[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been observed experimentally that early distal tubular urea flow exceeds urea delivery by the proximal convoluted tubule to the pars recta and loop of Henle. Moreover, the fractional excretion of urea in the urine may exceed values compatible with the reabsorption known to occur in the proximal convoluted tubule in the cortex. A likely explanation for these observations is that urea may be actively secreted into the pars recta, as proposed in a few studies. However, this hypothesis has yet to be demonstrated experimentally. In this study, we used a mathematical model of the renal medulla of the rat kidney to investigate the impacts of active urea secretion in the intrarenal handling of urea and in the urine concentrating ability. The model represents only the outer and inner medullary zones, with the actions taking place in the cortex incorporated via boundary conditions. Blood flow in the model vasculature is divided into plasma and red blood cell compartments. We compared urea flow rates and other related model variables without and with the hypothetical active urea secretion in the pars recta. The simulation suggests that active urea secretion induces a "urea-selective" improvement in urine concentrating ability by enhancing the efficiency of urea excretion without requiring a higher urine flow rate, and with only modest changes in the excretion of other solutes. These results should encourage experimental studies in order to assess the existence of an active urea secretion in the rodent kidney.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE
Plasma copeptin, a surrogate for vasopressin, was associated with albuminuria in population-based studies. These associations are consistent with the effect of vasopressin on albuminuria observed in humans and rodents. The objective of this study was to determine whether plasma copeptin is an independent marker of risk of renal events in people with type 2 diabetes and albuminuria.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We studied 3,101 participants of the DIABHYCAR trial (6-year follow-up) with type 2 diabetes and albuminuria. A renal event was defined as doubling of serum creatinine or development of end-stage renal disease.RESULTSDuring follow-up, 86 renal events occurred in 76 subjects (2.45%). Incidences by tertiles of baseline plasma copeptin were 1.06% (T1), 1.45% (T2), and 4.84% (T3). They were 2.43% (T1), 5.11% (T2), and 11.81% (T3) for the subset of subjects with macroalbuminuria at baseline (n = 729). Hazard ratio for plasma copeptin tertiles as a risk for renal events was 4.79 (95% CI, 2.48-9.24; P < 0.0001; for T3 vs. T1). In a stepwise regression analysis, urinary albumin excretion and plasma copeptin remained positively associated and HDL cholesterol and estimated glomerular filtration rate were inversely associated with the incidence of renal events. These independent predictors explained ∼18% of the variance of the outcome. The yearly variations of estimated glomerular filtration rate by copeptin tertiles were -1.43 ± 0.51 (T1), -2.29 ± 0.49 (T2), and -3.52 ± 0.44 mL/min/1.73 m(2) per year (T3) (P = 0.005) in subjects with macroalbuminuria.CONCLUSIONS
Plasma copeptin may help to identify subjects with diabetic chronic kidney disease who are at high risk for renal function decline.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After several decades during which little attention was paid to vasopressin and/or urine concentration in clinical practice, interest in vasopressin has renewed with the availability of new, potent, orally active vasopressin-receptor antagonists-the vaptans-and with the results of epidemiological studies evaluating copeptin (a surrogate marker of vasopressin) in large population-based cohorts. Several experimental studies in rats and mice had previously shown that vasopressin, acting via vasopressin V2 antidiuretic receptors, contributes to the progression of chronic kidney disease; in particular, to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. New epidemiological studies now suggest a role for vasopressin in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and metabolic disorders via activation of hepatic V1a and/or pancreatic islet V1b receptors. The first part of this Review describes the adverse effects of vasopressin, as revealed by clinical and experimental studies in kidney diseases, hypertension, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. The second part provides insights into vasopressin physiology and pathophysiology that may be relevant to the understanding of these adverse effects and that are linked to the excretion of concentrated nitrogen wastes and associated hyperfiltration. Collectively, the studies reviewed here suggest that more attention should be given to the vasopressin-thirst-urine concentration axis in clinical investigations and in patient care. Whether selective blockade of the different vasopressin receptors may provide therapeutic benefits beyond their present indication in hyponatraemia requires new clinical trials.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies found that urea transporter UT-B is abundantly expressed in bladder urothelium. However, the dynamic role of UT-B in bladder urothelial cells remains unclear. The objective of this study is to evaluate the physiological roles of UT-B in bladder urothelium using UT-B knockout mouse model and T24 cell line.
Urea and NO measurement, mRNA expression micro-array analysis, light and transmission electron microscopy, apoptosis assays, DNA damage and repair determination, and intracellular signaling examination were performed in UT-B null bladders vs wild-type bladders and in vitro T24 epithelial cells. UT-B was highly expressed in mouse bladder urothelium. The genes, Dcaf11, MCM2-4, Uch-L1, Bnip3 and 45 S pre rRNA, related to DNA damage and apoptosis were significantly regulated in UT-B null urothelium. DNA damage and apoptosis highly occurred in UT-B null urothelium. Urea and NO levels were significantly higher in UT-B null urothelium than that in wild-type, which may affect L-arginine metabolism and the intracellular signals related to DNA damage and apoptosis. These findings were consistent with the in vitro study in T24 cells that, after urea loading, exhibited cell cycle delay and apoptosis.
UT-B may play an important role in protecting bladder urothelium by balancing intracellular urea concentration. Disruption of UT-B function induces DNA damage and apoptosis in bladder, which can result in bladder disorders.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e76952. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The brown bear (Ursus arctos) hibernates for 5 to 6 months each winter and during this time ingests no food or water and remains anuric and inactive. Despite these extreme conditions, bears do not develop azotemia and preserve their muscle and bone strength. To date most renal studies have been limited to small numbers of bears, often in captive environments. Sixteen free-ranging bears were darted and had blood drawn both during hibernation in winter and summer. Samples were collected for measurement of creatinine and urea, markers of inflammation, the calcium-phosphate axis, and nutritional parameters including amino acids. In winter the bear serum creatinine increased 2.5 fold despite a 2-fold decrease in urea, indicating a remarkable ability to recycle urea nitrogen during hibernation. During hibernation serum calcium remained constant despite a decrease in serum phosphate and a rise in FGF23 levels. Despite prolonged inactivity and reduced renal function, inflammation does not ensue and bears seem to have enhanced antioxidant defense mechanisms during hibernation. Nutrition parameters showed high fat stores, preserved amino acids and mild hyperglycemia during hibernation. While total, essential, non-essential and branched chain amino acids concentrations do not change during hibernation anorexia, changes in individual amino acids ornithine, citrulline and arginine indicate an active, although reduced urea cycle and nitrogen recycling to proteins. Serum uric acid and serum fructose levels were elevated in summer and changes between seasons were positively correlated. Further studies to understand how bears can prevent the development of uremia despite minimal renal function during hibernation could provide new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of human kidney disease.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e72934. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:High plasma copeptin (copeptin), the C-terminal fragment of arginine vasopressin pro-hormone, has been associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS), diabetes mellitus (DM) development and nephropathy. Here we tested whether elevated copeptin level is associated with later development of the MetS, its individual components and microalbuminuria.Methods:We analysed copeptin at baseline (1991-1994) in the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer Study cardiovasular cohort and re-examined 2064 subjects 15.8 years later (mean age 72.8 years, 59% women) with oral glucose tolerance test and measurement of MetS and its individual components.Results:After age and sex adjustment, increasing quartiles of copeptin at baseline (the lowest quartile as reference) were associated with MetS (P for trend=0.008), incident abdominal obesity (P for trend=0.002), DM (P for trend=0.001) and microalbuminuria (P for trend=0.002). After additional adjustment for all the MetS components at baseline, increasing copeptin quartiles predicted incident abdominal obesity (odds ratios 1.55, 1.30 and 1.59; P for trend=0.04), DM (odds ratios 1.18, 1.32 and 1.46; P for trend=0.04) and microalbuminuria (odds ratios 1.05, 1.08 and 1.65; P for trend=0.02) but not MetS (P for trend=0.19) at the reexamination. Further, the relationship between copeptin and microalbuminuria was independent of baseline C-reactive protein, incident DM and incident hypertension.Conclusion:Copeptin independently predicts DM and abdominal obesity but not the cluster of MetS. Apart from predicting DM and abdominal obesity, elevated copeptin signals increased risk of microalbuminuria. Interestingly, the association between copeptin and later microalbuminuria was independent of both prevalent and incident DM and hypertension. Our findings suggest a relationship between a dysregulated vasopressin system and cardiometabolic risk, which could have implications for risk assessment and novel preventive treatments.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 22 May 2012; doi:10.1038/ijo.2012.88.
International journal of obesity (2005) 05/2012; · 5.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanism by which urine is concentrated in the mammalian kidney remains incompletely understood. Urea is the dominant urinary osmole in most mammals and may be concentrated a 100-fold above its plasma level in humans and even more in rodents. Several facilitated urea transporters have been cloned. The phenotypes of mice with deletion of the transporters expressed in the kidney have challenged two previously well-accepted paradigms regarding urea and sodium handling in the renal medulla but have provided no alternative explanation for the accumulation of solutes that occurs in the inner medulla. In this review, we present evidence supporting the existence of an active urea secretion in the pars recta of the proximal tubule and explain how it changes our views regarding intrarenal urea handling and UT-A2 function. The transporter responsible for this secretion could be SGLT1, a sodium-glucose cotransporter that also transports urea. Glucagon may have a role in the regulation of this secretion. Further, we describe a possible transfer of osmotic energy from the outer to the inner medulla via an intrarenal Cori cycle converting glucose to lactate and back. Finally, we propose that an active urea transporter, expressed in the urothelium, may continuously reclaim urea that diffuses out of the ureter and bladder. These hypotheses are all based on published findings. They may not all be confirmed later on, but we hope they will stimulate further research in new directions.
Kidney International 03/2012; 81(12):1179-98. · 7.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Water intake alters vasopressin secretion. Recent findings reveal an independent association between plasma copeptin, a surrogate for vasopressin, and risk of diabetes.
Participants were 3,615 middle-aged men and women, with normal baseline fasting glycemia (FG), who were recruited in a 9-year follow-up study. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for the incidence of hyperglycemia (FG ≥6.1 mmol/L or treatment for diabetes) were calculated according to daily water intake classes based on a self-administered questionnaire.
During follow-up, there were 565 incident cases of hyperglycemia. After adjustment for confounding factors, ORs (95% CIs) for hyperglycemia associated with classes of water intake (<0.5 L, n = 677; 0.5 to <1.0 L, n = 1,754; and >1.0 L, n = 1,184) were 1.00, 0.68 (0.52-0.89), and 0.79 (0.59-1.05), respectively (P = 0.016).
Self-reported water intake was inversely and independently associated with the risk of developing hyperglycemia.
Diabetes care 12/2011; 34(12):2551-4. · 7.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Urea transporters UT-A2 and UT-B are expressed in epithelia of thin descending limb of Henle's loop and in descending vasa recta, respectively. To study their role and possible interaction in the context of the urine concentration mechanism, a UT-A2 and UT-B double knockout (UT-A2/B knockout) mouse model was generated by targeted deletion of the UT-A2 promoter in embryonic stem cells with UT-B gene knockout. The UT-A2/B knockout mice lacked detectable UT-A2 and UT-B transcripts and proteins and showed normal survival and growth. Daily urine output was significantly higher in UT-A2/B knockout mice than that in wild-type mice and lower than that in UT-B knockout mice. Urine osmolality in UT-A2/B knockout mice was intermediate between that in UT-B knockout and wild-type mice. The changes in urine osmolality and flow rate, plasma and urine urea concentration, as well as non-urea solute concentration after an acute urea load or chronic changes in protein intake suggested that UT-A2 plays a role in the progressive accumulation of urea in the inner medulla. These results suggest that in wild-type mice UT-A2 facilitates urea absorption by urea efflux from the thin descending limb of short loops of Henle. Moreover, UT-A2 deletion in UT-B knockout mice partially remedies the urine concentrating defect caused by UT-B deletion, by reducing urea loss from the descending limbs to the peripheral circulation; instead, urea is returned to the inner medulla through the loops of Henle and the collecting ducts.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An impaired Na and water excretion rate during daytime is associated with increased cardiovascular risk factors. Recent findings suggest that disturbed circadian rhythms may play an important role in salt-sensitive hypertension and reduced β-cell function.
This study investigated clinical implications of the circadian pattern of urine excretion [evaluated as the day to night ratio of urine flow rate (D/N of V)] in 76 patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) not taking diuretics. We analyzed 24-h urinary excretion and blood pressure (BP) during separate day and night periods. In addition nondiabetic patients (n = 46 of 76) underwent an oral glucose tolerance test.
The D/N of V varied largely among subjects (tertile 1 = 1.95 ± 0.40, tertile 3 = 0.67 ± 0.14). In the patients with low D/N of V, systolic BP dipped less at night, independently of age and creatinine clearance (P < 0.01). During the first 60 min of the oral glucose tolerance test, the rise in plasma insulin and the insulinogenic index were positively correlated with the D/N of V, even after adjustment for age, waist circumference, 24-h urine volume, and BP (P < 0.001 for both), suggesting inadequate insulin secretion in poor daytime excretors.
In patients with MS, a disturbed circadian pattern of urine excretion is associated with a reduced nocturnal dipping of systolic BP and a reduced glucose-induced insulin secretion. These results underline the clinical importance of impaired circadian rhythms in MS and prompt further studies to evaluate the potential of the D/N of V as a prognostic marker in MS patients.
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 03/2011; 96(6):E929-33. · 6.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute infusion of the potent V2 receptor agonist 1-desamino-8-d-arginine vasopressin (dDAVP) reduces sodium excretion in humans, through an effect attributed to the stimulation of the amiloride sensitive epithelial sodium channel, ENaC, in ex vivo/in vivo experiments. We investigated in humans whether the antinatriuretic effect of dDAVP is sensitive to amiloride, a specific blocker of ENaC.
Forty-eight healthy normotensive adult men were assigned to a high Na/low K (250/40 mmol/d) diet, to suppress aldosterone secretion. dDAVP (4-μg intravenous bolus followed by 4 μg over 2 hours) was administrated before and after a 7-day administration of 20 mg/d amiloride. Urine and blood samples were collected before and at the end of the dDAVP infusion, to measure Na, K, creatinine, and osmolality concentrations.
dDAVP alone decreased the urinary flow rate by 75% and the sodium excretion rate by 19% despite an increase in creatinine clearance by 38 ml/min. Potassium excretion rate was unchanged and the urinary Na/K ratio decreased by 18%. Seven-day amiloride administration had no effect on the dDAVP-induced decrease in the urinary flow rate (-71%) nor on the dDAVP-induced increase in creatinine clearance (+35 ml/min), but it fully prevented the dDAVP-induced decrease in both urinary sodium excretion (+1%) and urinary Na/K ratio (+21%).
The antinatriuretic effect of dDAVP in humans is amiloride sensitive, and thus is related to the stimulatory effect on ENaC-mediated sodium reabsorption. This test provides a new tool to investigate ENaC function in a clinical setting.
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 01/2011; 6(4):753-9. · 5.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Excessive sodium reabsorption by the kidney has long been known to participate in the pathogenesis of some forms of hypertension. In the kidney, the final control of NaCl reabsorption takes place in the distal nephron through the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). Liddle's syndrome, an inherited form of hypertension due to gain-of-function mutations in the genes coding for ENaC subunits, has demonstrated the key role of this channel in the sodium balance. Although aldosterone is classically thought to be the main hormone regulating ENaC activity, several studies in animal models and in humans highlight the important effect of vasopressin on ENaC regulation and sodium transport. This review summarizes the effect of vasopressin V2 receptor stimulation on ENaC activity and sodium excretion in vivo. Moreover, we report the experimental and clinical data demonstrating the role of renal ENaC in water conservation at the expense of a reduced ability to excrete sodium. Acute administration of the selective V2 receptor agonist dDAVP not only increases urine osmolality and reduces urine flow rate but also reduces sodium excretion in rats and humans. Chronic V2 receptor stimulation increases blood pressure in rats, and a significant correlation was found between blood pressure and urine concentration in healthy humans. This led us to discuss how excessive vasopressin-dependent ENaC stimulation could be a risk factor for sodium retention and resulting increase in blood pressure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mammalian erythrocytes exhibit high urea permeability (P (urea)) due to UT-B expression in their cytoplasmic membrane. This high P (urea) allows fast equilibration of urea in erythrocytes during their transit in the hyperosmotic renal medulla. It also allows more urea (in addition to that in plasma) to participate in counter-current exchange between ascending and descending vasa recta, thus improving the trapping of urea in the medulla and improving urine concentrating ability. To determine if P (urea) in erythrocytes is related to diet and urine concentrating ability, we measured P (urea) in erythrocytes from 11 different mammals and 5 birds using stopped-flow light scattering. Carnivores (dog, fox, cat) exhibited high P (urea) (in x10(-5) cm/s, 5.3 ± 0.6, 3.8 ± 0.5 and 2.8 ± 0.7, respectively). In contrast, herbivores (cow, donkey, sheep) showed much lower P (urea) (0.8 ± 0.2, 0.7 ± 0.2, 1.0 ± 0.1, respectively). Erythrocyte P (urea) in human (1.1 ± 0.2), and pig (1.5 ± 0.1), the two omnivores, was intermediate. Rodents and lagomorphs (mouse, rat, rabbit) had P (urea) intermediate between carnivores and omnivores (3.3 ± 0.4, 2.5 ± 0.3 and 2.4 ± 0.3, respectively). Birds that do not excrete urea and do not express UT-B in their erythrocytes had very low values (<0.1 × 10(-5) cm/s). In contrast to P (urea), water permeability, measured simultaneously, was relatively similar in all mammals. The species differences in erythrocytes P (urea) most probably reflect adaptation to the different types of diet and resulting different needs for concentrating urea in the urine.
Journal of Comparative Physiology B 09/2010; 181(1):65-72. · 2.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A more concentrated urine is excreted by blacks than whites and by men than women. The purpose of this study was to explore the physiological bases for the race and sex effects during water deprivation when osmoregulation is challenged and differences are amplified. Drinking water was withheld from 17 blacks (10 men) and 19 whites (9 men) for 24 h. Vasopressin (VP) levels and osmolality in plasma (P(osmol)) and urine (U(osmol)) were measured basally and then every 4 h. U(osmol) was higher in blacks at baseline (P = 0.01) and during water deprivation (P = 0.046). Before and during water deprivation, no differences were seen in levels of VP, P(osmol), or the VP-U(osmol) relationship between blacks and whites. Although VP levels were initially higher in men (P < 0.02 for samples collected over the first 12 h), over the last 12 h of water deprivation, U(osmol) was higher (P = 0.027) and more responsive to the level of VP (in terms of slopes, P = 0.0001) in women than men. Our results suggest that, after a period of water deprivation, there develops a sensitivity of the collecting duct to VP that is greater in women. Although U(osmol) is higher in blacks, the race difference in water conservation did not appear to result from differences in the level of VP or the sensitivity of the collecting duct to VP. Upstream effects such as Na(+) uptake in the thick ascending limb, with its ensuing effects on water reabsorption, need to be considered in future studies of the relationship of race to water conservation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bumetanide-sensitive Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter NKCC2, located in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop, plays a critical role in the kidney's ability to concentrate urine. In humans, loss-of-function mutations of the solute carrier family 12 member 1 gene (SLC12A1), coding for NKCC2, cause type I Bartter syndrome, which is characterized by prenatal onset of a severe polyuria, salt-wasting tubulopathy, and hyperreninemia. In this study, we describe a novel chemically induced, recessive mutant mouse line termed Slc12a1(I299F) exhibiting late-onset manifestation of type I Bartter syndrome. Homozygous mutant mice are viable and exhibit severe polyuria, metabolic alkalosis, marked increase in plasma urea but close to normal creatininemia, hypermagnesemia, hyperprostaglandinuria, hypotension,, and osteopenia. Fractional excretion of urea is markedly decreased. In addition, calcium and magnesium excretions are more than doubled compared with wild-type mice, while uric acid excretion is twofold lower. In contrast to hyperreninemia present in human disease, plasma renin concentration in homozygotes is not increased. The polyuria observed in homozygotes may be due to the combination of two additive factors, a decrease in activity of mutant NKCC2 and an increase in medullary blood flow, due to prostaglandin-induced vasodilation, that impairs countercurrent exchange of urea in the medulla. In conclusion, this novel viable mouse line with a missense Slc12a1 mutation exhibits most of the features of type I Bartter syndrome and may represent a new model for the study of this human disease.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blacks have a greater tendency to retain Na than whites. The present study sought evidence for ethnic differences in parameters reflective of Na uptake by the Na,K,2Cl cotransporter in the thick ascending limb, namely, the urine concentration and urinary excretion of certain cations before and after furosemide administration (40 mg IV). Subjects were healthy (ages 18 to 36 years). During the preceding overnight period, urine volume was lower, and osmolality was higher in blacks than in whites, an ethnic difference that disappeared when water intake was restricted to infused normal saline (60 mL/h). Plasma vasopressin levels were higher in black males than in other sex/ethnic groups. Baseline urinary excretion rates of K, Ca, and Mg were significantly lower in blacks than in whites. After furosemide (0 to 1 hour), K and Ca excretion rates increased, but the proportionate ethnic difference decreased from 44% to 22% and from 22% to 10%, respectively, consistent with blacks having more basal Na,K,2Cl cotransporter activity to inhibit. During a later postfurosemide period (1 to 5 hours), urinary concentrations of Ca and Mg recovered more slowly in blacks, consistent with greater reuptake in the thick ascending limb. In summary, there were distinct ethnic differences in renal handling of Ca and Mg basally and in response to furosemide that were consistent with a more active Na,K,2Cl cotransporter in the thick ascending limb in blacks. An increase in vasopressin levels appeared to explain greater urine concentrations in black males but not black females.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanisms by which arginine vasopressin (AVP) exerts its antidiuretic and pressor effects, via activation of V2 and V1a receptors, respectively, are relatively well understood, but the possible associated effects on sodium handling are a matter of controversy. In this study, normal conscious Wistar rats were acutely administered various doses of AVP, dDAVP (V2 agonist), furosemide, or the following selective non-peptide receptor antagonists SR121463A (V2 antagonist) or SR49059 (V1a antagonist). Urine flow and sodium excretion rates in the next 6 h were compared with basal values obtained on the previous day, after vehicle treatment, using each rat as its own control. The rate of sodium excretion decreased with V2 agonism and increased with V2 antagonism in a dose-dependent manner. However,for comparable increases in urine flow rate, the V2 antagonist induced a natriuresis 7-fold smaller than did furosemide. Vasopressin reduced sodium excretion at 1 mug/kg but increased it at doses >5 umg/kg,an effect that was abolished by the V1a antagonist. Combined V2 and V1a effects of endogenous vasopressin can be predicted to vary largely according to the respective levels of vasopressin in plasma,renal medulla (acting on interstitial cells), and urine (acting on V1a luminal receptors). In the usual range of regulation, antidiuretic effects of vasopressin may be associated with variable sodium retention. Although V2 antagonists are predominantly aquaretic, their possible effects on sodium excretion should not be neglected. In view of their proposed use in several human disorders, the respective influence of selective (V2) or mixed (V1a/V2) receptor antagonists on sodium handling in humans needs reevaluation.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 08/2008; 19(9):1721-31. · 8.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Men and African-Americans are known to be at greater risk of urolithiasis and cardiovascular and renal diseases than women and Caucasians. Previous studies suggest that the antidiuretic effects of vasopressin and/or a greater urine concentration are associated with the rate of progression of these diseases. The present review addresses possible sex and ethnic-related differences in urine volume and osmolality which could participate in this male and black higher predominance. We reanalyzed 24h-urine data collected previously by different investigators for other purposes. In studies concerning healthy subjects (six studies) or patients with chronic kidney disease or Diabetes mellitus (three studies), men excreted a larger osmolar load than women, with a 15 to 30% higher urinary osmolality (or another index of urine concentration based on the urine/plasma creatinine concentration ratio) and a similar 24h urine volume than in women. In two American studies, African-Americans showed a significantly higher urinary concentration than Caucasians and a lower 24h-urine volume. Sex and ethnic differences in thirst threshold, vasopressin level, or other regulatory mediators may contribute to the higher urinary concentration of men and of African Americans. These differences could play a role in the greater susceptibility of these subjects to these pathologies. New prospective studies should take into account the antidiuretic effects of vasopressin as a potential risk factor in the initiation and progression of cardiovascular and renal diseases.