[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 59-year-old woman was referred for a diagnostic video thoracoscopy under general anesthesia. At the end of the procedure, the patient presented with subcutaneous emphysema and cyanosis, abdominal distension, and bradycardia. A rigid bronchoscopy showed a longitudinal laceration in the pars membranacea of the trachea. A tracheal silicon stent was positioned on an emergency basis. She was intubated, positioning the tracheal tube cuff distal of the stent under bronchoscopic vision. A computed tomographic scan performed immediately after the procedure showed left pneumothorax, pneumoperitoneum, pneumopericardium, and diffuse subcutaneous emphysema. The subsequent course of the patient was uneventful. The patient was discharged home on postoperative day 4. After 1 year, the stent was removed with the evidence of complete trachel healing.
The Annals of thoracic surgery 09/2012; 94(3):1001-3. · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the outcomes and the conversion ratio of switching from oxycodone to methadone in advanced cancer patients admitted to an acute palliative care unit.
A prospective study was carried out on a cohort of consecutive sample of patients receiving oxycodone, who were switched for different reasons mainly because of an inconvenient balance between analgesia and adverse effects. An initial conversion ratio between oxycodone and methadone was 3.3:1. Intensity of pain and symptoms associated with opioid therapy were recorded, and a distress score (DS) was also calculated as a sum of symptom intensity. A successful switching was considered when the intensity of pain and/or DS or the principal symptom requiring switching decreased at least of 33% of the value recorded before switching.
Nineteen out of 542 patients admitted to the unit in 1 year underwent a switching from oxycodone to methadone. Almost all substitutions were successful. The prevalent indication for opioid switching was uncontrolled pain and adverse effects (12 patients). No significant changes between the initial conversion ratio and final conversion ratio between the two opioids were found.
Switching from oxycodone to methadone is a reliable method to improve the opioid response in advanced cancer patients. A ratio of 3.3 appears to be reliable, even at high doses. Further studies should be performed to confirm these results in other settings and with very high doses of oxycodone.
Supportive Care in Cancer 09/2011; 20(1):191-4. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As recognition and treatment of breakthrough cancer pain (BcP) depend on the education and knowledge of palliative care physicians, it is important to systematically explore the attitudes of palliative care physicians in hospices or palliative care units. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of hospice physicians in Italy regarding BcP and its treatment. All hospices existing in Italy were interviewed to gather information about provision of BP medication, drugs of choice, preferred route of administration, methods to choose the dose, and choice of BcP medication based on opioid administered for background analgesia. Of 158 hospices registered, 122 centers agreed with the interview (77.2%). Morphine was more frequently used, either orally or parenterally. In some hospices, oral transmucosal fentanyl (OTFC) was unavailable. Most physicians provided doses of opioids proportional to the opioid basal regimen, independently of the preferred opioid or the route of administration. The choice of dose titration was equally used in patients who were prescribed OTFC or parenteral morphine. The choice of breakthrough medication on the basis of opioid basal regimen was equally distributed. These findings suggest the need for improved education on behalf of physicians on the assessment and treatment of BcP, particularly in a potentially specialized setting, such as palliative care units. The choice of BcP medications should be based on the best cost-efficacy ratio rather than solely on economical considerations.
Supportive Care in Cancer 07/2011; 19(7):979-83. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anticholinergic drugs, including atropine, hyoscine butylbromide, and scopolamine, have been shown to be equally effective in the treatment of death rattle. However, anticholinergic drugs may only be effective in reducing the production of further secretions, rather than eliminating the existing ones. A case is described in which a preventive procedure was undertaken to carefully eliminate secretions before starting anticholinergic drugs. Airway aspiration under light anesthesia removed secretions before starting anticholinergic drugs. Low doses of propofol were given intravenously to make a laryngoscopy feasible, allowing the complete aspiration of large amounts of tracheal secretions. No death rattle was perceived until death. Relatives were satisfied with the treatment and the peaceful death. Antisecretory agents may only prevent further accumulation of fluids along the airways and in the pharynx. The use of these drugs, supplemented by this aspiration procedure in carefully selected patients, may help eliminate death rattle in patients with advanced illness who are unable to cough or swallow. Explanation and reassurance to relieve fears and concerns regarding a procedure aimed to improve the quality of end-of-life care are of paramount importance, and active collaboration in decision making facilitates a timely intervention. This preliminary experience may help further research on the best treatment at the end of life.
Journal of pain and symptom management 12/2010; 41(3):637-9. · 2.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the efficacy and safety of different opioids used in doses proportional to the basal opioid regimen for the management of breakthrough pain (BP).
In 66 patients consecutive patients admitted to a pain relief and palliative care unit, the efficacy and safety of different opioids used in doses proportional to the basal opioid regimen for the management of breakthrough pain (BP) were assessed. The choice of the opioid to be administered as rescue medication was based on the characteristics of patients, clinical stability, compliance, preference, and so on. For each episode, nurses were instructed to routinely collect changes in pain intensity and emerging problems when pain became severe (T0), and to re-assess the patient 15 minutes after the opioid given as a rescue medication (T15).
Six hundred twenty four episodes of BP were recorded during admission. Intravenous morphine (IV-MO) and oral transmucosal fentanyl (OTFC) were most frequently administered. Of 503 events available, 427 episodes were defined as successfully treated, while 76 episodes required a further administration of opioids. Pain intensity significantly decreased at T15 in all the groups (P<0.001). In 97.2% and 90.7% of cases treated with IV-MO, BP events had a reduction in pain intensity of more than 33% and 50%, respectively. In 99.2% and 97.6% patients receiving OTFC, BP events had a reduction in pain intensity of more than 33% and 50%, respectively.
This survey suggests that doses of opioids for BP proportional to the basal opioid regimen, are very effective and safe in clinical practice, regardless the opioid and modality used.
The Clinical journal of pain 05/2010; 26(4):306-9. · 3.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect and tolerability of low doses of transdermal (TD) buprenorphine patches in opioid-naive patients with cancer pain.
This was a nonrandomized, open-label, uncontrolled study in consecutive opioid-naive patients with advanced cancer and moderate pain. TD buprenorphine was initiated at a dose of 17.5 microg/h (0.4 mg/d), with patch changes every 3 days. Doses were then adjusted according to the clinical response. Pain intensity, opioid-related adverse effects, TD buprenorphine doses, and quality of life were monitored over 4 weeks. The time to dose stabilization and indexes of dose escalation were also calculated.
Thirty-nine consecutive patients completed all 4 weeks of the study. Low doses of TD buprenorphine were well tolerated and effective in these opioid-naive patients with cancer pain. Pain control was achieved within a mean of 1.5 days after the start of TD buprenorphine therapy. The mean TD buprenorphine dose was significantly increased from baseline beginning at 2 weeks after the start of therapy and had doubled by 4 weeks (P < 0.05). Pain intensity was significantly decreased from baseline beginning at 1 week and continuing through the remaining weekly evaluations (P < 0.05). The mean buprenorphine escalation index, calculated as a percentage and in milligrams, was 41.2% and 0.2 mg, respectively. Quality of life improved significantly over the study period (P = 0.007). There were no significant changes in opioid-related symptoms between weekly evaluations.
Observations from this study suggest that randomized, controlled, double-blind studies of TD buprenorphine 17.5 microg/h in opioid-naive patients with cancer pain may be warranted.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To improve opioid repsonse in patients with movement-related pain by using opioid switching adding a burst of ketamine.
Two patients with incident bone pain who had adverse effects with increasing doses of opioids were switched to methadone and a burst of 100 mg/d of ketamine for 2 consecutive days was added.
Basal pain and pain on movement significantly improved.
The development of breakthrough pain due to movement (incident pain), associated with bone metastases is so rapid that no medication as needed has such a short onset to parallel this temporal pattern of pain firing. Experimental studies have shown that bone metastases are characterized by a specific pattern of spinal hyperexcitation requiring higher doses of opioids. Optimization of basal opioid regimen may improve mobilization. However, adverse effects may more likely occur. The role of opioid switching and burst ketamine to further improve the opioid response has never been assessed in this context. Further studies in animals could confirm these preliminary data, with specific design to parallel this clinical context.
The Clinical journal of pain 10/2009; 25(7):648-9. · 3.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the frequency, indications, outcomes, and predictive factors associated with opioid switching, using a protocol that had been clinically applied and viewed as effective for many years. A prospective study was carried out on a cohort of consecutive cancer patients who were receiving opioids but had an unacceptable balance between analgesia and adverse effects, despite symptomatic treatment of side effects. The initial conversion ratio between opioids and routes was as follows (mg/day): oral morphine 100=intravenous morphine 33=transdermal fentanyl 1=intravenous fentanyl 1=oral methadone 20=intravenous methadone 16=oral oxycodone 70=transdermal buprenorphine 1.3. The switch was assisted by opioids used as needed, and doses were changed after the initial conversion according to clinical response in an acute care setting. Intensity of pain and symptoms associated with opioid therapy were recorded. A distress score (DS) was calculated as a sum of symptom intensity. A switch was considered successful when the intensity of pain and/or DS, or the principal symptom necessitating the switch, decreased to at least 33% of the value recorded before switching. One hundred eighteen patients underwent opioid substitutions. The indications for opioid switching were uncontrolled pain and adverse effects (50.8%), adverse effects (28.8%), uncontrolled pain (15.2%), and convenience (4.2%). Overall, 103 substitutions were successful. Ninety-six substitutions were successful after the first switching, and a further substitution was successful in seven patients who did not respond to the first switch. The mean time to achieve dose stabilization after switching was 3.2 days. The presence of both poor pain control and adverse effects was related to unsuccessful switching (P<0.004). No relationship was identified between unsuccessful switching and the opioid dose, opioid sequence, pain mechanism, or use of adjuvant medications. Opioid switching was an effective method to improve the balance between analgesia and adverse effects in more than 80% of cancer patients with a poor response to an opioid. The presence of both poor pain relief and adverse effects is a negative factor for switching prognosis, whereas renal failure is not.
Journal of pain and symptom management 04/2009; 37(4):632-41. · 2.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of red blood cell transfusion, and the subsequent increase in hemoglobin values, on anemia-related symptoms in a cohort of patients with cancer with different survival times. A red blood cell transfusion was recommended to a consecutive sample of patients with hemoglobin levels of 8 +/- 0.5 g/dL. The number of units to be ordered was decided according the hemoglobin values with a mean target of increasing the hemoglobin values by approximately 2 g/dL. Hemoglobin values, anemia-related signs and symptoms, including well-being, fatigue, and dyspnea, were recorded at admission (T0), 1 day after the last transfusion (T1), and 15 days afterward (T2) by telephone contact or visit. Well-being, fatigue, and dyspnea were measured on a numerical scale of 0-10. Sixty-one patients were recruited in the period of study. One hundred thirty-three units of red blood cells were transfused (mean 2.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.6). Complete data were available for 40 patients. Hemoglobin values and well-being significantly increased after transfusion (T1), maintaining acceptable values 15 days afterward (T2). Significant changes in fatigue and dyspnea were found immediately after transfusion, although the effect was partially lost 15 days after transfusion. No statistical differences were found between patients with different survival times. Fatigue was significantly lower in patients with longer survival times in comparison with patients with shorter survival times (p = 0.04). Blood transfusion in patients with hemoglobin values of approximately 8 g/dL improved anemia-related symptoms on a short-term basis. This benefit is independent of the stage of disease and survival. However, the effects on dyspnea and fatigue tend to decrease within 15 days, despite the maintenance of hemoglobin values attained after transfusions, suggesting that other factors may play a role.
Journal of palliative medicine 02/2009; 12(1):60-3. · 1.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Terminally ill cancer patients near the end of life may experience intolerable suffering refractory to palliative treatment. Although sedation is considered to be an effective treatment when aggressive efforts fail to provide relief in terminally ill patients, it remains controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the need and effectiveness of sedation in dying patients with intractable symptoms, and the thoughts of relatives regarding sedation. A prospective cohort study was performed on a consecutive sample of dying patients admitted to an acute pain relief and palliative care unit within a cancer center. Indications for sedation, opioid and midazolam doses, level of delirium and sedation, nutrition, hydration, rattle, inability to cough and swallow, pharyngeal aspiration, duration of sedation and survival, and use of anticholinergics or other drugs were recorded. Family members were interviewed. Forty-two of 77 dying patients were sedated, and had a longer survival than those who were not sedated (P=0.003). Prevalent indications for sedation were dyspnea and/or delirium. Twelve patients began with an intermediate sedation, and 38 patients started with definitive sedation. The median sedation duration was 22 hours. Opioid doses did not change during sedation. Agitated delirium significantly decreased with increasing doses of midazolam, whereas the capacity to communicate concomitantly decreased. Interviewed relatives were actively involved in the process of end-of-life care, and the decision to sedate, and the efficacy of sedation, were considered appropriate by almost all relatives. Controlled sedation is successful in dying patients with untreatable symptoms, did not hasten death, and yielded satisfactory results for relatives. This study also points to the importance of palliative care and the experience of professionals skilled in both symptom control and end-of-life care.
Journal of pain and symptom management 12/2008; 37(5):771-9. · 2.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this article is to describe the clinical activity and medical intervention of an acute model of palliative care unit (APC), as well as the reimbursement procedures and economic viability. A sample of 504 patients admitted at an APC in 1 year was surveyed. Indications for admission, pain and symptom intensity, analgesic treatments, procedures, instrumental examinations and modalities of discharge were recorded. For each patient, tariff for reimbursement was calculated according to the existent disease related grouping (DRG) system. The mean age was 62 years, and 246 patients were males. The mean hospital stay was 5.4 days. Pain control was the most frequent indication for admission. All patients had laboratory tests and several instrumental examinations. Almost all patients were prescribed one or more opioids at significant doses, and different routes of administration, as well as medication as needed. 59 patients received blood cell transfusions and 34 interventional procedures. Only 40 patients died in the unit, 11 of them being sedated at the end of life. Treatment efficacy was considered optimal and mild in 264 and 226 patients respectively. A mean of 3019 euros for admission was reimbursed by the Health Care System. APCs are of paramount importance within an oncological department, as they provide effective and intensive treatments during the entire course of disease, providing a simultaneous and integrated approach. Our findings also suggest both a cost and quality incentive for oncological departments to develop APC.
Palliative Medicine 10/2008; 22(6):760-7. · 2.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peripheral edema is a common feature in populations with advanced cancer, although it is seldom recognized. Diuretics are commonly employed and may show some benefit, but there are insufficient clinical trial data to draw useful conclusions about their clinical use. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of high-dose furosemide and small-volume hypertonic saline solution infusion in reducing leg edema in patients with advanced cancer treated unsuccessfully with diuretics. A prospective study was performed in a consecutive sample of 24 patients admitted to a pain relief and palliative care unit over a period of 18 months. To be eligible to enter the trial, advanced cancer patients had to have diffuse bilateral leg edema unresponsive to common doses of diuretics. A solution of 60 mEq of NaCl, 250 mg of furosemide, and 150 mL of normal saline were infused over 20 minutes. The treatment was repeated twice a day for two days and eventually continued on the basis of the clinical outcome. Circumferences were measured at the foot, ankle, calf, and thigh before starting the treatment (T(0)) and at intervals of 24 hours (T(1) and so on). At the same intervals, diuresis was determined. Patients were asked to score their sensation of leg weakness/heaviness on a numerical scale from 0 to 10, before (T(0)) and after the treatment (T(end)). An appreciable improvement in the sensation of weakness/heaviness (score reduction of at least two points) was recorded in all the patients. A small decrease in leg circumferences at the different sites was found, and a mean of 3600 mL/day of diuresis was recorded. These observations suggest that high-dose furosemide and small-volume saline may be an effective strategy for the treatment of peripheral edema in patients with advanced cancer.
Journal of pain and symptom management 10/2008; 37(3):419-23. · 2.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to determine the effectiveness of continuous intrathecal thoracic analgesia (ITA) in comparison with continuous epidural thoracic analgesia (ETA) for the management of postoperative pain after abdominal cancer surgery in a randomised controlled study.
Catheters were inserted at T8-10 level for both techniques. Sixty patients were randomized to receive ITA providing levobupivacaine 0.25%, at 0.5-0-7 ml/h, associated with a single bolus of morphine 0.15 mg, or ETA with levobupivacaine 0.25% 4-6 ml/h and a single bolus of epidural morphine 2-3 mg. Data were collected before discharging from recovery room to the surgical ward, 1, 2, 3, 8, 12, 24 h, and 48 h after operation. The primary outcome was pain intensity evaluation. Postoperative morphine consumption, hemodynamics, fluids, and blood losses for the first postoperative 48 h, surgical outcome, hospital stay, and complications were also collected.
Pain intensity at rest mean values ranged from 1.12 to 1.44 and from 1.04 to 1.20 in ITA group and ETA group, respectively. Dynamic pain intensity mean values ranged from 1.28 to 1.70 and from 1.16 to 1.80 in ITA group and ETA group, respectively. No significant differences were found between the two groups. Total amount morphine consumption was minimal in both groups, 4.4 mg (+/-2.9) and 3.1 mg (+/-2.4), for ITA and ETA groups, respectively. There were no severly sedated patients. Hemodynamic variables, diuresis, amounts of fluids, and red cell transfusion were equivalent between the groups. No important technical complications were reported in both groups and postoperative surgical complications were not related to the examined techniques.
ITA and ETA produced the same levels of analgesia, without relevant complications.
Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing 09/2008; 22(4):293-8. · 0.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advanced cancer patients with refractory ascites do not often respond to dietary sodium restriction and diuretics. While paracentesis is effective, the condition invariably recurs, necessitating repeated procedures. A continuous peritoneal drainage by an indwelling catheter has been reported to be hugely beneficial symptomatically, avoiding the hazards and disadvantages of multiple repeated procedures and direct and indirect costs.
Forty patients with advanced cancer patients admitted to an acute pain relief and palliative care unit, who presented symptomatic ascites, were recruited for continuous drainage of peritoneal fluid. A central venous catheter set for Seldinger technique was used. Technical failure was defined as an unsuccessful drainage of fluid through the catheter. Immediate and late complications, including hypotension, haemorrhage, tube blockage, dislodgment and sepsis were recorded. Record of daily drainage during admission were noted. At time of discharge, patients were asked to rate their global symptom burden as improved, unchanged or worsened. The follow-up was performed with frequent phone contacts or day-hospital admission in case of problems.
The mean patients' age was 68 years, and 21 were men. Patients were receiving unsuccessfully a mean dose of furosemide of 32 mg/day. The technique was not painful and was easily accepted by patients. Insertion was technically successful in almost all patients. Mean admission time was 5.5 days (range 2-14), and the mean drained volume during admission was 8,499 ml (range 800-20,700), 2,850 ml (300-4,200) being drained on the first 24 h. No immediate complications were recorded. Six patients died during admission. The mean survival was 38.9 days (range 1-120). Of the 34 patients who were discharged home, 22 patients stated that symptom burden had improved, while in 10 patients symptom burden did not change or worsened, probably due to the advanced status of diseases and multiple contributing factors. Five, two, and one patients required skin sutures at 1, 2 and 3 months, respectively. About one third of patients had mechanical problems, some of them requiring a catheter replacement. No infection was recorded.
In conclusion, a permanent peritoneal catheter was a valuable method to remove abdominal fluids and reduce symptom burden attributable to ascites and was also easy to use at home. Complication rate was acceptable and balanced by the benefits of the technique which avoided frequent paracentesis and associated complications.
Supportive Care Cancer 06/2008; 16(8):975-8. · 2.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this prospective cohort study was to confirm the safety of intravenous morphine (IV-M) used in doses proportional to the basal opioid regimen for the management of breakthrough pain and to record the nurse compliance on regularly recording data regarding breakthrough pain treated by IV-M. Over a one-year period, 99 patients received IV-M for breakthrough pain during 116 admissions. The IV-M dose was 1/5 of the oral daily dose, converted using an equianalgesic ratio of 1/3 (IV/oral). For each episode, nurses were instructed to routinely collect changes in pain intensity and emerging problems when pain became severe (T0), and to reassess the patient 15minutes after IV-M injection (T15). Nurses were unaware of the aim of the study and just followed department policy. In total, 945 breakthrough events treated by IV-M were recorded and the mean number of events per patient per admission was eight (95% confidence interval (CI) 6.9-9.5). The mean dose of IV-M was 12mg (95% CI 9-14mg). In the 469 events (49.6%) with a complete assessment, a decrease in pain of more than 33% and 50% was observed in 287 (61.2%) and 115 (24.5%) breakthrough events, respectively. The mean pain intensity decreased from 7.2 (T0) to 2.7 (T15). In eight episodes, no changes in pain intensity were observed and a further dose of IV-M was given. The remaining patients did not require further interventions. No clinical events requiring medical intervention were recorded. In this confirmatory study, IV-M was administered for the management of breakthrough pain in doses proportional to the basal opioid regimen to all patients, including older patients and those requiring relatively large doses. This did not result in life-threatening adverse effects in a large number of patients and was effective in most cases. The role of nurses is of paramount importance in monitoring and collecting data and gathering information for audit purposes on the unit.
Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 04/2008; 35(3):307-13. · 2.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic and adverse effects, doses, as well as cost of opioid drugs, supportive drug therapy and other analgesic drugs in patients treated with oral sustained-release morphine, transdermal fentanyl, and oral methadone.
One hundred and eight cancer patients, no longer responsive to opioids for moderate pain, were selected to randomly receive initial daily doses of 60 mg of oral sustained-release morphine, 15 mg of oral methadone, or 0.6 mg (25 microg/h) of transdermal fentanyl. Oral morphine was used as breakthrough pain medication during opioid titration. Opioid doses, pain intensity, adverse effects, symptomatic drugs, were recorded at week intervals for 4 weeks. Costs of opioid therapy, supportive drugs, and other analgesic drugs were also evaluated.
Seventy patients completed the 4 weeks period of study. Five, five, and four patients, treated with oral morphine, transdermal fentanyl, and oral methadone, respectively, required opioid switching. No differences in pain and symptom intensity were observed. Opioid escalation index was significantly lower in patients receiving methadone (p<0.0001), although requiring up and down changes in doses. At the doses used, methadone was significantly less expensive (p<0.0001), while the use and costs of supportive drugs and other analgesics were similar in the three groups. No relevant differences in adverse effects were observed among the groups during either the titration phase and chronic treatment.
All the three opioids used as first-line therapy were effective, well tolerated, and required similar amounts of symptomatic drugs or co-analgesics. Methadone was significantly less expensive, but required more changes, up and down, of the doses, suggesting that dose titration of this drug requires major clinical expertise.
European journal of pain (London, England) 03/2008; 12(8):1040-6. · 3.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of supplemental doses of opioids is commonly suggested to manage breakthrough pain. A comparative study of intravenous morphine (IV-MO) and oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC) given in doses proportional to the basal opioid regimen was performed in 25 cancer patients receiving stable opioid doses. For each episode, when it occurred and 15 and 30 min after the treatment, pain intensity and opioid-related symptoms were recorded. Fifty-three couples of breakthrough events, each treated with IV-MO and OTFC, were recorded. In episodes treated with IV-MO, pain intensity decreased from a mean of 6.9 to 3.3 and to 1.7 at T1 and T2, respectively. In episodes treated with OTFC, pain intensity decreased from a mean of 6.9 to 4.1 and to 2.4 at T1 and T2, respectively. Statistical differences between the two treatments were found at T1 (P=0.013), but not at T2 (P=0.059). Adverse effects were comparable and were not significantly related with the IV-MO and OTFC doses. Intravenous morphine and OTFC in doses proportional to the scheduled daily dose of opioids were both safe and effective, IV-MO having a shorter onset than OTFC. Future comparative studies with appropriate design should compare titration methods and proportional methods of OTFC dosing.
British Journal of Cancer 07/2007; 96(12):1828-33. · 5.08 Impact Factor