Se-Jung Lee

Chung-Ang University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (21)61.51 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Inflammatory cytokines may be a critical component of epithelial cancer progression. We examined the role of interleukin (IL)-5 in the migration of bladder cancer cells. The expression of IL-5 and its receptor IL-5Rα was enhanced in patients with muscle invasive bladder cancers (MIBC), and then it was detected in bladder cancer cell lines 5637 and T-24. IL-5 increased migration and MMP-9 expression via activation of transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1, and induced activation of ERK1/2 and Jak-Stat signaling in both cells. Treatment with ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 significantly inhibited induction of migration, MMP-9 expression, and activation of NF-κB and AP-1 in IL-5-treated cells. However, none of the Jak inhibitors affected the IL-5-induced migration of bladder cancer cells. Moreover, gene knockdown for IL-5Rα, using siRNA transfection, suppressed migration, ERK1/2 activation, MMP-9 expression, as well as the binding activation of NF-κB and AP-1 in IL-5-treated bladder cancer cells. Similar results were observed in βc siRNA (si-βc) transfected cells. Unexpectedly, IL-5 treatment resulted in significant induction of p21WAF1 in both cell lines. The p21WAF1-specific small interfering RNA inhibited IL-5-induced cell migration, ERK activity, MMP-9 expression, and activation of NF-κB and AP-1 in bladder cancer cells. The effects of IL-5-induced cell responses were confirmed by transfection of IL-5 gene, which demonstrated that p21WAF1 participates in the induction of cell migration, leading to an increase in ERK1/2-mediated MMP-9 expression through activation of NF-κB and AP-1 in IL-5-treated bladder cancer cells. These unexpected results provide a theoretical basis for the therapeutic targeting of IL-5 in bladder cancer.
    Cellular signalling 06/2013; · 4.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The thorns of Gleditsia sinensis are a traditional Oriental medicine used for the treatment of swelling, suppuration, carbuncle and skin diseases. In the present study, we identified a novel molecular mechanism by which an ethanol extract of Gleditsia sinensis thorns (EEGS) inhibits the growth of the SNU-5 human gastric cancer cell line. EEGS treatment inhibited cell growth and was associated with G1 phase cell cycle arrest at a concentration of 400 µg/ml (IC50) in SNU-5 cells. Treatment with EEGS also stimulated p21WAF1 expression, which significantly decreased the expression of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Further study suggested that p38 MAP kinase pathways may be involved in the inhibition of cell proliferation through p21WAF1‑dependent G1 phase cell cycle arrest in EEGS-treated cells. In addition, NF-κB and AP-1 transcription factor binding sites were identified as the cis-elements for tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression in SNU-5 cells, as determined by gel-shift assay. Treatment of cells with EEGS suppressed MMP-9 expression induced by TNF-α via a decrease in the binding activity of both NF-κB and AP-1 motifs. These data demonstrate that EEGS-mediated inhibition of cell growth appears to involve the activation of p38 MAP kinase, subsequently leading to the induction of p21WAF1 and the downregulation of cyclin D1/CDK4 and cyclin E/CDK2 complexes. Moreover, EEGS strongly inhibited TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression by impeding the DNA binding activity of NF-κB and AP-1. Overall, these results provide a potential mechanism for EEGS in the treatment of gastric cancer.
    Oncology Reports 02/2013; · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of inflammatory cytokine interleukin-20 (IL-20) has not yet been studied in cancer biology. Here, we demonstrated up-regulation of both IL-20 and IL-20R1 in muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) patients. The expressions of IL-20 and IL-20R1 were observed in bladder cancer 5637 and T-24 cells. We found that IL-20 significantly increased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 via binding activity of NF-κB and AP-1 in bladder cancer cells and stimulated the activation of ERK1/2, JNK, p38MAPK, and Jak-Stat signaling. Among the pathways examined, only ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 significantly inhibited IL-20-induced migration and invasion. Moreover, siRNA knockdown of IL-20R1 suppressed migration, invasion, ERK1/2 activation, and NF-κB-mediated MMP-9 expression induced by IL-20. Unexpectedly, cell cycle inhibitor p21WAF1 was induced by IL-20 treatment without altering cell cycle progression. Blockade of p21WAF1 function by siRNA reversed migration, invasion, activation of ERK signaling, MMP-9 expression, and activation of NF-κB in IL-20-treated cells. In addition, IL-20 induced the activation of IKK, the degradation and phosphorylation of IκBa, and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation, which was regulated by ERK1/2. IL-20 stimulated the recruitment of p65 to the MMP-9 promoter region. Finally, the IL-20-induced migration and invasion of cells was confirmed by IL-20 gene transfection and by addition of anti-IL-20 antibody. This is the first report that p21WAF1 is involved in ERK1/2-mediated MMP-9 expression via increased binding activity of NF-κB, which resulted in the induction of migration in IL-20/IL-20R1 dyad-induced bladder cancer cells. These unexpected results might provide a critical new target for the treatment of bladder cancer.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2012; · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Se-Jung Lee, Wun-Jae Kim, Sung-Kwon Moon
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    ABSTRACT: Although interleukin-28A (IL-28A) is believed to have an antiviral effect, its role in tumor migration requires further examination. The present study was intended to verify the effect of IL-28A on the migration of UMUC-3 bladder cancer cells. IL-28A and its receptor IL-28AR1 mRNA were detected in UMUC-3 cells. Although exogenous IL-28A showed no effect on cell proliferation, a wound-healing migration assay showed that the migration of UMUC-3 cells was induced by IL-28A. Furthermore, treatment of the cells with IL-28A significantly promoted MMP-9 expression via binding activities of NF-κB and AP-1. IL-28A also induced the activation of p38 MAPK and Jak2-Stat2 signaling. Using the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 and the dominant-negative plasmid DN-p38, we found evidence that the inhibition of p38 MAPK signaling suppressed the effects of IL-28A including wound-healing migration and MMP-9 expression by activation of NF-κB and AP-1 binding in UMUC-3 cells. However, Jak-2 inhibition by AG490 did not affect IL-28A-induced migration of UMUC-3 cells. Collectively, we suggest for the first time that the p38 MAPK pathway mediates IL-28A-induced cell migration through MMP-9 expression by activating NF-κB and AP-1 binding motifs.
    International Journal of Molecular Medicine 07/2012; · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-28A, also called IFN-λ2, is a member of the classIIcytokine family and has demonstrated anti-proliferative and anti-viral signals. The present study demonstrated migration inducement of IL-28A-treated bladder cancer cells - a novel function. RNA microarray analysis showed an enhanced expression of IL-28A and its receptor IL-28AR1 in muscle invasive urothelial carcinoma in a human bladder. Strong expression of IL-28A and IL-28AR1 was detected in bladder cancer tissues and cell lines (5637, T-24, and HT1376 cells), as determined by real-time PCR and immunoblot analysis. IL-28A treatment induced migration of bladder cancer cells, independent of the cell growth. IL-28AR1-specific small interfering RNA (si-IL-28AR1) inhibited the induction of migration in IL-28A-treated cells. IL-28A treatment stimulated the expression of matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) via activation of transcription factor NF-κB. Gene knockdown for MMP-9 and the p65 subunit of NF-κB, using siRNA transfection, suppressed wound healing migration in IL-28A-treated bladder cancer cells. Also, treatment with IL-28A induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in bladder cancer cells. MAPK function blockage by a MAPK-specific inhibitor showed that MAPK phosphorylation is required for IL-28A-induced MMP-9 expression through activation of NF-κB. The transient transfection of bladder cancer cells with ERK1/2 knock down (si-ERK1/2) and dominant negative p38 (DNp38) suppressed IL-28A-induced migration. IL-28A-induced induction of MMP-9 expression, MAPK activation, and DNA binding activity of NF-κB was abolished in the presence of IL-28A neutralizing antibody or by transfection of si-IL-28AR1. These results show that IL-28A/IL-28AR1 dyad-induced wound healing migration requires NF-κB-mediated MMP-9 expression by MAPK activation.
    Cellular signalling 04/2012; 24(9):1734-42. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We used gene expression profiling to identify inflammatory cytokines that correlate with bladder cancer development. Gene expression profiles of the tissue samples were investigated using cDNA microarrays that contained 103 non-muscle invasive bladder cancers (NMIBC), 62 muscle invasive bladder cancers (MIBC), 58 samples of histologically normal-looking surrounding tissues, and 10 normal, healthy subjects who served as the control cohort for comparison. We grouped the data-sets according to biological characterizations and focused on immune response genes with at least 2-fold differential expression in MIBC vs. controls. The experimental data-set identified 36 immune-related genes that were significantly altered in MIBC samples. In addition, 10 genes were up-regulated and 26 genes were down-regulated in MIBC samples compared with the normal tissues. Among the 10 up-regulated molecules examined, the capacity for both wound-healing migration and invasion was enhanced in response to IL-5, IL-20, and IL-28A in bladder cancer cell lines (253J and EJ cells), compared with untreated cells. The expression levels of IL-5, IL-20, and IL-28A were increased in patients with MIBC. All 3 cytokines and their receptors were produced in bladder cancer cell lines, as determined by real-time PCR, immunoblot analysis and confocal immunofluorescence. Up-regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was found after IL-5, IL-20, and IL-28A stimulation in both cell types. Moreover, an EMSA assay showed that treatment with IL-5, IL-20, and IL-28A induced activation of the transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1 that regulate the MMP-9 promoter. Finally, activation of MAPK and Jak-Stat signaling was observed after the addition of IL-5, IL-20, and IL-28A to bladder cancer cells. This study suggests the presence of specific inflammatory cytokine (IL-5, IL-20, and IL-28A)-mediated association in bladder cancer development. All 3 cytokines may be important new molecular targets for the modulation of migration and invasion in bladder cancer.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(9):e40267. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The thorns of Gleditsia sinensis, which are extensively used as a medicinal herb in Asian countries, have been reported to exert various pharmacological effects. However, the anti-atherogenic effect of Gleditsia sinensis thorns has never been investigated. In the present study, we investigated the role and effect of the ethanol extract of Gleditsia sinensis thorns (EEGS) on cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Treatment of VSMC with EEGS led to a significant decrease in cell growth by arresting cells in the G2/M-phase of the cell cycle, which was associated with up-regulated p21WAF1 levels and suppression of G2/M cell cycle regulators, cyclinB1, Cdc2 and Cdc25c. In addition, EEGS treatment led to the induction of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2), p38 MAPK, and JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinases) activation. EEGS-induced p21WAF1 expression was blocked by treatment with the p38 MAPK-specific inhibitor SB203580. SB203580 also markedly recovered the inhibition of cell growth and decrease in cell cycle proteins in EEGS-treated VSMC. Moreover, EEGS inhibited matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression induced by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in VSMC. Finally, an electrophoresis mobility shift assay demonstrated that EEGS suppressed expression of transcription factor, nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1), which are essential cis-elements for the MMP-9 promoter in TNF-α-treated VSMC. These results demonstrate that EEGS exerts a potent inhibitory effect on cell proliferation and MMP-9 expression in VSMC. These unexpected novel findings represent theoretical data for the preventive and therapeutic use of EEGS for the treatment of atherosclerosis disease.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 01/2012; 40(2):373-86. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Esculetin, a potent non-competitive inhibitor of lipoxygenase, has been shown to inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. However, the effect of esculetin on the matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) regulation responsible for cell migration and invasion has not been previously investigated. The results of the present study showed the esculetin (12.5-25 µg/ml) induced the inhibition of migration and invasion in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-treated VSMC, as demonstrated by a matrigel invasion assay and wound healing analysis. However, esculetin did not affect cell viability in TNF-α-treated VSMC under 0-25 µg/ml concentration conditions. In addition, both zymographic and immunoblot experiments showed that esculetin suppressed the TNF-α-induced expression of MMP-9 in VSMC in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the treatment of cells with esculetin decreased the activity of the TNF-α-induced MMP-9 promoter, which was driven by a luciferase reporter. Finally, esculetin reduced the binding activities of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1), which are cis-elements present in the promoter of the MMP-9 gene, in TNF-α-treated VSMC. Taken together, these results demonstrated that esculetin decreased the migration and invasion of cells by suppressing MMP-9 expression, which subsequently reduced the binding activities of NF-κB and AP-1 in TNF-α-treated VSMC. These novel findings provide basic information for effective therapeutic treatment with esculetin for atherosclerotic disease.
    Molecular Medicine Reports 03/2011; 4(2):337-41. · 1.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The thorns of Gleditsia sinensis are used as a medicinal herb in China and Korea. However, the mechanisms responsible for the antitumor effects of the water extract of Gleditsia sinensis thorns (WEGS) remain unknown. HCT116 cells treated with the WEGS at a dose of 800 μg/mL (IC₅₀) showed a significant decrease in cell growth and an increase in cell cycle arrest during the G2/M-phase. G2/M-phase arrest was correlated with increased p53 levels and down-regulation of the check-point proteins, cyclinB1, Cdc2 and Cdc25c. In addition, treatment with WEGS induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 MAP kinase and JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinases). Moreover, inhibition of ERK by treatment of cells with the ERK-specific inhibitor PD98059 blocked WEGS-mediated p53 expression. Similarly, blockage of ERK function in the WEGS-treated cells reversed cell-growth inhibition and decreased cell cycle proteins. Finally, in vivo WEGS treatment significantly inhibited the growth of HCT116 tumor cell xenografts in nude mice with no negative side effects, including loss of body weight. These results describe the molecular mechanisms whereby the WEGS might inhibit proliferation of colon cancer both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that WEGS has potential as an anticancer agent for the treatment of malignancies.
    Phytotherapy Research 12/2010; 24(12):1870-6. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Decursin, a pyranocoumarin isolated from the Korean Angelica gigas root, has demonstrated anti-cancer properties. In the present study, we found that decursin inhibited cell viability in cultured human urinary bladder cancer 235J cells and colon cancer HCT116 cells. The inhibited proliferation was due to apoptotic induction, because both cells treated with decursin dose-dependently showed a sub-G1 phase accumulation and an increased cytoplasmic DNA-histone complex. Cell death caused by decursin was also associated with the down-regulation of anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 and the up-regulation of pro-apoptotic molecules cytochrome c, caspase 3 and Bax. Treatment of both types of cancer cells with decursin resulted in G1-phase cell cycle arrest, as revealed by FACS analyses. In addition, decursin increased protein levels of p21WAF1 with a decrease in cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs). Furthermore, decursin induced the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) in both cancer cell lines, with the notable exceptions of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase. Finally, pretreatment with ERK-specific inhibitor PD98059 reversed decursin-induced p21WAF1 expression and decursin-inhibited cell growth. Thus, these findings suggest that decursin has potential therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of bladder and colon cancer.
    International Journal of Molecular Medicine 04/2010; 25(4):635-41. · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The thorns of Gleditsia sinensis have traditionally been used in the treatment of several diseases, which includes their use as anti-tumor agents, but there has been no scientific evidence of this anti-tumor effect. However, the present study has identified a novel mechanism for the anti-tumor effect of Gleditsia sinensis thorns in the treatment of colon cancer. Treatment with the ethanol extract of Gleditsia sinensis thorns (EEGS) resulted in significant growth inhibition together with G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest at a dose of 600 microg/ml (IC50) in HCT116 cells. In addition, treatment with EEGS induced p27 expression and down-regulated expression of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases. Moreover, EEGS treatment induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), p38 MAP kinase and JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinases). Among the pathways examined, only PD98059 (ERK-specific inhibitor) abolished EEGS-dependent p27 expression. Similarly, suppression of ERK function reversed EEGS-mediated cell proliferation inhibition and decreased cell cycle proteins. In addition, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression was inhibited by EEGS treatment via decreased transcriptional activity of both activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor-kappaB. Finally, EEGS treatment significantly reduced tumor sizes in HCT116 cell-xenografted tumor tissues, which was associated with the changed levels of ERK phosphorylation, p27 and MMP-9 expression. Overall, these results have identified a novel molecular mechanism for EEGS in the treatment of colon cancer and might provide a theoretical basis for the potential therapeutic use of EEGS in the treatment of malignancies.
    Oncology Reports 12/2009; 22(6):1505-12. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine), a bioactive compound of Cordyceps militaris, has many pharmacological activities. The present study reveals novel molecular mechanisms for the anti-tumor effects of cordycepin in two different bladder cancer cell lines, 5637 and T-24 cells. Cordycepin treatment, at a dose of 200 microM (IC(50)) during cell-cycle progression resulted in significant and dose-dependent growth inhibition, which was largely due to G2/M-phase arrest, and resulted in an up-regulation of p21WAF1 expression, independent of the p53 pathway. Moreover, treatment with cordycepin-induced phosphorylation of JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinases). Blockade of JNK function using SP6001259 (JNK-specific inhibitor) and small interfering RNA (si-JNK1) rescued cordycepin-dependent p21WAF1 expression, inhibited cell growth, and decreased cell cycle proteins. These results suggest that cordycepin could be an effective treatment for bladder cancer.
    Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 10/2009; 490(2):103-9. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) has many anti-cancer properties. However, neither its molecular mechanism nor its molecular targets are well understood. In the present study, we investigated novel molecular mechanisms for the anti-tumor effects of cordycepin in human colon cancer HCT116 cells. After treatment of cells with cordycepin, dose-dependent cell growth inhibition was observed at an IC(50) value of 200muM. Cordycepin treatment resulted in G2/M-phase cell-cycle arrest, which was associated with increased p21WAF1 levels and reduced amounts of cyclin B1, Cdc2, and Cdc25c in a p53-independent pathway. Moreover, cordycepin treatment induced activation of JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinases). Pretreatment with SP600125, a JNK-specific inhibitor, abrogated cordycepin-mediated p21WAF1 expression, cell growth inhibition, and reduced cell-cycle proteins. Furthermore, JNK1 inhibition by small interfering RNA (siRNA) produced similar results: suppression of cordycepin-induced p21WAF1 expression, decreased cell growth, and reduced cell-cycle proteins. Together, these results suggest a critical role for JNK1 activation in cordycepin-induced inhibition of cell growth and G2/M-phase arrest in human colon cancer cells.
    Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 10/2009; 48(1):277-83. · 2.99 Impact Factor
  • Se-Jung Lee, Wun-Jae Kim, Sung-Kwon Moon
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    ABSTRACT: Cellular and molecular events in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were investigated. SHR-derived VSMC showed increased proliferative capacity and MAP kinase levels in comparison with WKY-derived VSMC. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that progression from G1 to S phase was faster in SHR-derived VSMC in response to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) as compared with cells from WKY. The G1 cell cycle-associated proteins such as cyclin D1, cyclin E, CDK2 and CDK4, and kinase activities associated with CDK2 and CDK4, were increased in SHR-derived VSMC. In addition, CDK inhibitor p21 was elevated in SHR-derived cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression and migration were also increased in response to TNF-alpha in SHR-derived cells. This increase was characterized by the up-regulation of MMP-9, which was transcriptionally regulated at the AP-1 and NF-kappaB sites in the MMP-9 promoter. These results suggest that the hypertensive-associated increase in VSMC proliferative capacity, G1 to S-phase cell-cycle progress and MMP-9 expression may play a role in vascular remodeling in hypertension.
    International immunopharmacology 04/2009; 9(7-8):837-43. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the anticancer activity of Magnolia officinalis on urinary bladder cancer in vitro and in vivo, and elucidated the mechanism of its activity. An aqueous extract of M. officinalis inhibited cell viability and DNA synthesis in cultured human urinary bladder cancer 5637 cells. Inhibition of proliferation was the result of apoptotic induction, because FACS analyses of 5637 cells treated with M. officinalis showed a sub-G1 phase accumulation. M. officinalis extract also increased cytoplasmic DNA-histone complex dose-dependently. These inhibitory effects were associated with the upregulation of proapoptotic molecules Bax, cytochrome c and caspase 3. Treatment of 5637 cells with M. officinalis extract suppressed the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9, as revealed by zymographic and immunoblot analyses. When M. officinalis extract was given to mice simultaneously with the carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine, which induces urinary bladder tumors, the size of the induced tumors was smaller. Finally, histological data indicated that the histological grade of carcinoma and the depth of invasion were dramatically decreased by treatment with M. officinalis extract in mice with N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine-induced urinary bladder tumors. In conclusion, the findings showed that M. officinalis extract exhibited potential chemopreventive activity against urinary bladder tumor in vitro and in vivo.
    Phytotherapy Research 01/2009; 23(1):20-7. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and the inhibition of MMP expression by magnolol in 5637 human urinary bladder cancer cells. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) stimulated the secretion of MMP-9 in 5637 cells, as shown by zymography and promoter assay. The transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) binding site was identified by gel-shift assay to be a cis-element for TNF-alpha activation of the MMP-9 promoter. Our results also demonstrated that TNF-alpha stimulates MMP-9 expression via the p38 MAP kinase signaling pathway in 5637 cells. Moreover, p38 MAP kinase-mediated MMP-9 gene regulation in response to TNF-alpha is involved in the NF-kappaB response element in 5637 cells. In addition, magnolol inhibited TNF-alpha-induced expression of the MMP-9, as determined by zymography and immunoblot, in 5637 cells. The TNF-alpha-induced invasion and migration of cells was inhibited by magnolol, as assessed by a modified boyden chamber and wound-healing assays, respectively. Finally, magnolol blocked MMP-9 expression, at least in part, by decreasing the binding of transcription factor NF-kappaB to DNA. In conclusion, TNF-alpha induced MMP-9 expression in 5637 cells by activating the transcription factor NF-kappaB, which is involved in the p38 MAP kinase-mediated control of MMP-9 regulation. Magnolol inhibited MMP-9 expression through the transcription factor NF-kappaB in TNF-alpha-induced 5637 cells.
    International Immunopharmacology 10/2008; 8(13-14):1821-6. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Magnolol has been reported to play a role in antitumor activity. However, the relevant pathway integrating cell cycle regulation and signaling pathways involved in growth inhibition in cancer cells remains to be identified. In the present study, magnolol treatment of these cells resulted in significant dose-dependent growth inhibition together with apoptosis, G1- and G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest at a 60 microM (IC50) dose in 5637 bladder cancer cells. In addition, magnolol treatment strongly induced p27KIP1 expression, and down-regulated expression of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and cyclins. Moreover, treatment with magnolol-induced phosphorylation of ERK, p38 MAP kinase, and JNK. Among the pathway inhibitors examined, only PD98059, an ERK-specific inhibitor, blocked magnolol-dependent p27KIP1 expression. Blockade of ERK function consistently reversed magnolol-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation and decreased G2/M cell cycle proteins, but not G1 cell cycle proteins. Furthermore, magnolol treatment increased both Ras and Raf activation. Transfection of cells with dominant negative Ras (RasN17) and Raf (RafS621A) mutant genes suppressed magnolol-induced ERK activity and p27KIP1 expression. Finally, the magnolol-induced reduction in cell proliferation and G2/M cell cycle proteins was also abolished in the presence of RasN17 and RafS621A mutant genes. These data demonstrate that the Ras/Raf/ERK pathway participates in p27KIP1 induction, leading to a decrease in the levels of cyclin B1/Cdc2 complexes and magnolol-dependent inhibition of cell growth. Overall, these novel findings concerning the molecular mechanisms of magnolol in 5637 bladder cancer cells provide a theoretical basis for therapeutic treatment of malignancies.
    Biochemical pharmacology 07/2008; 75(12):2289-300. · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) has been implicated in tumor invasion and metastasis. In this study, the factors and signaling pathways that are involved in the regulation of the MMP-9 expression were examined in urinary bladder cancer HT1376 cells. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) stimulated the secretion of MMP-9 in HT1376 cells, as shown by zymography and immunoblot analysis. At the level of transcription, TNF-alpha also stimulated 5'-flanking promoter activity of MMP-9. Transcription factor NF-kappaB, AP-1 and Sp-1 binding sites were identified by a gel shift assay to be cis-elements for TNF-alpha activation of the MMP-9 promoter. TNF-alpha activates multiple signaling pathways in HT1376 cells, including the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), p38 MAP kinase and JNK pathways. Chemical inhibitors, which specifically inhibit each of these TNF-alpha-activated pathways, were used to examine the signaling pathways involved in TNF-alpha-mediated MMP-9 expression. The ERK1/2 inhibitor, U0126 and the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, SB203580, significantly down-regulated TNF-alpha-induced MMP-9 expression and promoter activity. The transactivation of TNF-alpha-stimulated NF-kappaB, AP-1 and Sp-1 were inhibited by U0126 and SB203580 treatment. In conclusion, the findings of the present study indicate that TNF-alpha induces MMP-9 expression in HT1376 cells by activating transcription factors, which are involved in the ERK1/2- and p38 MAP kinase-mediated control of MMP-9 regulation, namely, NF-kappaB, AP-1 and Sp-1.
    Oncology Reports 05/2008; 19(4):1007-13. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study identified a novel mechanism for the effects of sanguinarine in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Sanguinarine treatment of VSMC resulted in significant growth inhibition as a result of G1-phase cell-cycle arrest mediated by induction of p27KIP1 expression, and resulted in a down-regulation of the expression of cyclins and CDKs in VSMC. Moreover, sanguinarine-induced inhibition of cell growth appeared to be linked to activation of Ras/ERK through p27KIP1-mediated G1-phase cell-cycle arrest. Overall, the unexpected effects of sanguinarine treatment in VSMC provide a theoretical basis for clinical use of therapeutic agents in the treatment of atherosclerosis.
    Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 04/2008; 471(2):224-31. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Naringin, an active flavonoid found in citrus fruit extracts, has pharmacological utility. The present study identified a novel mechanism of the anticancer effects of naringin in urinary bladder cancer cells. Naringin treatment resulted in significant dose-dependent growth inhibition together with G(1)-phase cell-cycle arrest at a dose of 100 microM (the half maximal inhibitory concentration) in 5637 cells. In addition, naringin treatment strongly induced p21WAF1 expression, independent of the p53 pathway, and downregulated expression of cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs). Moreover, treatment with naringin induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Among the pathways examined, only PD98059, an ERK-specific inhibitor, blocked naringin-dependent p21WAF1 expression. Consistently, blockade of ERK function reversed naringin-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation and decreased cell-cycle proteins. Furthermore, naringin treatment increased both Ras and Raf activation. Transfection of cells with dominant-negative Ras (RasN17) and Raf (RafS621A) mutant genes suppressed naringin-induced ERK activity and p21WAF1 expression. Finally, the naringin-induced reduction in cell proliferation and cell-cycle proteins also was abolished in the presence of RasN17 and RafS621A mutant genes. These data demonstrate that the Ras/Raf/ERK pathway participates in p21WAF1 induction, subsequently leading to a decrease in the levels of cyclin D1/CDK4 and cyclin E-CDK2 complexes and naringin-dependent inhibition of cell growth. Overall, these unexpected findings concerning the molecular mechanisms of naringin in 5637 cancer cells provide a theoretical basis for the therapeutic use of flavonoids to treat malignancies.
    Carcinogenesis 03/2008; 29(9):1701-9. · 5.64 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

121 Citations
3 Downloads
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61.51 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2013
    • Chung-Ang University
      • School of Food Science and Technology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2007–2013
    • Chungbuk National University
      • Department of Urology
      Chinsen, North Chungcheong, South Korea
  • 2008
    • Konkuk University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea