Young Deok Cho

Soonchunhyang University, Onyang, South Chungcheong, South Korea

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Publications (135)392.55 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: It is sometimes difficult to incise the distal papillary roof (PR) completely in patients with choledocholiths and choledochoduodenal fistula (CDF). The Iso-Tome® (MTW-Endoskopie W. Haag KG), which is helpful in preventing electrical leakage, has good orientation capabilities and can be easily placed at the orifice of the CDF or ampulla of Vater (AV). We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) with the Iso-Tome® for cutting the distal PR.
    Gut and liver. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background and study aims: An endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) device using a core biopsy needle was developed to improve diagnostic accuracy by simultaneously obtaining cytological aspirates and histological core samples. We prospectively compared the diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNB with standard EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in patients with solid pancreatic masses. Patients and methods: Between January 2012 and May 2013, consecutive patients with solid pancreatic masses were prospectively enrolled and randomized to undergo EUS-FNB using a core biopsy needle or EUS-FNA using a standard aspiration needle at a single tertiary center. The specimen was analyzed by onsite cytology, Papanicolaou-stain cytology, and histology. The main outcome measure was diagnostic accuracy for malignancy. The secondary outcome measures were: the median number of passes required to establish a diagnosis, the proportion of patients in whom the diagnosis was established with each pass, and complication rates. Results: The overall accuracy of combining onsite cytology with Papanicolaou-stain cytology and histology was not significantly different for the FNB (n = 58) and FNA (n = 58) groups (98.3 % [95 %CI 94.9 % - 100 %] vs. 94.8 % [95 %CI 91.9 % - 100 %]; P = 0.671). Compared with FNA, FNB required a significantly lower median number of needle passes to establish a diagnosis (1.0 vs. 2.0; P < 0.001). On subgroup analysis of 111 patients with malignant lesions, the proportion of patients in whom malignancy was diagnosed on the first pass was significantly greater in the FNB group (72.7 % vs. 37.5 %; P < 0.001). Conclusions: The overall accuracy of FNB and FNA in patients with solid pancreatic masses was comparable; however, fewer passes were required to establish the diagnosis of malignancy using FNB.This study was registered on the UMIN Clinical Trial Registry (UMIN000014057).
    Endoscopy 08/2014; · 5.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Choledocholithiasis is one of the causes of jaundice and may require urgent treatment. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) has been the primary management strategy for choledocholithiasis. However, small stones can be overlooked during ERCP.
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences 07/2014; · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the diagnostic value of contrast (SonoVue(®)) enhancement ultrasonography (CEUS) and to compare this method with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluating liver masses. CEUS (n=50), CT (n=47), and MRI (n=43) were performed on 50 liver masses in 48 patients for baseline mass haracterization. The most likely impression for each modality and the final diagnosis, based on the combined biopsy results (n=14), angiography findings (n=36), and clinical course, were determined. The diagnostic value of CEUS was compared to those of CT and MRI. The final diagnosis of the masses was hepatocellular carcinoma (n=43), hemangioma (n=3), benign adenoma (n=2), eosinophilic abscess (n=1), and liver metastasis (n=1). The overall diagnostic agreement with the final diagnosis was substantial for CEUS, CT, and MRI, with κ values of 0.621, 0.763, and 0.784, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 83.3%, 87.5%, and 84.0%, respectively, for CEUS; 95.0%, 87.5%, and 93.8%, respectively, for CT; and 94.6%, 83.3%, and 93.0%, respectively for MRI. After excluding the lesions with poor acoustic sonographic windows, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for CEUS were 94.6%, 87.5%, and 93.3%, respectively, with a κ value of 0.765. If an appropriate acoustic window is available, CEUS is comparable to CT and MRI for the diagnosis of liver masses.
    Gut and Liver 05/2014; 8(3):292-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: There are few data supporting the diagnostic yield of brush cytology depending on the order of cytologic preparation method or the location or shape of tumors in biliary strictures. We investigated diagnostic yields and variations in brush cytology with direct smear and cell-block preparations according to sampling preparation sequence and tumor location and shape in biliary strictures. Methods: Patients who had undergone ERCP with tissue sampling between August 2009 and April 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Group A was examined using brush cytology with direct smear followed by cell-block with or without biopsy, while the reverse order was performed for group B. Results: Among 138 enrolled patients, 92 patients (A: 36, B: 56) underwent both brush cytology with direct smear and cell-block preparations. No differences in sensitivity, specificity, or accuracy were observed according to the sampling preparation method and the location or shape of tumors in biliary strictures. The cellularity observed from brush cytology with direct smear was better than that from cell-block according to the location of the tumor (p<0.01). The diagnostic yield was increased in both groups with addition of an endobiliary biopsy. Conclusions: No difference in diagnostic accuracy was observed between the sequences of preparation for brush cytology with direct smear and cell-block techniques. Brush cytology showed better cellularity for diagnosis. (Korean J Gastroenterol 2014;63:223-230).
    The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi 04/2014; 63(4):223-30.
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    ABSTRACT: Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) has been becoming the standard tool for acquiring pancreatic lesion tissue. However, a single cytologic or histologic evaluation is not satisfactory for diagnosis. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA for pancreatic solid masses and intra-abdominal lymph nodes using a triple approach. This study included patients undergoing evaluation for a solid pancreatic mass (n = 59) or intra-abdominal lymph nodes (n = 16) using EUS-FNA with a 22- or 25-gauge (G) needle, respectively. The specimens from each pass were analyzed by on-site cytology using Diff-Quick stain, cytology using Papanicolaou stain, and histology with immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. A total of 75 patients (49 males; mean age; 63.7 years) were included. The median number of needle pass for diagnosis of malignancy was 2.0, and there was no technical failure. The diagnostic accuracies with on-site cytology, cytology using Papanicolaou staining, and histology were 70.7, 80.0, and 80.0 %, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy using a triple approach was significantly greater than cytology using Papanicolaou staining alone (94.7 vs. 80.0 %; p = 0.007). In patients with malignant lesions, cytology identified 12 of 71 (16.9 %) malignant lesions that were not diagnosed by histology using IHC, and histology identified six (8.5 %) malignant lesions that were not diagnosed by cytology. On-site cytopathologic evaluation combined with cytologic and histologic analysis with IHC stain for one-pass specimen is considered to be able to increase the overall accuracy of EUS-FNA in pancreatic solid masses and lymph nodes.
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences 04/2014; · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A lumen-apposing stent can be used effectively under endosonographic guidance. To evaluate a newly designed, fully covered self-expandable metal stent with folding anchoring flanges for lumen apposition assembled on a conventional delivery system. Retrospective case series and animal study. Tertiary care academic medical centers. Six pigs for animal study and 7 patients, 3 of whom underwent endoscopic drainage for acute cholecystitis (AC) and 4 for pancreatic fluid collection (PFC). Stent deployment under EUS guidance after puncturing, passage of an endoscope through the stent into the gallbladder (GB), or PFC with conventional endoscopic procedures. Technical and clinical success, adverse events, and removability. In the animal study, the stent was successfully inserted and deployed in the GB via a transgastric approach under EUS guidance without adverse events in all 6 pigs. Contrast injection demonstrated the absence of leakage. Cholecystoscopy with enhanced endoscopy was performed successfully in all animals after stent placement. All stents were intact and were removed successfully at 4 weeks. GB firmly adhered to the stomach with an intact cholecystogastric tract on necropsy and histopathology. The stents were successfully deployed without adverse effects in 7 patients. AC or PFC was resolved after stent placement in all patients. Endoscopic procedures were possible through the stent. Stent migration was not observed. The stent was successfully removed from the 4 patients with PFC after complete resolution. Small sample size, retrospective study. Transenteric drainage and endoscopic intervention by using a novel fully covered self-expandable metal stent for lumen apposition under EUS guidance is feasible for the management of AC and PFC. Further study is warranted.
    Gastrointestinal endoscopy 04/2014; · 6.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous clinical trials to improve the success rate of biliary access in difficult biliary cannulation (DBC) during ERCP have been reported. However, standard guidelines or sequential protocol analysis according to different methods are limited in place. We planned to investigate a sequential protocol to facilitate selective biliary access for DBC during ERCP. This prospective clinical study enrolled 711 patients with naive papillae at a tertiary referral center. If wire-guided cannulation was deemed to have failed due to the DBC criteria, then according to the cannulation algorithm early precut fistulotomy (EPF; cannulation time > 5 min, papillary contacts > 5 times, or hook-nose-shaped papilla), double-guidewire cannulation (DGC; unintentional pancreatic duct cannulation >= 3 times), and precut after placement of a pancreatic stent (PPS; if DGC was difficult or failed) were performed sequentially. The main outcome measurements were the technical success, procedure outcomes, and complications. Initially, a total of 140 (19.7%) patients with DBC underwent EPF (n = 71) and DGC (n = 69). Then, in DGC group 36 patients switched to PPS due to difficulty criteria. The successful biliary cannulation rate was 97.1% (136/140; 94.4% [67/71] with EPF, 47.8% [33/69] with DGC, and 100% [36/36] with PPS; P < 0.001). The mean successful cannulation time (standard deviation) was 559.4 (412.8) seconds in EPF, 314.8 (65.2) seconds in DGC, and 706.0 (469.4) seconds in PPS (P < 0.05). The DGC group had a relatively low successful cannulation rate (47.8%) but had a shorter cannulation time compared to the other groups due to early switching to the PPS method in difficult or failed DGC. Post-ERCP pancreatitis developed in 14 (10%) patients (9 mild, 1 moderate), which did not differ significantly among the groups (P = 0.870) or compared with the conventional group (P = 0.125). Based on the sequential protocol analysis, EPF, DGC, and PPS may be safe and feasible for DBC. The use of EPF in selected DBC criteria, DGC in unintentional pancreatic duct cannulations, and PPS in failed or difficult DGC may facilitate successful biliary cannulation.
    BMC Gastroenterology 02/2014; 14(1):30. · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) after an endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is an option for endoscopic removal of large common bile duct (CBD) stones. However, risks or fear of severe adverse events remain. Our aim was to compare the safety and efficacy of delayed EPLBD after EST with concurrent EST and EPLBD in patients with acute cholangitis by large CBD stones. A total of sixty-eight patients with acute cholangitis from large CBD stones were enrolled in this prospective observational study. Thirty-five patients underwent concurrent EST and EPLBD at the same session (group A). Thirty-three patients underwent only EST at the first session, and EPLBD with stone removal was performed during a second session (group B). The complete stone removal rate and adverse events rate were analyzed. Both groups resulted in similar outcomes in terms of overall successful stone removal (100 % in both groups) and the use of additional lithotripsy (22.9 % in group A and 24.2 % in group B). Six patients (17.1 %) in group A had procedural-related adverse events including one patient with death by perforation, one with significant bleeding, and four with pancreatitis, including one moderate grade. However, there was no procedure-related complication in group B (p < 0.05). Delayed EPLBD after EST may reduce complications associated with EPLBD and extraction of large bile duct stones in patients with acute cholangitis.
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences 01/2014; · 2.26 Impact Factor
  • Endoscopy 01/2014; 46 Suppl 1:E161-2. · 5.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy (EBS) results in permanent loss of sphincter function and its long-term complications are unknown. Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) is an alternative procedure that preserves sphincter function, although it is associated with a higher risk of pancreatitis than is EBS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and outcomes of EPBD with limited indications for removal of common bile duct (CBD) stones combined with gallstones in patients younger than 40 years. Young (age < 40 years) patients who had CBD stones combined with gallstones on imaging studies were enrolled in this study. A total of 132 patients were randomly divided into the EPBD group (n = 62) or the EBS group (n = 70) for extraction of CBD stones. The ballooning size of EPBD ranged from 6 to 10 mm. Complete bile duct clearance was achieved in 98.4 % (61/62) of the EPBD group and 100 % (70/70) of the EBS group. Mechanical lithotripsy was required in 8.1 % (5/62) of the EPBD group and 8.6 % (6/70) of the EBS group. The early complication rates were 8.1 % (5/62) (five pancreatitis) in the EPBD group and 11.4 % (8/70) (five [7.1 %] pancreatitis, two bleeding and one perforation) in the EBS group. The recurrence rates of CBD stones were 1.6 % (1/62) in the EPBD group and 5.7 % (4/70) in the EBS group. EPBD with limited indications was safe and effective as EBS for removal of CBD stones combined with gallstones in young patients who had a longer life expectancy.
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences 11/2013; · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of sorafenib monotherapy on advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) in a clinical setting. In total, 143 consecutive patients with unresectable HCC were treated with sorafenib. Among these patients, 30 patients with advanced HCC and PVTT (Vp3 or 4) were treated with sorafenib monotherapy. All patients had a performance status of 1 to 2 (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 1/2, 20/10) and Child-Pugh class A or B (A/B, 17/13). Eleven patients had modified Union for International Cancer Control stage IVA tumors, whereas 19 had stage IVB tumors. All patients had PVTT (Vp3, 6; Vp4, 24). Following sorafenib monotherapy, three patients (10.0%) had a partial response with PVTT revascularization, and nine (30.0%) had stable disease, with a disease control rate of 33.3%. The median overall survival was 3.1 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.70 to 3.50), and the median progression-free survival was 2.0 months (95% CI, 1.96 to 2.05). Fatigue and hand-foot skin reactions were the most troublesome side effects. A limited proportion of patients with advanced HCC and PVTT exhibited a remarkable outcome after sorafenib monotherapy, although the treatment results in this type of patient is extremely poor. Further studies to predict good responders to personalized therapy are warranted.
    Gut and Liver 11/2013; 7(6):696-703.
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between portal hemodynamics and fundal varices has not been well documented. The purpose of this study was to understand the pathophysiology of fundal varices and to investigate bleeding risk factors related to the presence of spontaneous portosystemic shunts, and to examine the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) between fundal varices and other varices. In total, 85 patients with cirrhosis who underwent HVPG and gastroscopic examination between July 2009 and March 2011 were included in this study. The interrelationship between HVPG and the types of varices or the presence of spontaneous portosystemic shunts was studied. There was no significant difference in the HVPG between fundal varices (n=12) and esophageal varices and gastroesophageal varices type 1 (GOV1) groups (n=73) (17.1±7.7 mm Hg vs 19.7±5.3 mm Hg). Additionally, there was no significant difference in the HVPG between varices with spontaneous portosystemic shunts (n=28) and varices without these shunts (n=57) (18.3±5.8 mm Hg vs 17.0±8.1 mm Hg). Spontaneous portosystemic shunts increased in fundal varices compared with esophageal varices and GOV1 (8/12 patients [66.7%] vs 20/73 patients [27.4%]; p=0.016). Fundal varices had a high prevalence of spontaneous portosystemic shunts compared with other varices. However, the portal pressure in fundal varices was not different from the pressure in esophageal varices and GOV1.
    Gut and Liver 11/2013; 7(6):704-11.
  • Min Jeong Kim, Sang-Woo Cha, Young Deok Cho
    The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi 09/2013; 62(3):182-4.
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    ABSTRACT: Background and study aims: After endoscopic papillectomy, pancreatic duct stenting is important in preventing pancreatitis, but duct cannulation can be difficult following conventional snare resection. Pancreatic duct wire-guided endoscopic snaring before resection can reduce the post-procedure stenting failure rate. We evaluated the usefulness of this approach.Patients and methods: Pancreatic duct wire-guided endoscopic papillectomy was performed in 72 patients with ampullary adenoma. The snare loop was passed over a guide wire inserted into the pancreatic duct. After resection, a pancreatic stent was immediately placed along or alongside the guide wire.Results: Pancreatic duct stenting was successful in all patients after endoscopic papillectomy. Post-procedure pancreatitis occurred in 6/72 (8 %), but was mild and resolved with conservative treatment. Complete endoscopic resection of ampullary adenoma was achieved in 65/72 (90 %), with en bloc resection in 60/72 (83 %). There was no procedure-associated mortality. Follow-up (mean 23.7 months) showed recurrence in 5/65 (8 %) who had undergone complete resection. Conclusions: Pancreatic duct wire-guided endoscopic snare papillectomy for ampullary adenoma effectively facilitated pancreatic duct stenting to prevent severe post-procedure pancreatitis.
    Endoscopy 08/2013; · 5.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Identifying a bile duct (BD) stone in patients with acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP) is important for the management and prevention of recurrent attack of pancreatitis. However, small BD stones may not be detected on ERCP. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the usefulness of intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS) in patients suspected to have ABP but with no evidence of choledocholithiasis on ERCP. A total 92 patients suspected with ABP without evidence of BD stones on imaging studies including ERCP were enrolled. Wire guided IDUS was performed during ERCP in all patients. Stones or sludge detected by IDUS were confirmed after endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) and extraction. If IDUS finding was negative, then we swept the BD with a balloon catheter and/or basket without EST. After endoscopic management, comparison between IDUS and endoscopic finding was carried out to determine the diagnostic accuracy of IDUS. Among the 92 patients, IDUS revealed BD stones in 33 (35.9%). All 33 patients' stones were confirmed by endoscopic visualization after EST and BD exploration. During the mean follow-up of 24 months, recurrent pancreatitis did not occur in 90 of 92 patients (97.9%) with ABP after endoscopic treatment according to the IDUS findings. IDUS improves diagnostic accuracy for the detection of clinically occult BD stones in patients suspicious ABP. IDUS guided endoscopic management for patients with ABP can avoid unnecessary EST and help prevent recurrent pancreatitis.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 07/2013; · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The mechanism of pancreatitis development following endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) remains unknown. Antegrade dilation with percutaneous transhepatic papillary balloon dilation (PTPBD) allows the removal of bile duct stones or fragments during percutaneous choledochoscopic lithotomy, with less mechanical trauma to the papilla than with EPBD-mediated stone removal. METHODS: A total of 56 patients with bile duct stones underwent antegrade dilation with PTPBD from March 2006 to February 2011. A total of 208 patients with CBD stones underwent retrograde dilation with EPBD during the same period. The conditions of papillary balloon dilation were identical in both groups. The frequencies of pancreatitis and hyperamylasemia were compared in both groups. RESULTS: Pancreatitis occurred in 14 (6.7%) of 208 patients in the EPBD group (mild: nine, moderate: four, severe: one). There was no case of pancreatitis among 56 patients in the PTPBD group (P < 0.05). Hyperamylasemia developed in significantly more patients treated in the EPBD group (62, 29.8%) compared with the PTPBD group (4, 7.1%; P < 0.05). Complete bile duct clearance was achieved in 98.2% of PTPBD group and 97.1% of EPBD group. CONCLUSIONS: The rates of post-procedural pancreatitis and hyperamylasemia were significantly higher after retrograde dilation with EPBD than after antegrade dilation with PTPBD for the removal of bile duct stones. Although the mechanism of pancreatitis following papillary balloon dilation remains unclear, post-EPBD pancreatitis may be associated with procedures before and after balloon dilation similar to mechanical lithotripsy, rather than balloon dilation itself.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 05/2013; · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided celiac plexus neurolysis (EUS-CPN) is a well-established intervention to palliate malignant pain. We report a patient who developed hepatic and splenic infarction and bowel ischemia following EUS-CPN. A 69-year-old man with known lung cancer and pancreatic metastasis was transferred for debilitating, significant epigastric pain for several months. The patient underwent EUS-CPN to palliate the pain. After the procedure, the patient complained continuously of abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting; hematemesis and hematochezia were newly developed. Abdominal computed tomography revealed infarction of the liver and spleen and ischemia of the stomach and proximal small bowel. On esophagogastroduodenoscopy, hemorrhagic gastroduodenitis, and multiple gastric ulcers were noted without active bleeding. The patient expired on postoperative day 27 despite the best supportive care.
    Clinical endoscopy. 05/2013; 46(3):306-9.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Endoscopic management of recurrent bile duct stones after endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is effective and safe. However, repeat EST for extension of a previous EST for recurrent bile duct stones may involve substantial risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) without repeat EST for recurrent difficult bile duct stones after previous EST. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 2006 to October 2010, a total of 52 patients were enrolled; all had undergone EPLBD (balloon diameter: 12-20 mm) to remove recurrent difficult bile duct stones after previous EST. In all patients, stone removal had failed with conventional methods using a basket and/or balloon. The size of the balloon for EPLBD was selected to fit the diameter of the common bile duct or the largest stone. RESULTS: The median interval between initial EST and stone recurrence was 2.2 years (range 1-10). Median diameters of thelargest stone and balloon were 20.1 mm (range 12-40) and 14.7 mm (range 12-20), respectively. Complete stone removal was achieved in all patients (100%). The median number of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography sessions needed for complete stone removal was 1.6 (range 1-3). Additional lithotripsy was required in 16 patients (30.7%). No procedure-related complications were documented, with the exception of four cases of asymptomatic hyperamylasemia. The recurrence rate of CBD stones after bile duct clearance was 17.3% (9/52) during the follow-up period (mean 27.0 ± 14.1 months). CONCLUSIONS: EPLBD without repeat EST is effective and relatively safe for the extraction of recurrent difficult bile duct stones after previous EST.
    Digestive Endoscopy 04/2013; · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUNDAIMS: Endoscopic ultrasound elastography (EUS-EG) has been widely used for the evaluation of pancreatic cancer in the Western world. To date, there is very little experience with EUS-EG in Korea. We described the results of comparison between normal pancreas and pancreatic cancer in Korea. The present study was performed at a tertiary hospital on 35 subjects comprising 20 with normal pancreas (control group) and 15 with pancreatic cancer (disease group). We compared the EUS-EG performance of the two groups. The pancreas in the control group showed a mean elasticity value of 0.53% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45 to 0.61). The elasticity value was higher than that previously reported from Western country (0.47%; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.57). In the disease group, the mean elasticity value of pancreatic lesions was 0.02% (95% CI, 0.01 to 0.02). The mean elasticity value of the disease group was significantly lower than that of the control group (p<0.0001). EUS-EG could be a highly sensitive diagnostic modality for pancreatic cancer in Korea with little EUS-EG experience. We also provided the reference range of elasticity value of normal pancreas, which might be valuable in the interpretation of pancreatic elasticity data for Korean adults.
    Clinical endoscopy. 03/2013; 46(2):172-7.

Publication Stats

671 Citations
392.55 Total Impact Points


  • 2005–2014
    • Soonchunhyang University
      • College of Medicine
      Onyang, South Chungcheong, South Korea
  • 2001–2013
    • Soon Chun Hyang University Hospital
      • Department of Gastroenterology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2012
    • Konkuk University Medical Center
      Changnyeong, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 2006
    • Gachon University
      • Gil Medical Center
      Seongnam, Gyeonggi, South Korea