ADP-ribosyl cyclases (ARCs). However, the focus upon ectocellular mammalian ARCs (CD38 and CD157) has led to confusion as to how extracellular enzymes generate intracellular messengers in response to stimuli. We have cloned and characterized three ARCs in the sea urchin egg and found that endogenous ARCbeta and ARCgamma are intracellular and located within the lumen of acidic, exocytotic vesicles, where they are optimally active. Intraorganelle ARCs are shielded from cytosolic substrate and targets by the organelle membrane, but this barrier is circumvented by nucleotide transport. We show that a beta-NAD(+) transporter provides ARC substrate that is converted luminally to cADPR, which, in turn, is shuttled out to the cytosol via a separate cADPR transporter. Moreover, nucleotide transport is integral to ARC activity physiologically because three transport inhibitors all inhibited the fertilization-induced Ca(2+) wave that is dependent upon cADPR. This represents a novel signaling mechanism whereby an extracellular stimulus increases the concentration of a second messenger by promoting messenger transport from intraorganelle synthesis sites to the cytosol.
Current Biology 11/2008; 18(20):1612-8. · 9.49 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enzymatic utilization of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) has increasingly been shown to have fundamental roles in gene regulation, signal transduction, and protein modification. Many of the processes require the cleavage of the nicotinamide moiety from the substrate and the formation of a reactive intermediate. Using X-ray crystallography, we show that human CD38, an NAD-utilizing enzyme, is capable of catalyzing the cleavage reactions through both covalent and noncovalent intermediates, depending on the substrate used. The covalent intermediate is resistant to further attack by nucleophiles, resulting in mechanism-based enzyme inactivation. The noncovalent intermediate is stabilized mainly through H-bond interactions, but appears to remain reactive. Our structural results favor the proposal of a noncovalent intermediate during normal enzymatic utilization of NAD by human CD38 and provide structural insights into the design of covalent and noncovalent inhibitors targeting NAD-utilization pathways.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) is a calcium mobilization messenger important for mediating a wide range of physiological functions. The endogenous levels of cADPR in mammalian tissues are primarily controlled by CD38, a multifunctional enzyme capable of both synthesizing and hydrolyzing cADPR. In this study, a novel non-hydrolyzable analog of cADPR, N1-cIDPR (N1-cyclic inosine diphosphate ribose), was utilized to elucidate the structural determinants involved in the hydrolysis of cADPR. N1-cIDPR inhibits CD38-catalyzed cADPR hydrolysis with an IC(50) of 0.26 mM. N1-cIDPR forms a complex with CD38 or its inactive mutant in which the catalytic residue Glu-226 is mutated. Both complexes have been determined by x-ray crystallography at 1.7 and 1.76 A resolution, respectively. The results show that N1-cIDPR forms two hydrogen bonds (2.61 and 2.64 A) with Glu-226, confirming our previously proposed model for cADPR catalysis. Structural analyses reveal that both the enzyme and substrate cADPR undergo catalysis-associated conformational changes. From the enzyme side, residues Glu-146, Asp-147, and Trp-125 work collaboratively to facilitate the formation of the Michaelis complex. From the substrate side, cADPR is found to change its conformation to fit into the active site until it reaches the catalytic residue. The binary CD38-cADPR model described here represents the most detailed description of the CD38-catalyzed hydrolysis of cADPR at atomic resolution. Our structural model should provide insights into the design of effective cADPR analogs.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2007; 282(34):24825-32. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human CD38 is a multifunctional ectoenzyme responsible for catalyzing the conversions from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) and from cADPR to ADP-ribose (ADPR). Both cADPR and ADPR are calcium messengers that can mobilize intracellular stores and activate influx as well. In this study, we determined three crystal structures of the human CD38 enzymatic domain complexed with cADPR at 1.5-A resolution, with its analog, cyclic GDP-ribose (cGDPR) (1.68 A) and with NGD (2.1 A) a substrate analog of NAD. The results indicate that the binding of cADPR or cGDPR to the active site induces structural rearrangements in the dipeptide Glu(146)-Asp(147) by as much as 2.7 A) providing the first direct evidence of a conformational change at the active site during catalysis. In addition, Glu(226) is shown to be critical not only in catalysis but also in positioning of cADPR at the catalytic site through strong hydrogen bonding interactions. Structural details obtained from these complexes provide a step-by-step description of the catalytic processes in the synthesis and hydrolysis of cADPR.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2007; 282(8):5853-61. · 4.65 Impact Factor