[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We recently discovered that protein components of the RNA spliceosome form cytoplasmic aggregates in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, resulting in widespread changes in RNA splicing. However, the involvement of small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), also key components of the spliceosome complex, in the pathology of AD remains unknown. Using immunohistochemical staining of postmortem human brain and spinal cord we identified cytoplasmic tangle-shaped aggregates of snRNA in both sporadic and familial AD cases but not in aged controls or other neurodegenerative disorders. Immunofluorescence using antibodies reactive with the 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine cap of snRNAs and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated snRNA localization with tau and paired helical filaments, the main component of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Quantitative real time PCR showed U1 snRNA accumulation in the insoluble fraction of AD brains whereas other U snRNAs were not enriched. In combination with our previous results, these findings demonstrate that aggregates of U1 snRNA and U1 small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (U1-snRNPs) represent a new pathological hallmark of AD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia and has no cure. Genetic, cell biological, and biochemical studies suggest that reducing amyloid-β (Aβ) production may serve as a rational therapeutic avenue to delay or prevent AD progression. Inhibition of RhoA, a Rho GTPase family member, is proposed to curb Aβ production. However, a barrier to this hypothesis has been the limited understanding of how the principal downstream effectors of RhoA, Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK) 1 and ROCK2, modulate Aβ generation. Here, we report that ROCK1 knockdown increased endogenous human Aβ production, whereas ROCK2 knockdown decreased Aβ levels. Inhibition of ROCK2 kinase activity, using an isoform-selective small molecule (SR3677), suppressed β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) enzymatic action and diminished production of Aβ in AD mouse brain. Immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy analyses revealed that SR3677 alters BACE1 endocytic distribution and promotes amyloid precursor protein (APP) traffic to lysosomes. Moreover, SR3677 blocked ROCK2 phosphorylation of APP at threonine 654 (T654); in neurons, T654 was critical for APP processing to Aβ. These observations suggest that ROCK2 inhibition reduces Aβ levels through independent mechanisms. Finally, ROCK2 protein levels were increased in asymptomatic AD, mild cognitive impairment, and AD brains, demonstrating that ROCK2 levels change in the earliest stages of AD and remain elevated throughout disease progression. Collectively, these findings highlight ROCK2 as a mechanism-based therapeutic target to combat Aβ production in AD.
Journal of Neuroscience 12/2013; 33(49):19086-98. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many neurodegenerative disorders involve the abnormal accumulation of proteins. In addition to the pathologic hallmarks of neurofibrillary tangles and β-amyloid plaques in Alzheimer disease (AD), here we show that abnormal accumulations of gephyrin, an inhibitory receptor-anchoring protein, are highly correlated with the neuropathologic diagnosis of AD in 17 AD versus 14 control cases. Furthermore, gephyrin accumulations were specific for AD and not seen in normal controls or other neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson disease, corticobasal degeneration, and frontotemporal degeneration. Gephyrin accumulations in AD overlapped with β-amyloid plaques and, more rarely, neurofibrillary tangles. Biochemical and proteomic studies of AD and control brain samples suggested alterations in gephyrin solubility and reveal elevated levels of gephyrin lower-molecular-weight species in the AD insoluble fraction. Because gephyrin is involved in synaptic organization and synaptic dysfunction is an early event in AD, these findings point to its possible role in the pathogenesis of AD.
Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology. 10/2013;
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deposition of insoluble protein aggregates is a hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases. The universal presence of β-amyloid and tau in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has facilitated advancement of the amyloid cascade and tau hypotheses that have dominated AD pathogenesis research and therapeutic development. However, the underlying etiology of the disease remains to be fully elucidated. Here we report a comprehensive study of the human brain-insoluble proteome in AD by mass spectrometry. We identify 4,216 proteins, among which 36 proteins accumulate in the disease, including U1-70K and other U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (U1 snRNP) spliceosome components. Similar accumulations in mild cognitive impairment cases indicate that spliceosome changes occur in early stages of AD. Multiple U1 snRNP subunits form cytoplasmic tangle-like structures in AD but not in other examined neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Comparison of RNA from AD and control brains reveals dysregulated RNA processing with accumulation of unspliced RNA species in AD, including myc box-dependent-interacting protein 1, clusterin, and presenilin-1. U1-70K knockdown or antisense oligonucleotide inhibition of U1 snRNP increases the protein level of amyloid precursor protein. Thus, our results demonstrate unique U1 snRNP pathology and implicate abnormal RNA splicing in AD pathogenesis.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2013; · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thioredoxin (Trx) and GSH are the major thiol antioxidants protecting cells from oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity. Redox states of Trx and GSH have been used as indicators of oxidative stress. Accumulating studies suggest that Trx and GSH redox systems regulate cell signaling and metabolic pathways differently and independently during diverse stressful conditions. In the current study, we used a mass spectrometry-based redox proteomics approach to test responses of the cysteine (Cys) proteome to selective disruption of the Trx- and GSH-dependent systems. Auranofin (ARF) was used to inhibit Trx reductase without detectable oxidation of the GSH/GSSG couple, and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) was used to deplete GSH without detectable oxidation of Trx1. Results for 606 Cys-containing peptides (peptidyl Cys) showed that 36% were oxidized more than 1.3-fold by ARF, while BSO-induced oxidation of peptidyl Cys was only 10%. Mean fold oxidation of these peptides was also higher by ARF than BSO treatment. Analysis of potential functional pathways showed that ARF oxidized peptides associated with glycolysis, cytoskeleton remodeling, translation and cell adhesion. Of 60 peptidyl Cys oxidized due to depletion of GSH, 41 were also oxidized by ARF and included proteins of translation and cell adhesion but not glycolysis or cytoskeletal remodeling. Studies to test functional correlates showed that pyruvate kinase activity and lactate levels were decreased with ARF but not BSO, confirming the effects on glycolysis-associated proteins are sensitive to oxidation by ARF. These data show that the Trx system regulates a broader range of proteins than the GSH system, support distinct function of Trx and GSH in cellular redox control, and show for the first time in mammalian cells selective targeting peptidyl Cys and biological pathways due to deficient function of the Trx system.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) is a sirtuin family deacetylase that directs acetylome signaling, protects genome integrity, and is a murine tumor suppressor. We show that SIRT2 directs replication stress responses by regulating the activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9), a protein required for recovery from replication arrest. SIRT2 deficiency results in replication stress sensitivity, impairment in recovery from replication arrest, spontaneous accumulation of replication protein A to foci and chromatin, and a G2/M checkpoint deficit. SIRT2 interacts with and deacetylates CDK9 at lysine 48 in response to replication stress in a manner that is partially dependent on ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related (ATR) but not cyclin T or K, thereby stimulating CDK9 kinase activity and promoting recovery from replication arrest. Moreover, wild-type, but not acetylated CDK9, alleviates the replication stress response impairment of SIRT2 deficiency. Collectively, our results define a function for SIRT2 in regulating checkpoint pathways that respond to replication stress through deacetylation of CDK9, providing insight into how SIRT2 maintains genome integrity and a unique mechanism by which SIRT2 may function, at least in part, as a tumor suppressor protein.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2013; · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor that regulates cellular adaptation to metabolic stress. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine proteinase found in the intravascular space, where its main role is as thrombolytic enzyme, and in neurons, where its function is less well understood. Here, we report that glucose deprivation induces the mobilization and package of neuronal tPA into presynaptic vesicles. Mass spectrometry and immunohistochemical studies show that the release of this tPA in the synaptic space induces AMPK activation in the postsynaptic terminal, and an AMPK-mediated increase in neuronal uptake of glucose and neuronal adenosine 5'(tetrahydrogen triphosphate; ATP) synthesis. This effect is independent of tPA's proteolytic properties, and instead requires the presence of functional N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). In agreement with these observations, positron emission tomography (PET) studies and biochemical analysis with synaptoneurosomes indicate that the intravenous administration of recombinant tPA (rtPA) after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) induces AMPK activation in the synaptic space and NMDAR-mediated glucose uptake in the ischemic brain. These data indicate that the release of neuronal tPA or treatment with rtPA activate a cell signaling pathway in the synaptic space that promotes the detection and adaptation to metabolic stress.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 24 July 2013; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2013.124.
Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 07/2013; · 5.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The brain consists of diverse cell types including neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia. The isolation of nuclei from these distinct cell populations provides an opportunity to identify cell-type-specific nuclear proteins, histone modifications, and regulation networks that are altered with normal brain aging or neurodegenerative disease. In this study, we used a method by which intact neuronal and non-neuronal nuclei were purified from human post-mortem brain employing a modification of fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) termed fluorescence activated nuclei sorting (FANS). An antibody against NeuN, a neuron specific splicing factor, was used to isolate neuronal nuclei. Utilizing mass spectrometry (MS) based label-free quantitative proteomics, we identified 1755 proteins from sorted NeuN-positive and negative nuclear extracts. Approximately 20% of these proteins were significantly enriched or depleted in neuronal versus non-neuronal populations. Immunoblots of primary cultured rat neuron, astrocyte, and oligodendrocyte extracts confirmed that distinct members of the major nucleocytoplasmic structural linkage complex (LINC), nesprin-1 and nesprin-3, were differentially enriched in neurons and astrocytes, respectively. These comparative proteomic data sets also reveal a number of transcription and splicing factors that are selectively enriched in a cell-type-specific manner in human brain.
Journal of Proteome Research 06/2013; · 5.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Peripheral biomarkers to diagnose Alzheimer's Disease (AD) have not been established. Given parallels between neuron and platelet biology, we hypothesized platelet membrane-associated protein changes may differentiate patients clinically defined with probable AD from non-cognitive impaired controls. METHODS: Purified platelets, confirmed by flow cytometry were obtained from individuals before fractionation by ultracentrifugation. Following a comparison of individual membrane fractions by SDS-PAGE for general proteome uniformity, equal protein weight from the membrane fractions for five representative samples from AD and five samples from controls were pooled. AD and control protein pools were further divided into molecular weight regions by one dimensional SDS-PAGE, prior to digestion in gel. Tryptic peptides were analyzed by reverse phase liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Ionized peptide intensities were averaged for each identified protein in the two pools, thereby measuring relative protein abundance between the two membrane protein pools. Log2-transformed ratio (AD/control) of protein abundances fit a normal distribution, thereby permitting determination of significantly changed protein abundances in the AD pool. RESULTS: We report a comparative analysis of the membrane enriched platelet proteome between patients with mild-to-moderate AD and cognitively normal, healthy subjects. 149 proteins were determined significantly altered in the platelet membrane proteome from patients with probable AD. In particular, secretory (alpha) granule proteins were dramatically reduced in AD. Of these, we confirmed significant reduction of thrombospondin-1 (THBS1) in the AD platelet membrane proteome by immunoblotting. There was a high protein-protein connectivity of proteins in other pathways implicated by proteomic changes to the proteins that define secretory granules. CONCLUSIONS: Depletion of secretory granule proteins is consistent with a preponderance of post-activated platelets in circulation in AD. Significantly changed pathways implicate additional AD-related defects in platelet glycoprotein synthesis, lipid homeostasis, amyloidogenic proteins, and regulators of protease activity, many of which may be useful plasma membrane-expressed markers for AD. This study highlights the utility of LC-MS/MS to quantify human platelet membrane proteins and suggests that platelets may serve as a source of blood-based biomarkers in neurodegenerative disease.
Alzheimer's Research and Therapy 06/2013; 5(3):32. · 4.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many histone co-valent modifications have been identified and shown to play key regulatory roles in eukaryotic transcription, DNA damage repair and replication. In vitro experiments designed to understand the mechanistic role of individual modifications require the availability of substantial quantities of pure histones, homogeneously modified at specific residues. We have applied the amber stop codon/suppressor tRNA strategy to the production of histone H4 acetylated at lysine 16, a particularly important isoform of this histone. Our success relies on adapting the H4 DNA sequence to the codon preference of E. coli and on preventing the premature decay of the H4 mRNA. These modifications to the original procedure render it easily applicable to the generation of any co-valently modified histone H4 isoform.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability to sense and adapt to hypoxic conditions plays a pivotal role in neuronal survival. Hypoxia induces the release of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) from cerebral cortical neurons. We found that the release of neuronal tPA or treatment with recombinant tPA promotes cell survival in cerebral cortical neurons previously exposed to hypoxic conditions in vitro or experimental cerebral ischemia in vivo. Our studies using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry revealed that tPA activates the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, which adapts cellular processes to the availability of energy and metabolic resources. We found that mTOR activation leads to accumulation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and induction and recruitment to the cell membrane of the HIF-1α-regulated neuronal transporter of glucose GLUT3. Accordingly, in vivo positron emission tomography studies with 18-fluorodeoxyglucose in mice overexpressing tPA in neurons show that neuronal tPA induces the uptake of glucose in the ischemic brain and that this effect is associated with a decrease in the volume of the ischemic lesion and improved neurological outcome following the induction of ischemic stroke. Our data indicate that tPA activates a cell signaling pathway that allows neurons to sense and adapt to oxygen and glucose deprivation.
Journal of Neuroscience 07/2012; 32(29):9848-58. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a nuclear protein involved in RNA splicing and a major protein component in ubiquitin-positive, tau-negative inclusions of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Under disease conditions, TDP-43 redistributes to the cytoplasm where it can be phosphorylated, ubiquitinated, and proteolytically cleaved. Enzymes responsible for TDP-43 proteolytic processing in brain remain largely unreported. Using a MS approach, we identified two truncated TDP-43 peptides, terminating C-terminal to asparagines 291 (N291) and 306 (N306). The only documented mammalian enzyme capable of cleaving C-terminal to asparagine is asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP). TDP-43-immunoreactive fragments (~35 and 32 kDa) predicted to be generated by AEP cleavage at N291 and N306 were observed by Western blot analyses of postmortem frontotemporal lobar degeneration brain tissue and cultured human cells over-expressing TDP-43. Studies in vitro determined that AEP can directly cleave TDP-43 at seven sites, including N291 and N306. Western blots of brain homogenates isolated from AEP-null mice and wild-type littermate controls revealed that TDP-43 proteolytic fragments were substantially reduced in the absence of AEP in vivo. Taken together, we conclude that TDP-43 is cleaved by AEP in brain. Moreover, these data highlight the utility of combining proteomic strategies in vitro and in vivo to provide insight into TDP-43 biology that will fuel the design of more detailed models of disease pathogenesis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study is a discovery mode proteomics analysis of the membrane-enriched fraction of postmortem brain tissue from Alzheimer's disease (AD) and control cases. This study aims to validate a method to identify new proteins that could be involved in the pathogenesis of AD and potentially serve as disease biomarkers.
Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to analyze the membrane-enriched fraction of human postmortem brain tissue from five AD and five control cases of similar age. Biochemical validation of specific targets was performed by immunoblotting.
One thousand seven hundred and nine proteins were identified from the membrane-enriched fraction of frontal cortex. Label-free quantification by spectral counting and G-test analysis identified 13 proteins that were significantly changed in disease. In addition to Tau (MAPT), two additional proteins found to be enriched in AD, ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase 1 (UCHL1), and syntaxin-binding protein 1 (Munc-18), were validated through immunoblotting. DISCUSSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Proteomic analysis of the membrane-enriched fraction of postmortem brain tissue identifies proteins biochemically altered in AD. Further analysis of this subproteome may help elucidate mechanisms behind AD pathogenesis and provide new sources of biomarkers.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A hallmark of neurodegeneration is the aggregation of disease related proteins that are resistant to detergent extraction. In the major pathological subtype of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), modified TAR-DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43), including phosphorylated, ubiquitinated, and proteolytically cleaved forms, is enriched in detergent-insoluble fractions from post-mortem brain tissue. Additional proteins that accumulate in the detergent-insoluble FTLD brain proteome remain largely unknown. In this study, we used proteins from stable isotope-labeled (SILAC) human embryonic kidney 293 cells (HEK293) as internal standards for peptide quantitation across control and FTLD insoluble brain proteomes. Proteins were identified and quantified by liquid-chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and 21 proteins were determined to be enriched in FTLD using SILAC internal standards. In parallel, label-free quantification of only the unlabeled brain derived peptides by spectral counts (SC) and G-test analysis identified additional brain-specific proteins significantly enriched in disease. Several proteins determined to be enriched in FTLD using SILAC internal standards were not considered significant by G-test due to their low total number of SC. However, immunoblotting of FTLD and control samples confirmed enrichment of these proteins, highlighting the utility of SILAC internal standard to quantify low-abundance proteins in brain. Of these, the RNA binding protein PTB-associated splicing factor (PSF) was further characterized because of structural and functional similarities to TDP-43. Full-length PSF and shorter molecular weight fragments, likely resulting from proteolytic cleavage, were enriched in FTLD cases. Immunohistochemical analysis of PSF revealed predominately nuclear localization in control and FTLD brain tissue and was not associated with phosphorylated pathologic TDP-43 neuronal inclusions. However, in a subset of FTLD cases, PSF was aberrantly localized to the cytoplasm of oligodendrocytes. These data raise the possibility that PSF directed RNA processes in oligodendrocytes are altered in neurodegenerative disease.
Journal of Proteome Research 03/2012; 11(5):2721-38. · 5.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a major component within ubiquitin-positive inclusions of a number of neurodegenerative diseases that increasingly are considered as TDP-43 proteinopathies. Identities of other inclusion proteins associated with TDP-43 aggregation remain poorly defined. In this study, we identify and quantitate 35 co-aggregating proteins in the detergent-resistant fraction of HEK-293 cells in which TDP-43 or a particularly aggregate prone variant, TDP-S6, were enriched following overexpression, using stable isotope-labeled (SILAC) internal standards and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We also searched for differential post-translational modification (PTM) sites of ubiquitination. Four sites of ubiquitin conjugation to TDP-43 or TDP-S6 were confirmed by dialkylated GST-TDP-43 external reference peptides, occurring on or near RNA binding motif (RRM) 1. RRM-containing proteins co-enriched in cytoplasmic granular structures in HEK-293 cells and primary motor neurons with insoluble TDP-S6, including cytoplasmic stress granule associated proteins G3BP, PABPC1, and eIF4A1. Proteomic evidence for TDP-43 co-aggregation with paraspeckle markers RBM14, PSF and NonO was also validated by western blot and by immunocytochemistry in HEK-293 cells. An increase in peptides from methylated arginine-glycine-glycine (RGG) RNA-binding motifs of FUS/TLS and hnRNPs was found in the detergent-insoluble fraction of TDP-overexpressing cells. Finally, TDP-43 and TDP-S6 detergent-insoluble species were reduced by mutagenesis of the identified ubiquitination sites, even following oxidative or proteolytic stress. Together, these findings define some of the aggregation partners of TDP-43, and suggest that TDP-43 ubiquitination influences TDP-43 oligomerization.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(6):e38658. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Detergent-insoluble protein accumulation and aggregation in the brain is one of the pathological hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we describe the identification of septin 11 (SEPT11), an enriched component of detergent-resistant fractions in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions (FTLD-U), using large-scale unbiased proteomics approaches.
We developed and applied orthogonal quantitative proteomic strategies for the unbiased identification of disease-associated proteins in FTLD-U. Using these approaches, we proteomically profiled detergent-insoluble protein extracts prepared from frontal cortex of FTLD-U cases, unaffected controls, or neurologic controls (i.e. Alzheimer's disease; AD). Among the proteins altered specifically in FTLD-U, we identified TAR DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43), a known component of ubiquitinated inclusions. Moreover, we identified additional proteins enriched in detergent-resistant fractions in FTLD-U, and characterized one of them, SEPT11, in detail. Using independent highly sensitive targeted proteomics approaches, we confirmed the enrichment of SEPT11 in FTLD-U extracts. We further showed that SEPT11 is proteolytically cleaved into N-terminal fragments and, in addition to its prominent glial localization in normal brain, accumulates in thread-like pathology in affected cortex of FTLD-U patients.
The proteomic discovery of insoluble SEPT11 accumulation in FTLD-U, along with novel pathological associations, highlights a role for this cytoskeleton-associated protein in the pathogenesis of this complex disorder.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ubiquitination has essential roles in neuronal development and function. Ubiquitin proteomics studies on yeast and HeLa cells have proven very informative, but there still is a gap regarding neuronal tissue-specific ubiquitination. In an organism context, direct evidence for the ubiquitination of neuronal proteins is even scarcer. Here, we report a novel proteomics strategy based on the in vivo biotinylation of ubiquitin to isolate ubiquitin conjugates from the neurons of Drosophila melanogaster embryos. We confidently identified 48 neuronal ubiquitin substrates, none of which was yet known to be ubiquitinated. Earlier proteomics and biochemical studies in non-neuronal cell types had identified orthologs to some of those but not to others. The identification here of novel ubiquitin substrates, those with no known ubiquitinated ortholog, suggests that proteomics studies must be performed on neuronal cells to identify ubiquitination pathways not shared by other cell types. Importantly, several of those newly found neuronal ubiquitin substrates are key players in synaptogenesis. Mass spectrometry results were validated by Western blotting to confirm that those proteins are indeed ubiquitinated in the Drosophila embryonic nervous system and to elucidate whether they are mono- or polyubiquitinated. In addition to the ubiquitin substrates, we also identified the ubiquitin carriers that are active during synaptogenesis. Identifying endogenously ubiquitinated proteins in specific cell types, at specific developmental stages, and within the context of a living organism will allow understanding how the tissue-specific function of those proteins is regulated by the ubiquitin system.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: LR11, also known as SorLA, is a mosaic low-density lipoprotein receptor that exerts multiple influences on Alzheimer disease susceptibility. LR11 interacts with the amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) and regulates APP traffic and processing to amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). The functional domains of LR11 suggest that it can act as a cell surface receptor and as an intracellular sorting receptor for trans-Golgi network to endosome traffic. We show that LR11 over-expressed in HEK293 cells is radiolabeled following incubation of cells with [(32)P(i)]orthophosphate. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to discover putative LR11 interacting kinases. Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK) 2 was identified as a binding partner and a candidate kinase acting on LR11. LR11 and ROCK2 co-immunoprecipitate from post-mortem human brain tissue and drug inhibition of ROCK activity reduces LR11 phosphorylation in vivo. Targeted knockdown of ROCK2 with siRNA decreased LR11 ectodomain shedding while simultaneously increasing intracellular LR11 protein level. Site-directed mutagenesis of serine 2206 in the LR11 cytoplasmic tail reduced LR11 shedding, decreased LR11 phosphorylation in vitro, and abrogated LR11 mediated Aβ reduction. These findings provide direct evidence that LR11 is phosphorylated in vivo and indicate that ROCK2 phosphorylation of LR11 may enhance LR11 mediated processing of APP and amyloid production.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2011; 286(8):6117-27. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polyubiquitin chains on substrates are assembled through any of seven lysine residues or the N terminus of ubiquitin (Ub), generating diverse linkages in the chain structure. PolyUb linkages regulate the fate of modified substrates, but their abundance and function in mammalian cells are not well studied. We present a mass spectrometry-based method to measure polyUb linkages directly from total lysate of mammalian cells. In HEK293 cells, the level of polyUb linkages was found to be 52% (Lys(48)), 38% (Lys(63)), 8% (Lys(29)), 2% (Lys(11)), and 0.5% or less for linear, Lys(6), Lys(27), and Lys(33) linkages. Tissue specificity of these linkages was examined in mice fully labeled by heavy stable isotopes (i.e. SILAC mice). Moreover, we profiled the Ub linkages in brain tissues from patients of Alzheimer disease with or without concurrent Lewy body disease as well as three cellular models of proteolytic stress: proteasome deficiency, lysosome deficiency, and heat shock. The data support that polyUb chains linked through Lys(6), Lys(11), Lys(27), Lys(29), and Lys(48) mediate proteasomal degradation, whereas Lys(63) chains are preferentially involved in the lysosomal pathway. Mixed linkages, including Lys(48), may also contribute to lysosomal targeting, as both Lys(63) and Lys(48) linkages are colocalized in LC3-labeled autophagosomes. Interestingly, heat shock treatment augments Lys(11), Lys(48), and Lys(63) but not Lys(29) linkages, and this unique pattern is similar to that in the profiled neurodegenerative cases. We conclude that different polyUb linkages play distinct roles under the three proteolytic stress conditions, and protein folding capacity in the heat shock responsive pathway might be more affected in Alzheimer disease.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2011; 286(12):10457-65. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by behavioral abnormalities, personality changes, language dysfunction, and can co-occur with the development of motor neuron disease. One major pathological form of FTLD is characterized by intracellular deposition of ubiquitinated and phosphorylated TAR DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43), suggesting that dysregulation in phosphorylation events may contribute to disease progression. However, to date systematic analysis of the phosphoproteome in FTLD brains has not been reported. In this study, we employed immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC−MS/MS) to identify phosphopeptides from FTLD and age-matched control post-mortem human brain tissue. Using this approach, we identified 786 phosphopeptides in frontal cortex (control and FTLD), in which the population of phosphopeptides represented approximately 50% of the total peptides analyzed. Label-free quantification using spectral counts revealed six proteins with significant changes in the FTLD phosphoproteome. N-myc-Downstream regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) had an increased number of phosphospectra in FTLD, whereas microtubule associated protein 1A (MAP1A), reticulon 4 (RTN4; also referred to as neurite outgrowth inhibitor (Nogo)), protein kinase C gamma (PRKCG), and heat shock protein 90 kDa alpha, class A member 1(HSP90AA1) had significantly fewer phosphospectra compared to control brain. To validate these differences, we examined NDRG2 phosphorylation in FTLD brain by immunoblot analyses, and using a phosphoserine-13 (pSer13) GFAP monoclonal antibody we show an increase in pSer13 GFAP levels by immunoblot concomitant with increased overall GFAP levels in FTLD cases. These data highlight the utility of combining proteomic and phosphoproteomic strategies to characterize post-mortem human brain tissue.Keywords: frontotemporal dementia; phosphorylation; immobilized metal-affinity chromatography (IMAC); proteomics; neurodegeneration
Journal of Proteome Research 10/2010; 9(12). · 5.06 Impact Factor