[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report transmission of atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy to mouse lemurs after oral or intracerebral inoculation with infected bovine brain tissue. After neurologic symptoms appeared, transmissibility of the disease by both inoculation routes was confirmed by detection of disease-associated prion protein in samples of brain tissue.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two distinct forms of atypical spongiform encephalopathies (H-BSE and L-BSE) have recently been identified in cattle. Transmission studies in several wild-type or transgenic mouse models showed that these forms were associated with two distinct major strains of infectious agents, which also differed from the unique strain that had been isolated from cases of classical BSE during the food-borne epizootic disease.
H-BSE was monitored during three serial passages in C57BL/6 mice. On second passage, most of the inoculated mice showed molecular features of the abnormal prion protein (PrP(d)) and brain lesions similar to those observed at first passage, but clearly distinct from those of classical BSE in this mouse model. These features were similarly maintained during a third passage. However, on second passage, some of the mice exhibited distinctly different molecular and lesion characteristics, reminiscent of classical BSE in C57Bl/6 mice. These similarities were confirmed on third passage from such mice, for which the same survival time was also observed as with classical BSE adapted to C57Bl/6 mice. Lymphotropism was rarely detected in mice with H-BSE features. In contrast, PrP(d) was detectable, on third passage, in the spleens of most mice exhibiting classical BSE features, the pattern being indistinguishable from that found in C57Bl/6 mice infected with classical BSE.
Our data demonstrate the emergence of a prion strain with features similar to classical BSE during serial passages of H-BSE in wild-type mice. Such findings might help to explain the origin of the classical BSE epizootic disease, which could have originated from a putatively sporadic form of BSE.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(1):e15839. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0015839 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The agent that causes bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) may be infecting small ruminants, which could have serious implications for human health. To distinguish BSE from scrapie and to examine the molecular characteristics of the protease-resistant prion protein (PrP(res)), we used a specifically designed Western blot method to test isolates from 648 sheep and 53 goats. During 2002-2009, classical non-Nor98 transmissible spongiform encephalopathy had been confirmed among ≈1.7 million small ruminants in France. Five sheep and 2 goats that showed a PrP(res) pattern consistent with BSE, or with the CH1641 experimental scrapie source, were identified. Later, bioassays confirmed infection by the BSE agent in 1 of the 2 goats. Western blot testing of the 6 other isolates showed an additional C-terminally cleaved PrP(res) product, with an unglycosylated band at ≈14 kDa, similar to that found in the CH1641 experimental scrapie isolate and different from the BSE isolate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The protease-resistant prion protein (PrP(res)) of a few natural scrapie isolates identified in sheep, reminiscent of the experimental isolate CH1641 derived from a British natural scrapie case, showed partial molecular similarities to ovine bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Recent discovery of an atypical form of BSE in cattle, L-type BSE or BASE, suggests that also this form of BSE might have been transmitted to sheep. We studied by Western blot the molecular features of PrP(res) in four "CH1641-like" natural scrapie isolates after transmission in an ovine transgenic model (TgOvPrP4), to see if "CH1641-like" isolates might be linked to L-type BSE. We found less diglycosylated PrP(res) than in classical BSE, but similar glycoform proportions and apparent molecular masses of the usual PrP(res) form (PrP(res) #1) to L-type BSE. However, the "CH1641-like" isolates differed from both L-type and classical BSE by an abundant, C-terminally cleaved PrP(res) product (PrP(res) #2) specifically recognised by a C-terminal antibody (SAF84). Differential immunoprecipitation of PrP(res) #1 and PrP(res) #2 resulted in enrichment in PrP(res) #2, and demonstrated the presence of mono- and diglycosylated PrP(res) products. PrP(res) #2 could not be obtained from several experimental scrapie sources (SSBP1, 79A, Chandler, C506M3) in TgOvPrP4 mice, but was identified in the 87V scrapie strain and, in lower and variable proportions, in 5 of 5 natural scrapie isolates with different molecular features to CH1641. PrP(res) #2 identification provides an additional method for the molecular discrimination of prion strains, and demonstrates differences between "CH1641-like" ovine scrapie and bovine L-type BSE transmitted in an ovine transgenic mouse model.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent has been transmitted to humans, leading to variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Sheep and goats can be experimentally infected by BSE and have been potentially exposed to natural BSE; however, whether BSE can be transmitted to small ruminants is not known. Based on the particular biochemical properties of the abnormal prion protein (PrPsc) associated with BSE, and particularly the increased degradation induced by proteinase K in the N terminal part of PrPsc, we have developed a rapid ELISA designed to distinguish BSE from other scrapie strains. This assay clearly discriminates experimental ovine BSE from other scrapie strains and was used to screen 260 transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)-infected small ruminant samples identified by the French active surveillance network (2002/2003). In this context, this test has helped to identify the first case of natural BSE in a goat and can be used to classify TSE isolates based on the proteinase K sensitivity of PrPsc.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In France, through exhaustive active surveillance, approximately 17.1 million adult cattle were tested for bovine spongiform encephalopathy from July 2001 through July 2007; approximately 3.6 million were >8 years of age. Our retrospective Western blot study of all 645 confirmed cases found that 7 were H-type and 6 were L-type.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSEs) are recently recognized prion diseases of cattle. Atypical BSEs are rare; approximately 30 cases have been identified worldwide. We tested prion gene (PRNP) haplotypes for an association with atypical BSE.
Haplotype tagging polymorphisms that characterize PRNP haplotypes from the promoter region through the three prime untranslated region of exon 3 (25.2 kb) were used to determine PRNP haplotypes of six available atypical BSE cases from Canada, France and the United States. One or two copies of a distinct PRNP haplotype were identified in five of the six cases (p = 1.3 x 10(-4), two-tailed Fisher's exact test; CI(95%) 0.263-0.901, difference between proportions). The haplotype spans a portion of PRNP that includes part of intron 2, the entire coding region of exon 3 and part of the three prime untranslated region of exon 3 (13 kb).
This result suggests that a genetic determinant in or near PRNP may influence susceptibility of cattle to atypical BSE.
PLoS ONE 02/2008; 3(3):e1830. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0001830 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) had never been detected in Sweden until 2006, when the active surveillance identified a case in a 12-year-old cow. The case was an unusual form, because several molecular features of the protease-resistant prion protein (PrP(res)) were different from classical BSE. The differences included higher susceptibility for proteinase K, higher molecular weight of the PrP(res) bands, affinity to the N-terminus-specific antibodies 12B2 and P4, and peculiar banding pattern with antibody SAF84 showing an additional band at the 14 kDa position. The molecular characteristics were in accordance to previous descriptions of H-type BSE. This report shows that a range of Western blot techniques and antibodies can be applied to confirm H-type BSE and further describes that the ratio of the amounts of PrPres#1 and PrPres#2, after deglycosylation, depends on the antibody used during processing. Immunohistochemistry on sections of medulla at the level of the obex applying antibodies with epitopes covering a broad range of the PrP sequence showed accumulation of disease-specific PrP (PrP(d)) in the gray matter. Fine punctate deposition in the neuropil was the most predominant type and was more severe in BSE target nuclei. The types of PrP(d) deposition are described in comparison with classical BSE. PrP-gene sequencing showed 6 copy octarepeat alleles and no abnormalities. It is postulated that the disease had a spontaneous origin, rather than having had been acquired in the BSE epidemic.
Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation: official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc 02/2008; 20(1):2-10. DOI:10.1177/104063870802000102 · 1.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transmissible mink encepholapathy (TME) is a foodborne transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of ranch-raised mink; infection with a ruminant TSE has been proposed as the cause, but the precise origin of TME is unknown. To compare the phenotypes of each TSE, bovine-passaged TME isolate and 3 distinct natural bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agents (typical BSE, H-type BSE, and L-type BSE) were inoculated into an ovine transgenic mouse line (TgOvPrP4). Transgenic mice were susceptible to infection with bovine-passaged TME, typical BSE, and L-type BSE but not to H-type BSE. Based on survival periods, brain lesions profiles, disease-associated prion protein brain distribution, and biochemical properties of protease-resistant prion protein, typical BSE had a distint phenotype in ovine transgenic mice compared to L-type BSE and bovine TME. The similar phenotypic properties of L-type BSE and bovine TME in TgOvPrP4 mice suggest that L-type BSE is a much more likely candidate for the origin of TME than is typical BSE.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Important changes have occurred in the post-mortem diagnosis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in recent years. We have evaluated a commercially available Western blot method (TeSeE Wb) as a potential means of confirming BSE. This method was (i) highly sensitive, compared with a biochemical confirmatory Western blot method (AFSSA-Wb) previously used in France and (ii) more sensitive than two routinely used highly sensitive rapid tests (TeSeE ELISA, HerdCheck BSE). We show that this high sensitivity is mainly due to the antibody used (Sha31). Interestingly, TeSeE Wb was also able to diagnose the two currently recognised deviant BSE phenotypes (H-type and L-type or BASE). The initially described molecular features of these atypical forms of BSE were also readily recognised, although sensitivity of the method may be differently affected by the chosen Ab compared with typical BSE. This method is thus of potential interest for future evaluations of BSE confirmatory methods.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molecular analyses of the protease-resistant prion protein (PrP(res)) from a few natural scrapie isolates showed by Western blotting some partial similarities with those observed in experimental ovine bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). They showed a low apparent molecular mass of unglycosylated PrP(res), although diglycosylated PrP(res) was less abundant than in ovine BSE. The prototype of such cases is the CH1641 experimental scrapie isolate. We analyzed PrP(res) molecular features from three French natural "CH1641-like" isolates, in comparison with CH1641 and BSE, after transmission of the disease in ovine transgenic mice (TgOvPrP4). One of these isolates (TR316211) behaved like the CH1641 isolate, with PrP(res) features in mice similar to those in the sheep brain. From two other isolates (O100 and O104), two distinct PrP(res) phenotypes were identified in mouse brains, with either high (h-type) or low (l-type) apparent molecular masses of unglycosylated PrP(res), the latter being similar to that observed with CH1641, TR316211, or BSE. Both phenotypes could be found in variable proportions in the brains of the individual mice. In contrast with BSE, l-type PrP(res) from "CH1641-like" isolates showed lower levels of diglycosylated PrP(res). From one of these cases (O104), a second passage in mice was performed for two mice with distinct PrP(res) profiles. This showed a partial selection of the l-type phenotype in mice infected with a mouse brain with predominant l-type PrP(res), and it was accompanied by a significant increase in the proportions of the diglycosylated band. These results are discussed in relation to the diversity of scrapie and BSE strains.
Journal of Virology 08/2007; 81(13):7230-7. DOI:10.1128/JVI.02475-06 · 4.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy strains can be differentiated by their behavior in bioassays and by molecular analyses of the disease-associated prion protein (PrP) in a posttranslationally transformed conformation (PrPSc). Until recently, isolates from cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) appeared to be very homogeneous. However, a limited number of atypical BSE isolates have recently been identified upon analyses of the disease-associated proteinase K (PK) resistance-associated moiety of PrPSc (PrPres), suggesting the existence of at least two additional BSE PrPres variants. These are defined here as the H type and the L type, according to the higher and lower positions of the nonglycosylated PrPres band in Western blots, respectively, compared to the position of the band in classical BSE (C-type) isolates. These molecular PrPres variants, which originated from six different European countries, were investigated together. In addition to the migration properties and glycosylation profiles (glycoprofiles), the H- and L-type isolates exhibited enhanced PK sensitivities at pH 8 compared to those of the C-type isolates. Moreover, H-type BSE isolates exhibited differences in the binding of antibodies specific for N- and more C-terminal PrP regions and principally contained two aglycosylated PrPres moieties which can both be glycosylated and which is thus indicative of the existence of two PrPres populations or intermediate cleavage sites. These properties appear to be consistent within each BSE type and independent of the geographical origin, suggesting the existence of different BSE strains in cattle. The choice of three antibodies and the application of two pHs during the digestion of brain homogenates provide practical and diverse tools for the discriminative detection of these three molecular BSE types and might assist with the recognition of other variants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Implementation in Europe of large-scale testing to detect bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-infected cattle and prevent the transmission of this prion disease to humans has recently led to the discovery of novel types of bovine prions. We characterized atypical isolates called BSE L-type by analyzing their molecular and neuropathological properties during transmission to several mouse lines transgenic for the prion protein (PrP). Unexpectedly, such isolates acquired strain features closely similar to those of BSE-type agents when propagated in mice expressing ovine PrP, although they retained phenotypic traits distinct from BSE in other lines, including bovine PrP mice. These findings further underline the relationship between the crossing of species barrier and prion strain diversification, and, although the origin of the epidemic BSE agent has only been speculative until now, they provide new insight into the nature of the events that could have led to the appearance of this agent.
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 07/2007; 27(26):6965-71. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0693-07.2007 · 6.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported that some cattle affected by bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) showed distinct molecular features of the protease-resistant prion protein (PrP(res)) in Western blot, with a 1-2 kDa higher apparent molecular mass of the unglycosylated PrP(res) associated with labelling by antibodies against the 86-107 region of the bovine PrP protein (H-type BSE). By Western blot analyses of PrP(res), we now showed that the essential features initially described in cattle were observed with a panel of different antibodies and were maintained after transmission of the disease in C57Bl/6 mice. In addition, antibodies against the C-terminal region of PrP revealed a second, more C-terminally cleaved, form of PrP(res) (PrP(res) #2), which, in unglycosylated form, migrated as a approximately 14 kDa fragment. Furthermore, a PrP(res) fragment of approximately 7 kDa, which was not labelled by C-terminus-specific antibodies and was thus presumed to be a product of cleavage at both N- and C-terminal sides of PrP protein, was also detected. Both PrP(res) #2 and approximately 7 kDa PrP(res) were detected in cattle and in C57Bl/6 infected mice. These complex molecular features are reminiscent of findings reported in human prion diseases. This raises questions regarding the respective origins and pathogenic mechanisms in prion diseases of animals and humans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synopsis
Prions are unconventional agents of proteic nature that are formed of abnormal conformations of the host-encoded prion protein (PrP). They cause fatal neurodegenerative diseases in both animals and humans, and can be transmitted between species as exemplified in humans by the emergence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease following the epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the United Kingdom. Since diagnosis of prion infection is only possible once the central nervous system has been invaded, brains of slaughtered or fallen cattle are routinely screened in Europe to protect the consumers from BSE. This has unexpectedly led to the discovery of unprecedented PrP conformations that were distinct from the single one associated so far with BSE or BSE-related diseases. To precisely determine their etiology, the authors have studied the transmissibility of these new conformations, termed H-type, to transgenic mice expressing either bovine or ovine PrP. They show that these cases are highly pathogenic for these mice. The authors also demonstrate that they are not directly related to the agent involved in the BSE epidemic, supporting the view for isolation of a new prion strain from cattle, whose prevalence and associated zoonotic risk should be carefully monitored in the future.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported that cattle were affected by a prion disorder that differed from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) by showing distinct molecular features of disease-associated protease-resistant prion protein (PrP(res). We show that intracerebral injection of such isolates into C57BL/6 mice produces a disease with preservation of PrP(res) molecular features distinct from BSE.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The existence of different strains of infectious agents involved in scrapie, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of sheep and goats, remains poorly explained. These strains can, however, be differentiated by characteristics of the disease in mice and also by the molecular features of the protease-resistant prion protein (PrP(res)) that accumulates into the infected tissues. For further analysis, we first transmitted the disease from brain samples of TSE-infected sheep to ovine transgenic [Tg(OvPrP4)] and to wild-type (C57BL/6) mice. We show that, as in sheep, molecular differences of PrP(res) detected by Western blotting can differentiate, in both ovine transgenic and wild-type mice, infection by the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent from most scrapie sources. Similarities of an experimental scrapie isolate (CH1641) with BSE were also likewise found following transmission in ovine transgenic mice. Secondly, we transmitted the disease to ovine transgenic mice by inoculation of brain samples of wild-type mice infected with different experimental scrapie strains (C506M3, 87V, 79A, and Chandler) or with BSE. Features of these strains in ovine transgenic mice were reminiscent of those previously described for wild-type mice, by both ratios and by molecular masses of the different PrP(res) glycoforms. Moreover, these studies revealed the diversity of scrapie strains and their differences with BSE according to labeling by a monoclonal antibody (P4). These data, in an experimental model expressing the prion protein of the host of natural scrapie, further suggest a genuine diversity of TSE infectious agents and emphasize its linkage to the molecular features of the abnormal prion protein.
Journal of Virology 07/2004; 78(12):6243-51. DOI:10.1128/JVI.78.12.6243-6251.2004 · 4.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is characterized by 4 main neuropathological lesions: spongiform change, neuronal loss, astrocytic gliosis, and accumulation of pathological prion protein (PrPsc), which is partially protease-resistant (PrPres). This study focused on spongiform change (SC) in the putamen. Because SC varies from case to case, we investigated whether its quantification could provide relevant criteria to discriminate types of PrPres in CJD. SC was quantified in 24 CJD cases, 12 with PrPres type 1 (CJD-PrP1) and 12 with PrPres type 2 (CJD-PrP2), compared to 25 control cases. The study was performed by direct microscopy examination (DME) and by semiautomatic quantification (SAQ) using shape and size criteria previously described. These criteria were suitable for SC quantification in putamen in the majority of cases, except for those with microspongiosis. The results obtained by DME and SAQ methods were correlated and SC scores were compared to the types of PrPres. Sporadic CJD cases with PrPres type 2 were more affected by SC than type 1, suggesting that putamen could be a preferential site to distinguish type 1 from type 2 histologically. The origin of the difference in SC intensity according to the type of PrPres is discussed in terms of host and strain factors.
Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 04/2004; 63(3):193-8. · 3.80 Impact Factor