[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here, we describe a novel missense mutation in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) causing a lysine-to-asparagine substitution at position 687 (APP770; herein, referred to as K16N according to amyloid-β (Aβ) numbering) resulting in an early onset dementia with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. The K16N mutation is located exactly at the α-secretase cleavage site and influences both APP and Aβ. First, due to the K16N mutation APP secretion is affected and a higher amount of Aβ peptides is being produced. Second, Aβ peptides carrying the K16N mutation are unique in that the peptide itself is not harmful to neuronal cells. Severe toxicity, however, is evident upon equimolar mixture of wt and mutant peptides, mimicking the heterozygous state of the subject. Furthermore, Aβ42 K16N inhibits fibril formation of Aβ42 wild-type. Even more, Aβ42 K16N peptides are protected against clearance activity by the major Aβ-degrading enzyme neprilysin. Thus the mutation characterized here harbours a combination of risk factors that synergistically may contribute to the development of early onset Alzheimer disease.
EMBO Molecular Medicine 04/2012; 4(7):647-59. · 7.80 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent years, human dendritic cells (DCs) could be subdivided into CD304+ plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) and conventional DCs (cDCs), the latter encompassing the CD1c+, CD16+, and CD141+ DC subsets. To date, the low frequency of these DCs in human blood has essentially prevented functional studies defining their specific contribution to antigen presentation. We have established a protocol for an effective isolation of pDC and cDC subsets to high purity. Using this approach, we show that CD141+ DCs are the only cells in human blood that express the chemokine receptor XCR1 and respond to the specific ligand XCL1 by Ca2+ mobilization and potent chemotaxis. More importantly, we demonstrate that CD141+ DCs excel in cross-presentation of soluble or cell-associated antigen to CD8+ T cells when directly compared with CD1c+ DCs, CD16+ DCs, and pDCs from the same donors. Both in their functional XCR1 expression and their effective processing and presentation of exogenous antigen in the context of major histocompatibility complex class I, human CD141+ DCs correspond to mouse CD8+ DCs, a subset known for superior antigen cross-presentation in vivo. These data define CD141+ DCs as professional antigen cross-presenting DCs in the human.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 06/2010; 207(6):1273-81. · 13.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The expression of the chemokine receptor XCR1 and the function of its ligand XCL1 (otherwise referred to as ATAC, lymphotactin, or SCM-1) remained elusive to date. In the present report we demonstrated that XCR1 is exclusively expressed on murine CD8(+) dendritic cells (DCs) and showed that XCL1 is a potent and highly specific chemoattractant for this DC subset. CD8(+) T cells abundantly secreted XCL1 8-36 hr after antigen recognition on CD8(+) DCs in vivo, in a period in which stable T cell-DC interactions are known to occur. Functionally, XCL1 increased the pool of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells and their capacity to secrete IFN-gamma. Absence of XCL1 impaired the development of cytotoxicity to antigens cross-presented by CD8(+) DCs. The XCL1-XCR1 axis thus emerges as an integral component in the development of efficient cytotoxic immunity in vivo.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Class I(B) phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma (PI3Kgamma) elicits various immunologic and cardiovascular responses; however, the molecular basis for this signal heterogeneity is unclear. PI3Kgamma consists of a catalytic p110gamma and a regulatory p87(PIKAP) (p87, also p84) or p101 subunit. Hitherto p87 and p101 are generally assumed to exhibit redundant functions in receptor-induced and G protein betagamma (Gbetagamma)-mediated PI3Kgamma regulation. Here we investigated the molecular mechanism for receptor-dependent p87/p110gamma activation. By analyzing GFP-tagged proteins expressed in HEK293 cells, PI3Kgamma-complemented bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) from p110gamma(-/-) mice, and purified recombinant proteins reconstituted to lipid vesicles, we elucidated a novel pathway of p87-dependent, G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-induced PI3Kgamma activation. Although p101 strongly interacted with Gbetagamma, thereby mediating PI3Kgamma membrane recruitment and stimulation, p87 exhibited only a weak interaction, resulting in modest kinase activation and lack of membrane recruitment. Surprisingly, Ras-GTP substituted the missing Gbetagamma-dependent membrane recruitment of p87/p110gamma by direct interaction with p110gamma, suggesting the indispensability of Ras for activation of p87/p110gamma. Consequently, interference with Ras signaling indeed selectively blocked p87/p110gamma, but not p101/p110gamma, kinase activity in HEK293 and BMMC cells, revealing an important crosstalk between monomeric and trimeric G proteins for p87/p110gamma activation. Our data display distinct signaling requirements of p87 and p101, conferring signaling specificity to PI3Kgamma that could open up new possibilities for therapeutic intervention.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2009; 106(48):20312-7. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The endothelin B (ET(B)) receptor can undergo a proteolytic cleavage resulting in an unglycosylated N-terminally truncated receptor. We investigated whether ET(B) receptor processing affects caveolar localisation and mitogenic signalling. Distinct subcellular localisations of ET(B) receptor constructs and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor ligands were analysed performing detergent-free caveolae preparations and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. ET(B) receptor-induced transactivation of the EGF receptor and its downstream signalling was investigated performing shedding assays and ERK1/2 phosphorylation analyses. In COS7 cells, the N-terminally truncated but not the full-length or glycosylation-deficient ET(B) receptor localised to caveolae. In caveolae-free HEK293 cells, only ET(B) receptor constructs fused to caveolin-2 localised to membrane microdomains. A caveolar accumulation of the ET(B) receptor disfavoured EGF receptor ligand shedding. Nonetheless, the activation of ERK1/2 was efficient and long-lasting. In HEK293 cells, the shedding activity was also impaired by N-terminal truncation. The subsequent ERK1/2 phosphorylation was long-lasting only for the full-length ET(B) receptor. We conclude that the ET(B) receptor localisation might depend on the presence of caveolae within the cell investigated. The data further suggest that caveolar enrichment of ET(B) receptors does not facilitate the release of EGF receptor ligands. However, independent of their localisation, ET(B) receptors are able to induce an ERK1/2 phosphorylation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proline-rich sequences (PRS) and their recognition domains have emerged as transposable protein interaction modules during eukaryotic evolution. They are especially abundant in proteins associated with pre-mRNA splicing and likely assist in the formation of the spliceosome by binding to GYF and WW domains. Here we profile PRS-mediated interactions of the CD2BP2/52K GYF domain by a site-specific peptide inhibitor and stable isotope labeling/mass spectrometry analysis. Several PRS hubs with multiple proline-rich motifs exist that can recruit GYF and/or WW domains. Saturating the PRS sites by an isolated GYF domain inhibited splicing at the level of A complex formation. The interactions mediated by PRS are therefore important to the early phases of spliceosomal assembly.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The method of fluorescence redistribution after photobleaching (FRAP) is increasingly receiving interest in biological applications as it is nowadays used not only to determine mobility parameters per se, but to investigate dynamic changes in the concentration or distribution of diffusing molecules. Here, we develop a new simple convolution-based approach to analyze FRAP data using the whole image information. This method does not require information about the timing and localization of the bleaching event but uses the first image acquired directly after photobleaching to calculate the intensity distributions, instead. Changes in pools of molecules with different velocities, which are monitored by applying repetitive FRAP experiments within a single cell, can be analyzed by means of a global model by assuming two global diffusion coefficients with changing portions. We validate the approach by simulation and show that translocation of the YFP-fused PH-domain of phospholipase Cdelta1 can be quantitatively monitored by FRAP analysis in a time-resolved manner. The new FRAP data analysis procedure may be applied to investigate signal transduction pathways using biosensors that change their mobility. An altered mobility in response to the activation of signaling cascades may result either from an altered size of the biosensor, e.g. due to multimerization processes or from translocation of the sensor to an environment with different viscosity.
Biophysics of Structure and Mechanism 03/2009; 38(5):649-61. · 2.44 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The molecular association between APP and its mammalian homologs has hardly been explored. In systematically addressing this issue, we show by live cell imaging that APLP1 mainly localizes to the cell surface, whereas APP and APLP2 are mostly found in intracellular compartments. Homo- and heterotypic cis interactions of APP family members could be detected by FRET and co-immunoprecipitation analysis and occur in a modular mode. Only APLP1 formed trans interactions, supporting the argument for a putative specific role of APLP1 in cell adhesion. Deletion mutants of APP family members revealed two highly conserved regions as important for the protein crosstalk. In particular, the N-terminal half of the ectodomain was crucial for APP and APLP2 interactions. By contrast, multimerization of APLP1 was only partially dependent on this domain but strongly on the C-terminal half of the ectodomain. We further observed that coexpression of APP with APLP1 or APLP2 leads to diminished generation of Abeta42. The current data suggest that this is due to the formation of heteromeric complexes, opening the way for novel therapeutic strategies targeting these complexes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma (PI3Kgamma) is activated by Gbetagamma release after stimulation of Galpha i -coupled receptors, involving a recruitment of the enzyme to the plasma membrane via interaction of the regulatory subunit p101 or p87 with Gbetagamma. The receptor-mediated release of Gbetagamma was, however, insufficient to elicit a translocation of p101 observable by classical fluorescence microscopy approaches. Since the mobilities of plasma membrane-associated and cytosolic proteins differ strongly, small changes in the amount of plasma membrane association should be detectable by an altered diffusional behavior. Here, changes in mobility were monitored by fluorescence redistribution after photobleaching (FRAP) which was repetitively applied before and after stimulation of cells. To combine the advantages of total internal reflection (TIR) illumination, which preferentially excites fluorophors located at or near the plasma membrane, with that provided by the mobility information, we developed a combined TIR/FRAP setup which enabled us to point bleach parts of an image that was observed under TIR illumination. For FRAP data analysis, we introduce a convolution-based method and a global two component model. Using this TIR/FRAP approach, an increased plasma membrane association of the fluorescent Gbetagamma-binding domain of p101 after Gbetagamma release by G protein-coupled receptor stimulation could be detected and quantified. By comparing the translocation efficiency of this domain with that of YFP-GRP1(PH), a biosensor for the PI3Kgamma product PI(3,4,5)P3, we evaluate the signal amplification between Gbetagamma release and PI(3,4,5)P3 formation after activation of Galpha i -coupled receptors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The expression of contractile proteins in vascular smooth muscle cells is controlled by still poorly defined mechanisms. A thrombin-inducible expression of smooth muscle-specific alpha-actin and myosin heavy chain requires transactivation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor and a biphasic activation of ERK1/2. Here we demonstrate that the sustained second phase of ERK1/2 phosphorylation requires de novo RNA and protein synthesis. Depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton by cytochalasin D or disruption of transit between the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus by brefeldin A prevented the second phase of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. We thus conclude that synthesis and trafficking of a plasma membrane-resident protein may be critical intermediates. Analysis of the expression of protease-activated receptor 1, heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF), and the EGF receptor revealed that pro-HB-EGF is significantly up-regulated upon thrombin stimulation. The kinetic of HB-EGF expression closely matched that of the second phase of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Because inhibition of matrix metalloproteases or of the EGF receptor strongly attenuated the late phase of ERK1/2 phosphorylation, the second phase of ERK1/2 activation is primarily relayed by shedding of EGF receptor ligands. The small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of HB-EGF expression confirmed an important role of HB-EGF expression in triggering the second phase of ERK1/2 activation. Confocal imaging of a yellow fluorescent protein-tagged HB-EGF construct demonstrates the rapid plasma membrane integration of the newly synthesized protein. These data imply that the hormonal control of contractile protein expression relies on an intermediate HB-EGF expression to sustain the signaling strength within the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK cascade.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2008; 283(38):25871-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: G protein-coupled receptors such as proteinase-activated receptor 1 induce phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases through multiple pathways including transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases. In vascular smooth muscle cells, both matrix-metalloproteinase-dependent extracellular shedding of membrane-bound epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor ligands and activation of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinases Pyk2 and Src contributed to the thrombin-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Surprisingly, disruption of the HB-EGF-mediated extracellular mode of EGF receptor transactivation also prevented the phosphorylation of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinases Pyk2 and Src, locating these kinases downstream of the transactivated EGF receptor. The ionomycin-induced Pyk2 phosphorylation was partially sensitive to AG1478, heparin, or the matrix-metalloproteinase inhibitor BB2116, and the ionomycin-induced EGF receptor phosphorylation was almost completely blocked by these inhibitors of extracellular transactivation. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed that, upon thrombin stimulation, a signaling complex consisting of Pyk2 and Src assembles at the EGF receptor. Reconstitution of the signaling molecules in HEK293 or vascular smooth muscle cells and subsequent determination of the EGF-induced Src kinase activity applying fluorescent sensor proteins demonstrated that a Ca(2+)-independent mode of Pyk2 activation is critical for the activation of Src downstream of the EGF receptor.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2008; 283(41):27748-56. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We found previously by fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments that amyloid precursor protein (APP) homodimerizes in living cells. APP homodimerization is likely to be mediated by two sites of the ectodomain and a third site within the transmembrane sequence of APP. We have now investigated the role of the N-terminal growth factor-like domain in APP dimerization by NMR, biochemical, and cell biological approaches. Under nonreducing conditions, the N-terminal domain of APP formed SDS-labile and SDS-stable complexes. The presence of SDS was sufficient to convert native APP dimers entirely into monomers. Addition of an excess of a synthetic peptide (APP residues 91-116) containing the disulfide bridge-stabilized loop inhibited cross-linking of pre-existing SDS-labile APP ectodomain dimers. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed that this peptide specifically bound to the N-terminal domain of APP and that binding was entirely dependent on the oxidation of the thiol groups. By solution-state NMR we detected small chemical shift changes indicating that the loop peptide interacted with a large protein surface rather than binding to a defined pocket. Finally, we studied the effect of the loop peptide added to the medium of living cells. Whereas the levels of alpha-secretory APP increased, soluble beta-cleaved APP levels decreased. Because Abeta40 and Abeta42 decreased to similar levels as soluble beta-cleaved APP, we conclude either that beta-secretase binding to APP was impaired or that the peptide allosterically affected APP processing. We suggest that APP acquires a loop-mediated homodimeric state that is further stabilized by interactions of hydrophobic residues of neighboring domains.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2008; 283(11):7271-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mammalian members of the classical transient receptor potential channel subfamily (TRPC) are Ca(2+)-permeable cation channels involved in receptor-mediated increases in intracellular Ca(2+). TRPC4 and TRPC5 form a group within the TRPC subfamily and are activated in a phospholipase C-dependent manner by an unidentified messenger. Unlike most other Ca(2+)-permeable channels, TRPC4 and -5 are potentiated by micromolar concentrations of La(3+) and Gd(3+). This effect results from an action of the cations at two glutamate residues accessible from the extracellular solution. Here, we show that TRPC4 and -5 respond to changes in extracellular pH. Lowering the pH increased both G protein-activated and spontaneous TRPC5 currents. Both effects were already observed with small reductions in pH (from 7.4 to 7.0) and increased up to pH 6.5. TRPC4 was also potentiated by decreases in pH, whereas TRPC6 was only inhibited, with a pIC(50) of 5.7. Mutation of the glutamate residues responsible for lanthanoid sensitivity of TRPC5 (E543Q and E595Q) modified the potentiation of TRPC5 by acid. Further evidence for a similarity in the actions of lanthanoids and H(+) on TRPC5 is the reduction in single channel conductance and dramatic increase in channel open probability in the presence of either H(+) or Gd(3+) that leads to larger integral currents. In conclusion, the high sensitivity of TRPC5 to H(+) indicates that, in addition to regulation by phospholipase C and other factors, the channel may act as a sensor of pH that links decreases in extracellular pH to Ca(2+) entry and depolarization.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2007; 282(46):33868-78. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TRPA1, a poorly selective Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel, is expressed in peripheral sensory neurons, where it is considered to contribute to a variety of sensory processes such as the detection of painful stimuli. Furthermore, TRPA1 was also identified in hair cells of the inner ear, but its involvement in sensing mechanical forces is still being controversially discussed. Amphipathic molecules such as trinitrophenol and chlorpromazine have been shown to provide useful tools to study mechanosensitive channels. Depending on their charge, they partition in the inner or outer sheets of the lipid bilayer, causing a curvature of the membrane, which has been demonstrated to activate or inhibit mechanosensitive ion channels. In the present study, we investigated the effect of these molecules on TRPA1 gating. TRPA1 was robustly activated by the anionic amphipathic molecule trinitrophenol. The whole-cell and single channel properties resemble those previously described for TRPA1. Moreover, we could show that the toxin GsMTx-4 acts on TRPA1. In addition to its recently described role as an inhibitor of stretch-activated ion channels, it serves as a potent activator of TRPA1 channels. On the other hand, the positively charged drug chlorpromazine modulates activated TRPA1 currents in a voltage-dependent way. The exposure of activated TRPA1 channels to chlorpromazine led to a block at positive potentials and an increased open probability at negative potentials. The variability in the shape of the I-V curve gives a first indication that native mechanically activated TRPA1 currents must not necessarily exhibit the same biophysical properties as ligand-activated TRPA1 currents.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2007; 282(10):7145-53. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by beta- and gamma-secretases leads to the generation of amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptides with varying lengths. Particularly Abeta42 contributes to cytotoxicity and amyloid accumulation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the precise molecular mechanism of Abeta42 generation has remained unclear. Here, we show that an amino-acid motif GxxxG within the APP transmembrane sequence (TMS) has regulatory impact on the Abeta species produced. In a neuronal cell system, mutations of glycine residues G29 and G33 of the GxxxG motif gradually attenuate the TMS dimerization strength, specifically reduce the formation of Abeta42, leave the level of Abeta40 unaffected, but increase Abeta38 and shorter Abeta species. We show that glycine residues G29 and G33 are part of a dimerization site within the TMS, but do not impair oligomerization of the APP ectodomain. We conclude that gamma-secretase cleavages of APP are intimately linked to the dimerization strength of the substrate TMS. The results demonstrate that dimerization of APP TMS is a risk factor for AD due to facilitating Abeta42 production.
The EMBO Journal 04/2007; 26(6):1702-12. · 9.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Free fatty acids (FFA) cause a rise in cytosolic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) and stimulate insulin release from pancreatic beta-cells. The G-protein coupled receptor GPR40 can be activated by medium- and long-chain FFA. We investigated a potential role for GPR40 in the generation of the FFA-induced Ca2+ signal and insulin secretion. [Ca2+]i was measured in primary mouse beta-cells and in INS-1 cells, and insulin secretion was assessed from INS-1 cells. GPR40 expression was determined by RT-PCR and downregulation of GPR40 expression by siRNA transfection was carried out in INS-1 cells. A number of saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated medium- and long-chain FFA caused a rise in [Ca2+]i both in primary mouse beta-cells and in INS-1 cells. By contrast, the short-chain saturated caproic acid was ineffective at concentrations up to 300 microM. In INS-1 cells, the FFA-induced Ca2+ signal required mobilization of internal Ca2+ and Ca2+ influx through voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels. RT-PCR analysis revealed that GPR40 is expressed in INS-1 cells. Downregulation of GPR40 by specific siRNA treatment lead to a significant inhibition of the FFA-induced [Ca2+]i response and insulin secretion, indicating that the FFA-stimulated Ca2+ signal and insulin secretion involve activation of GPR40 in pancreatic beta-cells.
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 02/2007; 263(1-2):173-80. · 4.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endothelin-1 (ET-1) both stimulates nociceptors and sensitizes them to noxious stimuli, an effect probably mediated by the ETA receptor (ETAR) expressed in sensory neurons. The cellular mechanisms of this ET-1-mediated effect are only poorly understood. TRPV1, the heat-, pH- and capsaicin-sensitive cation channel already known to be modulated by a number of cellular mediators released in response to noxious stimuli and during inflammation, is a potential target for the action of ET-1.
We studied the effects of ET-1 on TRPV1 in sensory neurons from the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and in HEK293 cells coexpressing TRPV1 and the ETAR. Specific 125I-ET-1 binding sites (817 +/- 92 fmol/mg) were detected in membrane preparations of DRG with an ETAR/ETBR ratio of 60:40. In an immunofluorescence analysis, coexpression of TRPV1 and the ETAR was found in a subpopulation of primary sensory neurons. ET-1 strongly potentiated capsaicin-induced TRPV1 currents in some neurons, and in HEK293 cells co-expressing TRPV1 and the ETAR. Weaker potentiation was observed in HEK293 cells coexpressing TRPV1 and the ETBR. ETAR activation also increased responses to low pH and heat. In HEK293 cells, strong potentiation of TRPV1 like that induced by ET-1 via the ETAR could be induced by PKC activation, but not with activators of the adenylyl cyclase or the PKA pathway. Furthermore, inhibition of PKC with bisindolylmaleimide X (BIM X) or mutation of the PKC phosphorylation site S800 completely prevented ETAR-mediated potentiation.
We conclude that ET-1 potentiates TRPV1 by a PKC-dependent mechanism and that this could play a major role in the algogenic and hyperalgesic effects of ET-1 described in previous studies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) gamma has been implicated in a vast array of physiological settings including the activation of different leukocyte species and the regulation of myocardial contractility. Activation of PI3Kgamma is primarily mediated by Gbetagamma subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins, which are recognized by a p101 regulatory subunit. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of a novel regulatory subunit of PI3Kgamma, which we termed p87(PIKAP) (PI3Kgamma adapter protein of 87 kDa). It is homologous to p101 in areas that we have recently shown that they mediate binding to the catalytic p110gamma subunit and to Gbetagamma. Like p101, p87(PIKAP) binds to both p110gamma and Gbetagamma and mediates activation of p110gamma downstream of G protein-coupled receptors. In contrast to p101, p87(PIKAP) is highly expressed in heart and may therefore be crucial to PI3Kgamma cardiac function. Moreover, p87(PIKAP) and p101 are both expressed in dendritic cells, macrophages, and neutrophils, raising the possibility of regulatory subunit-dependent differences in PI3Kgamma signaling within the same cell type. We further provide evidence that p87(PIKAP) physically interacts with phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3B, suggesting that p87(PIKAP) is also involved in the recently described noncatalytic scaffolding interaction of p110gamma with PDE3B. However, coexpression of PDE3B and PI3Kgamma subunits was not sufficient to reconstitute the regulatory effect of PI3Kgamma on PDE3B activity observed in heart, implying further molecules to be present in the complex regulating PDE3B in heart.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2006; 281(15):9977-86. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The TRPV4 cation channel exhibits a topology consisting of six predicted transmembrane domains (TM) with a putative pore loop between TM5 and TM6 and intracellular N- and C-tails, the former containing at least three ankyrin domains. Functional transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are supposed to result following the assembly of four subunits. However, the rules governing subunit assembly and protein domains implied in this process are only starting to emerge. The ankyrin, TM, and the C-tail domains have been identified as important determinants of the oligomerization process. We now describe the maturation and oligomerization of five splice variants of the TRPV4 channel. The already known TRPV4-A and TRPV4-B (delta384-444) variants and the new TRPV4-C (delta237-284), TRPV4-D (delta27-61), and TRPV4-E (delta237-284 and delta384-444) variants. All alternative spliced variants involved deletions in the cytoplasmic N-terminal region, affecting (except for TRPV4-D) the ankyrin domains. Subcellular localization, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, co-immunoprecipitation, glycosylation profile, and functional analysis of these variants permitted us to group them into two classes: group I (TRPV4-A and TRPV4-D) and group II (TRPV4-B, TRPV4-C, and TRPV4-E). Group I, unlike group II variants, were correctly processed, homo- and heteromultimerized in the endoplasmic reticulum, and were targeted to the plasma membrane where they responded to typical TRPV4 stimuli. Our results suggest that: 1) TRPV4 biogenesis involves core glycosylation and oligomerization in the endoplasmic reticulum followed by transfer to the Golgi apparatus for subsequent maturation; 2) ankyrin domains are necessary for oligomerization of TRPV4; and 3) lack of TRPV4 oligomerization determines its accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2006; 281(3):1580-6. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mammalian homologues of the Drosophila melanogaster transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are the second largest cation channel family within the superfamily of hexahelical cation channels. Most mammalian TRP channels function as homooligomers and mediate mono- or divalent cation entry upon activation by a variety of stimuli. Because native TRP channels may be multimeric proteins of possibly complex composition, it is difficult to compare cation conductances in native tissues to those of clearly defined homomeric TRP channel complexes in living cells. Therefore, the possibility of heteromeric TRP channel assembly has been investigated in recent years by several groups. As a major conclusion of these studies, most heteromeric TRP channel complexes appear to consist of subunit combinations only within relatively narrow confines of phylogenetic subfamilies. Although the general capability of heteromer formation between closely related TRP channel subunits is now clearly established, we are only beginning to understand whether these heteromeric complexes are of physiological significance. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the promiscuity and specificity of the assembly of channel complexes composed of TRPC-, TRPV- and TRPM-subunits of mammalian TRP channels.
Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 11/2005; 451(1):35-42. · 4.87 Impact Factor