[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The modern medical treatment of HIV with antiretroviral therapy (ART) has drastically reduced the morbidity and mortality in patients infected with this virus. ART has also been shown to reduce the transmission risk from individual patients as well as the spread of the infection at the population level. This position statement from the Public Health Agency of Sweden and the Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy is based on a workshop organized in the fall of 2012. It summarizes the latest research and knowledge on the risk of HIV transmission from patients on ART, with a focus on the risk of sexual transmission. The risk of transmission via shared injection equipment among intravenous drug users is also examined, as is the risk of mother-to-child transmission. Based on current knowledge, the risk of transmission through vaginal or anal intercourse involving the use of a condom has been judged to be minimal, provided that the person infected with HIV fulfils the criteria for effective ART. This probably also applies to unprotected intercourse, provided that no other sexually transmitted infections are present, although it is not currently possible to fully support this conclusion with direct scientific evidence. ART is judged to markedly reduce the risk of blood-borne transmission between people who share injection equipment. Finally, the risk of transmission from mother to child is very low, provided that ART is started well in advance of delivery.
Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases. 07/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Though combination antiretroviral therapy reduces the concentration of HIV-1 RNA in both plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) below the detection limit of clinical assays, low levels of HIV-1 RNA are frequently detectable in plasma using more sensitive assays. We examined the frequency and magnitude of persistent low-level HIV-1 RNA in CSF and its relation to the central nervous system (CNS) immune activation.
AIDS (London, England) 07/2014; · 4.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Central nervous system (CNS) infection is an important part of systemic human immunodeficiency disease (HIV) infection. It is most often asymptomatic, but can sometimes lead to severe neurologic disease, particularly in advanced stages of immunosuppression. CNS HIV infection usually responds well to antiretroviral treatment, but there are concerns that treatment may not always be fully effective in treating or preventing milder CNS disease and that it, under certain circumstances, might be important to consider antiretroviral drug distribution and effects within the CNS.
Seminars in Neurology 02/2014; 34(1):14-20. · 1.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of the central nervous system (CNS) begins early in systemic infection and continues throughout its untreated course. Despite a common cerebrospinal fluid inflammatory response, it is usually neurologically asymptomatic for much of this course, but can evolve in some individuals to HIV-associated dementia (HAD), a severe encephalopathy with characteristic cognitive and motor dysfunction. While widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to a marked decline in both the CNS infection and its neurologic severe consequence, HAD continues to afflict individuals presenting with advanced systemic infection in the developed world and a larger number in resource-poor settings where ART is more restricted. Additionally, milder CNS injury and dysfunction have broader prevalence, including in those treated with ART. Here we review the history and evolving nomenclature of HAD, its viral pathogenesis, clinical presentation and diagnosis, and treatment.
Seminars in Neurology 02/2014; 34(1):7-13. · 1.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV-1 subtype B (HIV-1B) still dominates in resource-rich countries but increased migration contributes to changes in the global subtype distribution. Also, spread of non-B subtypes within such countries occurs. The trend of the subtype distribution from the beginning of the epidemic in the country has earlier not been reported in detail. Thus the primary objective of this study is to describe the temporal trend of the subtype distribution from the beginning of the HIV-1 epidemic in Sweden over three decades.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(6):e99390. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prevalence of neurocognitive impairment in HIV-1 infected patients is reported to be high. Whether this is a result of active HIV-related neurodegeneration is unclear. We examined axonal injury in HIV-1 patients by measuring the light subunit of neurofilament protein (NFL) in CSF with a novel, sensitive method.
With a cross-sectional design, CSF concentrations of neurofilament protein light (NFL) (marker of neuronal injury), neopterin (intrathecal immunoactivation) and CSF/Plasma albumin ratio (blood-brain barrier integrity) were analyzed on CSF from 252 HIV-infected patients, subdivided into untreated neuroasymptomatics (n = 200), HIV-associated dementia (HAD) (n = 14) and on combinations antiretroviral treatment (cART) (n = 85), and healthy controls (n = 204). 46 HIV-infected patients were included in both treated and untreated groups, but sampled at different timepoints. Furthermore, 78 neuroasymptomatic patients were analyzed before and after treatment initiation.
While HAD patients had the highest NFL concentrations, elevated CSF NFL was also found in 33% of untreated neuroasymptomatic patients, mainly in those with blood CD4+ cell counts below 250 cells/μL. CSF NFL concentrations in the untreated neuroasymptomatics and treated groups were equivalent to controls 18.5 and 3.9 years older, respectively. Neopterin correlated with NFL levels in untreated groups while the albumin ratio correlated with NFL in both untreated and treated groups.
Increased CSF NFL indicates ongoing axonal injury in many neuroasymptomatic patients. Treatment decreases NFL, but treated patients retain higher levels than controls, indicating either continued virus-related injury or an aging-like effect of HIV infection. NFL correlates with neopterin and albumin ratio, suggesting an association between axonal injury, neuroinflammation and blood-brain barrier permeability. NFL appears to be a sensitive biomarker of subclinical and clinical brain injury in HIV and warrants further assessment for broader clinical use.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e88591. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sequenced HIV-1 in 70 CSF and 29 plasma samples and the corresponding pre-therapy samples from 17 subjects on suppressive therapy. More of the CSF sequences were hypermutants than plasma sequences. We generated on-therapy sequences from both CSF and plasma from two subjects; in one we found genetically distinct sequences in CSF and plasma indicating that they came from two different compartments, one potentially the CNS, during suppressive therapy. In addition, there was little evidence of viral evolution in the CSF during therapy, suggesting that continuous virus replication is not the major cause of viral persistence in the CNS.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 12/2013; · 5.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Central nervous system (CNS) infection is a nearly universal facet of systemic HIV infection that varies in character and neurological consequences. While clinical staging and neuropsychological test performance have been helpful in evaluating patients, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers present a valuable and objective approach to more accurate diagnosis, assessment of treatment effects and understanding of evolving pathobiology. We review some lessons from our recent experience with CSF biomarker studies. We have used two approaches to biomarker analysis: targeted, hypothesis-driven and non-targeted exploratory discovery methods. We illustrate the first with data from a cross-sectional study of defined subject groups across the spectrum of systemic and CNS disease progression and the second with a longitudinal study of the CSF proteome in subjects initiating antiretroviral treatment. Both approaches can be useful and, indeed, complementary. The first is helpful in assessing known or hypothesized biomarkers while the second can identify novel biomarkers and point to broad interactions in pathogenesis. Common to both is the need for well-defined samples and subjects that span a spectrum of biological activity and biomarker concentrations. Previously-defined guide biomarkers of CNS infection, inflammation and neural injury are useful in categorizing samples for analysis and providing critical biological context for biomarker discovery studies. CSF biomarkers represent an underutilized but valuable approach to understanding the interactions of HIV and the CNS and to more objective diagnosis and assessment of disease activity. Both hypothesis-based and discovery methods can be useful in advancing the definition and use of these biomarkers.
Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 08/2013; · 3.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Neopterin, a biomarker of macrophage activation, is elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of most HIV-infected individuals and decreases after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). We studied decay characteristics of neopterin in CSF and blood after commencement of ART in HIV-infected subjects and estimated the set-point levels of CSF neopterin after ART-mediated viral suppression. METHODS: CSF and blood neopterin were longitudinally measured in 102 neurologically asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects who were treatment-naive or had been off ART for >= 6 months. We used a non-linear model to estimate neopterin decay in response to ART and a stable neopterin set-point attained after prolonged ART. Seven subjects with HIV-associated dementia (HAD) who initiated ART were studied for comparison. RESULTS: Non-HAD patients were followed for a median 84.7 months. Though CSF neopterin concentrations decreased rapidly after ART initiation, it was estimated that set-point levels would be below normal CSF neopterin levels (<.8 nmol/L) in only 60/102 (59%) of these patients. Pre-ART CSF neopterin was the primary predictor of set-point (P <0.001). HAD subjects had higher baseline median CSF neopterin levels than non-HAD subjects (P <0.0001). Based on the non-HAD model, only 14% of HAD patients were predicted to reach normal levels. CONCLUSIONS: After virologically suppressive ART, abnormal CSF neopterin levels persisted in 41% of non-HAD and the majority of HAD patients. ART is not fully effective in ameliorating macrophage activation in CNS as well as blood, especially in subjects with higher pre-ART levels of immune activation.
Journal of Neuroinflammation 05/2013; 10(1):62. · 4.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuroimaging abnormalities demonstrate neuronal injury during chronic AIDS, but data on these biomarkers during primary HIV infection is limited.Methods. We compared CSF concentrations of neurofilament light chain, t-tau, p-tau, amyloid precursor proteins, and amyloid-beta 42 in 92 subjects with primary HIV infection and 25 controls. We examined relationships with disease progression and neuroinflammation, neuropsychological testing, and proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)-based metabolites.Results. Neurofilament light chain was elevated in primary HIV infection compared with controls (p=0.0004) and correlated with CSF neopterin (r=0.38, p=0.0005), IP-10 (r=0.39, p=0.002), WBCs (r=0.32, p=0.004), protein (r=0.59, p<0.0001), and CSF:plasma albumin ratio (r=0.60, p<0.0001). Neurofilament light chain correlated with decreased N-acteylaspartate/creatine and glutamate/creatine in the anterior cingulate (r=-0.35, p=0.02; r=-0.40, p=0.009, respectively), frontal white matter (r=-0.43, p=0.003; r=-0.30, p=0.048), and parietal gray matter (r=-0.43, p=0.003; r=-0.47, p=0.001). Beta-amyloid was elevated in the primary infection group (p=0.0005) and correlated with time infected (r=0.34, p=0.003). Neither marker correlated with neuropsychological abnormalities. T-tau and soluble amyloid precursor proteins did not differ between groups.Conclusions. Elevated neurofilament light chain and its correlation with MRS-based metabolites suggest early neuronal injury in a subset of participants with primary HIV infection through mechanisms involving central nervous system inflammation.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 03/2013; · 5.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of ritonavir boosted atazanavir versus ritonavir boosted lopinavir or efavirenz, all in combination with 2 nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), over 144 weeks in antiretroviral-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals. Methods: A prospective open-label randomized controlled trial was conducted at 29 sites in Sweden and Norway between April 2004 and December 2009. Patients were randomized to receive either efavirenz 600 mg once daily (EFV), or atazanavir 300 mg and ritonavir 100 mg once daily (AZV/r), or lopinavir 400 mg and ritonavir 100 mg twice daily (LPV/r). The primary endpoints were the proportion of patients with HIV-1 RNA < 50 copies/ml at 48 and 144 weeks. Results: Of 245 patients enrolled, 243 were randomized and 239 received the allocated intervention: 77 EFV, 81 AZV/r, and 81 LPV/r. Median (interquartile range) CD4 cell counts at baseline were 150 (80-200), 170 (80-220), and 150 (90-216) per microlitre, respectively. At week 48 the proportion (95% confidence interval (CI)) of patients achieving HIV-1 RNA < 50 copies/ml was 86 (78-94)% in the EFV arm, 78 (69-87)% in the AZV/r arm and, 69 (59-78)% in the LPV/r arm in the intention-to-treat analysis. There was a significant difference between the EFV and LPV/r arm (p = 0.014). At week 144, the proportion (95% CI) of patients achieving HIV-1 RNA < 50 copies/ml was 61 (50-72)%, 58 (47-69)%, 51 (41-63)%, respectively (p = 0.8). Patients with CD4 cell counts of ≤ 200/μl or HIV-1 RNA > 100,000 copies/ml at baseline had similar response rates in all arms. Conclusion: EFV was superior to LPV/r at week 48, but there were no significant differences between the 3 arms in the long-term (144 weeks) follow-up.
Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 01/2013; · 1.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated whether there are differences in the effects on microbial translocation (MT) and enterocyte damage by different antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens after 1.5 years and whether antibiotic use has impact on MT. In a randomized clinical trial (NCT01445223) on first line ART, patients started either lopinavir/r (LPV/r) (n = 34) or efavirenz (EFV) containing ART (n = 37). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), sCD14, anti-flagellin antibodies and intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) levels were determined in plasma at baseline (BL) and week 72 (w72).
The levels of LPS and sCD14 were reduced from BL to w72 (157.5 pg/ml vs. 140.0 pg/ml, p = 0.0003; 3.13 ug/ml vs. 2.85 ug/ml, p = 0.005, respectively). The levels of anti-flagellin antibodies had decreased at w72 (0.35 vs 0.31 [OD]; p<0.0004), although significantly only in the LPV/r arm. I-FABP levels increased at w72 (2.26 ng/ml vs 3.13 ng/ml; p<0.0001), although significantly in EFV treated patients only. Patients given antibiotics at BL had lower sCD14 levels at w72 as revealed by ANCOVA compared to those who did not receive (Δ = -0.47 µg/ml; p = 0.015).
Markers of MT and enterocyte damage are elevated in untreated HIV-1 infected patients. Long-term ART reduces the levels, except for I-FABP which role as a marker of MT is questionable in ART-experienced patients. Why the enterocyte damage seems to persist remains to be established. Also antibiotic usage may influence the kinetics of the markers of MT.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e55038. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atazanavir increases plasma bilirubin levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Due to less costly and readily available assays, bilirubin has been proposed as a marker of atazanavir exposure. In this work, a previously developed nomogram for detection of suboptimal atazanavir exposure is validated against external patient populations. The bilirubin nomogram was validated against 311 matching bilirubin and atazanavir samples from 166 HIV-1-infected Norwegian, French, and Italian patients on a ritonavir-boosted regimen. In addition, the nomogram was evaluated in 56 Italian patients on an unboosted regimen. The predictive properties of the nomogram were validated against observed atazanavir plasma concentrations. The use of the nomogram to detect non-adherence was also investigated by simulation. The bilirubin nomogram predicted suboptimal exposure in the patient populations on a ritonavir-boosted regimen with a negative predictive value of 97% (95% CI 95-100). The bilirubin nomogram and monitoring of atazanavir concentrations had similar predictive properties for detecting non-adherence based on simulations. Although both methods performed adequately during a period of non-adherence, they had lower predictive power to detect past non-adherence episodes. Using the bilirubin nomogram for detection of suboptimal atazanavir exposure in patients on a ritonavir-boosted regimen is a rapid and cost-effective alternative to routine measurements of the actual atazanavir exposure in plasma. Its application may be useful in clinical settings if atazanavir concentrations are not available.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker profile in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by decreased beta amyloid (Aβ(1-42)), increased total and hyperphosphorylated tau (t-tau and p-tau, respectively), which is a useful diagnostic tool and gives insight in the pathogenesis of AD. It is of importance to study how these biomarkers react in other CNS diseases; therefore, we decided to analyse amyloid and tau biomarkers in different CNS infections. We also included analysis of soluble amyloid precursor proteins (sAPPα and -β). CSF Aβ(1-42), sAPPα and -β, t-tau and p-tau were analysed in bacterial meningitis (n = 12), Lyme neuroborreliosis (n = 13), herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (n = 10), HIV-associated dementia (HAD) (n = 21), AD (n = 21) and healthy controls (n = 42). Concurrent with AD, Aβ(1-42) was decreased in all groups except neuroborreliosis compared to controls. HSV-1 encephalitis, bacterial meningitis and HAD showed lower concentrations of sAPPα and -β compared to AD. T-tau was increased in AD and HSV-1 encephalitis compared to all other groups. P-tau was higher in AD and HSV-1 encephalitis compared to bacterial meningitis, HAD and control. Decreased CSF Aβ(1-42), sAPPα and -β in various CNS infections imply an effect of neuroinflammation on amyloid metabolism which is similar in regard to AD concerning Aβ(1-42), but differs concerning sAPPα and -β. These results clearly indicate different pathologic pathways in AD and infectious CNS disease and may provide help in the differential biomarker diagnostics. Increased p-tau in HSV-1 encephalitis probably reflect acute neuronal damage and necrosis.
Journal of Neurology 10/2012; · 3.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy maintains HIV suppression in most patients who have achieved an undetectable viral load on combination antiretroviral treatment, and is increasingly used in the clinic. However, concerns have been raised about the effectiveness of ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r) monotherapy in the prevention of HIV replication in the central nervous system (CNS). Here we report the cases of 2 patients on darunavir/r maintenance monotherapy with cerebrospinal fluid viral breakthrough together with increased immunoactivation and biomarker signs of neuronal injury. These 2 cases raise concerns about the effectiveness of darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy in HIV CNS infection. Thus, we recommend caution with protease inhibitor monotherapy until CNS results have been obtained from clinical studies.
Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 07/2012; · 1.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: : To study the use of major and alternative coreceptors by HIV-1 isolates obtained from paired plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples.
: Paired plasma and CSF isolates from HIV-1-infected individuals with varying clinical, virologic, and immunologic parameters were assessed for the ability to infect indicator cells expressing a panel of coreceptors with documented expression in the central nervous system (CNS).
: HIV-1 isolates obtained from plasma and CSF in 28 individuals with varying viral load, CD4 T-cell counts, and with or without AIDS-defining disease were analyzed for the ability to infect NP2.CD4 cells stably expressing a panel of HIV coreceptors (CCR5, CXCR4, CCR3, CXCR6, GPR1, APJ, ChemR23, RDC-1 or BLT1).
: All isolates from both plasma and CSF utilized CCR5 and/or CXCR4. However, the ability to use both CCR3 and CCR5 (R3R5) was more pronounced in CSF isolates and correlated with high CSF viral load and low CD4 T-cell count. Notably, four out of five CSF isolates of subtype C origin exhibited CXCR6 use, which coincided with high CSF viral load despite preserved CD4 T-cell counts. The use of other alternative coreceptors was less pronounced.
: Dual-tropic R3R5 HIV-1 isolates in CSF coincide with high CSF viral load and low CD4 T-cell counts. Frequent CXCR6 use by CSF-derived subtype C isolates indicates that subtype-specific differences in coreceptor use may exist that will not be acknowledged when assessing plasma virus isolates. The findings may also bare relevance for HIV-1 replication within the CNS, and consequently, for the neuropathogenesis of AIDS.
AIDS (London, England) 06/2012; 26(14):1739-44. · 4.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: : To characterize HIV-infected patients with neurosymptomatic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 'escape', defined as detectable CSF HIV RNA in the setting of treatment-suppressed plasma levels or CSF RNA more than 1-log higher than plasma RNA.
: Retrospective case series.
: Four urban medical centers in the United States and Europe.
: Virologically controlled HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with progressive neurologic abnormalities who were determined to have CSF 'escape'.
: Optimization of ART based upon drug susceptibility and presumed central nervous system exposure.
: Levels of CSF HIV RNA and inflammatory markers, clinical signs and symptoms, and MRI findings.
: Ten patients presented with new neurologic abnormalities, which included sensory, motor, and cognitive manifestations. Median CSF HIV RNA was 3900 copies/ml (range 134-9056), whereas median plasma HIV RNA was 62 copies/ml (range <50 to 380). Median CD4 T-cell count was 482 cells/μl (range 290-660). All patients had been controlled to less than 500 copies/ml for median 27.5 months (range 2-96) and five of 10 had been suppressed to less than 50 copies/ml for median 19.5 months (range 2-96). Patients had documentation of a stable ART regimen for median 21 months (range 9-60). All had CSF pleocytosis or elevated CSF protein; seven of eight had abnormalities on MRI; and six of seven harbored CSF resistance mutations. Following optimization of ART, eight of nine patients improved clinically.
: The development of neurologic symptoms in patients on ART with low or undetectable plasma HIV levels may be an indication of CSF 'escape'. This study adds to a growing body of literature regarding this rare condition in well controlled HIV infection.
AIDS (London, England) 05/2012; 26(14):1765-74. · 4.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is a clinical and epidemiological problem because it may contribute to failure of antiretroviral treatment. The prevalence of TDR varies geographically, and its prevalence in Sweden during the last decade has not been reported. Plasma samples from 1,463 patients newly diagnosed with HIV-1 infection between 2003 and 2010, representing 44% of all patients diagnosed in Sweden during this period, were analyzed using the WHO 2009 list of mutations for surveillance of TDR. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses were used to determine genetic subtype and to investigate the relatedness of the sequences. Eighty-two patients showed evidence of TDR, representing a prevalence of 5.6% (95% CI: 4.5%-6.9%) without any significant time trends or differences between patients infected in Sweden or abroad. Multivariable logistic regression showed that TDR was positively associated with men who have sex with men (MSM) and subtype B infection and negatively associated with CD4 cell counts. Among patients with TDR, 54 (68%) had single resistance mutations, whereas five patients had multi-drug resistant HIV-1. Phylogenetic analyses identified nine significantly supported clusters involving 29 of the patients with TDR, including 23 of 42 (55%) of the patients with TDR acquired in Sweden. One cluster contained 18 viruses with a M41L resistance mutation, which had spread among MSM in Stockholm over a period of at least 16 years (1994-2010). Another cluster, which contained the five multidrug resistant viruses, also involved MSM from Stockholm. The prevalence of TDR in Sweden 2003-2010 was lower than in many other European countries. TDR was concentrated among MSM, where clustering of TDR strains was observed, which highlights the need for continued and improved measures for targeted interventions.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(3):e33484. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) was proposed as a plasma marker of enterocyte turnover that could be applied to estimate the level of gut damage in HIV-1 infected patients. We investigated the kinetics of I-FABP in patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a clinical cohort (CC) (n=32), and in a clinical trial (RCT), where patients were randomized to lopinavir/r (LPV/r) or efavirenz (EFV)-based therapy (n=71). I-FABP was analyzed at baseline (BL) and after 48 and 72 weeks of ART, respectively. Additionally we estimated levels of LPS and sCD14 in both cohorts. At baseline, we found elevated plasma levels of I-FABP, LPS, and sCD14 in patients with HIV-1 infection as compared to controls. During ART I-FABP levels increased from BL to week 48 (1.66 ng/ml [IQR 1.29-2.88] vs. 2.56 ng/ml [IQR 1.29-5.26]; p=0.02) in CC group. Similar pattern was seen in the RCT group at week 72 as compared to BL (2.26 ng/ml [IQR 1.4-3.6] vs 3.13 ng/ml [IQR 1.8-4.9]; p<0.0001). Levels of sCD14 decreased at the end of study period in both groups. The levels of LPS decreased in RCT cohort but not in CC cohort. Interestingly, we found that the I-FABP levels increased in both cohorts despite 48-72 weeks of efficient ART. A subgroup analysis of the RCT cohort revealed that the I-FABP increase occurred in the patients treated with EFV (2.32 ng/ml [IQR 1.5-3.8] vs. 4.29 ng/ml [IQR 2.4-5.9]; p<0.0001), but not in those with LPV/r. This finding was not confirmed in the CC group. The possibility of immune reconstitution in the gut as a cause of the increasing I-FABP levels seems to be less likely, as CD4 T-cell recovery tended to be lower in efavirenz-treated patients. In RCT cohort, the established MT markers lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and sCD14 were both reduced after 72 weeks (data not shown), supporting a reduced MT. Most likely the systemic I-FABP levels in patients on ART do not reflect only MT itself. Further studies should address this issue.
Journal of the International AIDS Society 01/2012; 15(6):18142. · 3.94 Impact Factor