María López-Jurado

University of Granada, Granada, Andalusia, Spain

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Publications (50)81.21 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the effects of the dietary amount and source of protein on bone status in rats. 140 male Wistar rats aged 8 weeks were randomly allocated to 4 groups (n = 35) fed normal-protein (NP, 10% richness) or high-protein (HP, 45% richness) diets based on whey protein (WP) or soy protein (SP) sources for 12 weeks. Plasma urea was 46% higher for the HP compared to the NP diet (p < 0.001). Urinary calcium was 65% higher for the HP compared to the NP and 60% higher for the WP compared to the SP diets (all, p < 0.001). Urinary pH was 8% more acidic in the HP compared to the NP diet (p < 0.001) and 4% in the WP compared to the SP diet (p < 0.01). The plasma osteocalcin concentration was 19% higher for the NP compared to the HP (p < 0.05) and 25% for the SP compared to the WP diets (p < 0.01). Femur ash, metaphyseal and diaphyseal cross-sectional, trabecular and cortical areas were 3% higher in the HP compared to the NP diet (all, p < 0.05). Femur diaphyseal periosteal and endocortical perimeters were also 3% higher in the HP compared to the NP diet (both, p < 0.01). Groups fed the SP diet showed 2% higher femur ash percentage, 7% higher calcium content (both, p < 0.001), and 3% higher diaphyseal cortical area and thickness (both, p < 0.05) than those fed the WP diet. Some interactions were found, such as the greater effects of the SP diet on decreasing the higher plasma urea concentration promoted by the intake of the HP diet (p < 0.001). Under adequate Ca intake, HP diets could better maintain bone properties than NP diets, even with increasing some acidity markers, which could be reduced by the intake of SP sources.
    Food & Function 02/2014; · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of vanadium as a micronutrient and hypoglycaemic agent has yet to be fully clarified. The present study was undertaken to investigate changes in the metabolism of iron and in antioxidant defences of diabetic STZ rats following treatment with vanadium. Four groups were examined: control; diabetic; diabetic treated with 1 mgV/day; and Diabetic treated with 3 mgV/day. The vanadium was supplied in drinking water as bis(maltolato) oxovanadium (IV) (BMOV). The experiment had a duration of five weeks. Iron was measured in food, faeces, urine, serum, muscle, kidney, liver, spleen, and femur. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, quinone-oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) activity, and protein carbonyl group levels in the liver were determined. In the diabetic rats, higher levels of Fe absorbed, Fe content in kidney, muscle, and femur, and NQO1 activity were recorded, together with decreased catalase activity, in comparison with the control rats. In the rats treated with 3 mgV/day, there was a significant decrease in fasting glycaemia, Fe content in the liver, spleen, and heart, catalase activity, and levels of protein carbonyl groups in comparison with the diabetic group. In conclusion BMOV was a dose-dependent hypoglycaemic agent. Treatment with 3 mgV/day provoked increased Fe deposits in the tissues, which promoted a protein oxidative damage in the liver.
    The Scientific World Journal 01/2014; 2014:706074. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent research suggests that cannabinoid receptor CB1 antagonists can affect appetite and body weight gain, although their influence on other parameters related to metabolic syndrome is not well documented. The present study was designed to assess the effects of chronic treatment with the CB1 receptor inverse agonist AM 251 (3mg/kg for 3weeks) in obese and lean Zucker rats on parameters related to metabolic syndrome. Four groups of rats were used: lean Zucker rats, untreated obese Zucker rats, AM 251-treated obese Zucker rats and a pair-fed obese Zucker rat experimental group which received the same amount of food as that consumed by the animals treated with AM251. Food intake, body weight gain, energy expenditure, plasma biochemical parameters, leptin, insulin and hepatic status markers were analysed. Daily injection of AM 251 in obese Zucker rats produced a marked and sustained decrease in daily food intake and body weight and a considerable increase in energy expenditure in comparison with untreated obese Zucker rats. AM 251 administration to obese rats significantly reduced plasma levels of glucose, leptin, AST, ALT, Gamma GT, total bilirubin and LDL cholesterol whereas HDL cholesterol plasma levels increased. The results also showed a decrease in liver/weight body ratio and total fat content in the liver. The main effects of AM251 (3mg/kg) found in this study were not observed in pair-fed obese animals, highlighting the additional beneficial effects of treatment with AM 251. The results obtained in obese rats can be interpreted as a decrease in leptin and insulin resistance, thereby improving glucose and lipid metabolism, alleviating the steatosis present in the metabolic syndrome and thus favourably modifying plasma levels of hepatic biomarkers. Our results indicate that the cannabinoid CB1 inverse agonist AM 251 represents a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome.
    Metabolism: clinical and experimental 08/2013; · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: New functional foods are increasingly sought to improve the treatment of diseases related to glucose and lipid metabolism. Lupin (Lupinus albus) is an excellent candidate since it exhibits several health-promoting effects. Such beneficial effects can be enhanced by technological treatments like protein hydrolysis with microbial proteases. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of lupin protein hydrolyzate, combined or not with lupin insoluble fiber, on different plasmatic, hepatic, renal and large intestine parameters using an in vivo experimental model of diet-induced hypercholesterolemia. Lupin protein hydrolyzate and insoluble fiber residue were obtained by aqueous protein extraction and sequential hydrolysis with proteases from Bacillus licheniformis and Aspergillus oryzae. The protein hydrolyzate was effective at reducing plasma and hepatic triglycerides, and showed promising effects on glucose metabolism as well as protection against dietary-induced renal alterations. The insoluble fiber residue increased fecal fat excretion, and improved parameters of large intestine physiological status due to its fermentative and water holding capacity.
    Food Research International. 01/2013; 54(2):1471–1481.
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Vitamin A deficiency can result from malnutrition, malabsorption of vitamin A, impaired vitamin metabolism associated with liver disease, or chronic debilitating diseases like HIV infection or cancer. Background & aims: Cannabis administration has been described as a palliative symptom management therapy in such pathological stages. Therefore, this research aimed to study the effects of acute administration of cannabidiol (CBD) or thetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on the levels of retinol in plasma and in the liver, and biochemical parameters related to lipid and glucose metabolism (cholesterolaemia, triglyceridemia and glycemia) in a rat experimental model of vitamin A deficiency. Methods: The experimental animal model of Vitamin A deficiency was developed during a 50-day experimental period in which rats consumed a vitamin A-free diet. Cannabidiol (10 mg/kg body weight) or thetrahydrocannabinol (5 mg/kg body weight) were administered intraperitoneally 2 hours prior to sacrifice of the animals. Results: The nutritional deficiency caused a significant decrease in plasmatic and liver contents of retinol and biochemical parameters of glycemic, lipidic, and mineral metabolism. Acute intraperitoneal administration of Cannabidiol and thetrahydrocannabinol did not improve the indices of vitamin A status in either control or vitamin A-deficient rats. However, it had a significant effect on specific biochemical parameters such as glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol. Conclusion: Under our experimental conditions, the reported effects of cannabinoid administration on certain signs of nutritional vitamin A deficiency appeared to be mediated through mechanisms other than changes in retinol metabolism or its mobilization after the acute administration of such compounds.
    Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 01/2013; 28(3):857-867. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The control of appetite and satiety is extremely complex and involves a balance between neurotransmitters and neuropeptides to stimulate and/or inhibit feeding behaviour. The effect of cannabinoids on food intake is well established, but little is known about the mechanism of action underlying their activity. In the present report, the effect of pharmacological manipulation of the cannabinoid receptor on the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides is investigated. We used an immunohistochemical approach to examine the effect of intracerebroventricular administration of the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 and the inverse agonist AM251 on neuropeptide Y (NPY) and the β-endorphin (β-end) neuronal hypothalamic systems. Double immunohistochemistry (c-fos/β-end) was used to assess the number of β-end neurons activated by the cannabinoid agonist. The present results showed that 1 μg WIN 55,212-2 increases β-end immunoreactivity within the arcuate nucleus while no significant changes were noted in the NPY-immunoreactive nerve fibres network in comparison to the control group. Injection of 1 μg AM251 decreases both NPY and β-end immunoreactivity within the arcuate nucleus. The number of β-end neurons exhibiting c-fos increased significantly in WIN 55,212-2 compared with the control group. These results suggest that cannabinoids affect the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides, notably the NPY and β-end systems, which may have implications in the orexigenic action of cannabinoids.
    The British journal of nutrition 02/2011; 105(4):654-60. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Consumption of high-protein (HP) diets is postulated to exert a negative influence on bone and renal health. However, no conclusive evidence has been presented related to this issue or to the potential protective action of resistance training on HP-induced systemic effects. We examined the effects of HP diet consumption on food intake, body-weight gain, body composition, and renal, bone and metabolic parameters of rats performing resistance training. A total of ninety-six adult male Wistar rats were randomly distributed in twelve experimental groups (n 8): normal-protein (10%) or HP (45%) diets, with or without resistance training, killed for experimental periods of 1, 2 or 3 months. Diets were based on a commercial whey protein hydrolysate. Consumption of HP diets and resistance training significantly affected food intake, body weight and body composition, as well as the plasma levels of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and TAG. The buffering action of resistance training on such diet-induced alterations was especially evident in the levels of plasma TAG. Consumption of HP diets led to a considerable increase in kidney weight, urinary volume and acidity, as well as in the urinary excretion of Ca, with a parallel reduction in the urinary excretion of citrate (P < 0·05). No apparent deleterious effect on bone mineral content was found. In conclusion, consumption of HP diets caused alterations in renal health status and some metabolic parameters, but did not seem to affect bone status. Resistance training had a protective action against alterations of renal health status and some metabolic parameters such as plasma TAG.
    The British journal of nutrition 11/2010; 105(6):836-45. · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • Cristina Sánchez, María López-Jurado, Pilar Aranda, Juan Llopis
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    ABSTRACT: Copper, manganese and selenium are elements involved in protecting the body against oxidative stress. Determining their plasma level may contribute to assessing the health and nutritional status of populations. The aim of this study was to assess factors influencing copper, manganese and selenium plasma levels in an adult Mediterranean population and to identify groups at risk of deficiency. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in Andalusia, a region in southern Spain. Blood samples were obtained in a random subsample of 340 subjects. Food consumption was assessed by 48-h recall. Height, weight, skinfolds, waist and hip circumferences were measured. Copper, manganese and selenium were measured in plasma. Information about physical exercise, educational level, alcohol and smoking habits was obtained with a structured questionnaire. Plasma copper was found to be higher in women than among men. Hypocupraemia was found in 4.4% of the population, while 9.7% presented hypomanganesemia. Moreover, 86.5% presented plasma selenium values below 125 µg/L (cutoff for optimal glutathione peroxidase activity). No association was found between plasma elements, anthropometric indices and lifestyle factors; there were tendencies, no more. Copper tended to decrease in obese and increase in sedentary, while selenium tended to decrease among smokers. Plasma Cu was positively correlated with the consumption of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. Plasma Mn was directly correlated with the consumption of dairy products. Levels of Se were positively correlated with age, the consumption of fruit, vegetables, energy obtained from carbohydrates, and the consumption of fibre, and inversely correlated with the consumption of meat and sweets. Our results provide an estimate of the copper, manganese and selenium status in the adult population of southern Spain. The correlations found for Se suggest that there is a tendency for Se levels to be better maintained among the population that shows a stronger preference for the traditional diet.
    Science of The Total Environment 01/2010; · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of dietary intake of fish on plasma cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoproteins were assessed in 30 patients diagnosed with coronary heart disease (myocardial infarction or angina pectoris). Biochemical determinations were performed while the subjects consumed their habitual diet (DI)' after eight weeks on a unified diet (D2), and after four weeks on a diet rich in jkh fat (D3), the fish diet significantly increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (from 28.3± 1.0 mg dl−1 to 35.1± 1.4 mg dl−1 with diets D2 and D3 respectively, p < 0–001), significantly reduced low density lipoprotein cholesterol (from 172.9 ± 6.3 mg dl-1to 158.0 ±5.2 mg dl-1with diets D2 and D3 respectively (p < 0.001), and had no significant effect on plasma triglycerides or total cholesterol. the findings suggest that increasing dietary fih can significantly modify high and low density liprotein cholesterol, which are beneficial in preventing and treating coronary heart disease.
    07/2009; 3(2):107-115.
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of intracerebroventricular or intraperitoneal administration of cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 or inverse agonist AM 251 on food intake and extracellular levels of serotonin and acetic acid 5-hydroxy-indol from presatiated rats was studied. Compared to the vehicle-injected control, the intracerebroventricular administration of WIN 55,212-2 was associated with a significant increase in food intake, whereas the administration of AM 251 caused a significant reduction in this respect. These results were accompanied by considerable reductions or increases in serotonin and acetic acid 5-hydroxy-indol levels compared to the vehicle-injected control and the baseline values for the different experimental groups studied. Intraperitoneal administration of WIN 55,212-2 at doses of 1 and 2 mg/kg promoted hyperphagia up to 6 h after injection, whereas administration of a higher dose (5 mg/kg) significantly inhibited food intake and motor behaviour in partially satiated rats. Administration of any of the AM 251 doses studied (0.5, 1, 2, 5 mg/kg) led to a significant decrease in the amount of food ingested from 2 h after the injection, compared to the vehicle-injected control group, with the most striking effect being observed when the 5 mg/kg dose was injected.
    The British journal of nutrition 03/2009; 101(10):1569-78. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study assessed factors influencing iron and zinc intake and associated biochemical parameters in an adult population from southern Spain to identify patterns of intake and groups at risk for deficiency. A cross-sectional survey was done in Andalusia (southern Spain) to study nutrient intakes in a random sample of 3421 subjects (1747 men, 1674 women, age between 25 and 60 years). Blood samples were obtained for biochemical assays in a random subsample of 354 subjects (170 men, 184 women). Food consumption was assessed by 48-h recall. In blood samples, we measured red blood cells, haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and plasma concentration of Fe and Zn. Information about educational level, smoking habit, alcohol consumption and physical exercise was collected with a structured questionnaire. Intakes were below two thirds of the recommended dietary allowances (RDA) in 22.45% of the sample for Fe and in 56.45% for Zn. Iron deficiency [two or more abnormal values for plasma Fe, TIBC, transferrin saturation and mean cell volume (MCV)] was found in 12.7% of the sample, and iron-deficient anaemia (low values for Hb, MCV, mean cell Hb and mean corpuscular Hb concentration) was found in 2.1%. In smokers, plasma levels of Fe were higher, and MCV was lower than in nonsmokers. Plasma Zn concentrations were below the reference value in 17.8% of the persons. Age and body mass index correlated inversely with plasma Zn (P<.01). Gender, age, obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption and physical activity were associated with differences in nutrient intakes. Logistic regression analysis showed that female gender and older age were associated with the risk of low intakes of Fe and Zn.
    The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 06/2008; 20(2):125-31. · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of α-galactoside removal, using a hydroalcoholic extraction process and phytase supplementation, on the digestive and metabolic utilization of total ash, Mn, Fe, Zn and K from Lupinus albus var. multolupa-based diets by growing rats were evaluated, using a balance technique, and compared to the results obtained using a casein–cystine control diet. The specific amount of minerals needed to complement those provided by the lupin flours and casein in order to reach the target requirements of the growing rat were supplemented as heme or non-heme iron sources or in the form of inorganic salts in the case of Zn or K. The nutritive utilization of total ash, Mn, Fe and Zn was higher from raw and α-galactoside-free lupin flour diets than from the casein–cystine control or the phytase-supplemented diets, whereas smaller differences were found regarding the nutritive utilization of K. Differences in mineral retention were reflected in changes of the mineral contents of some tissues, which varied among the different cations studied.
    Food Chemistry. 01/2008;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to assess the body composition in an adult Mediterranean population by two methods, to identify groups at risk for obesity and lifestyle factors that might influence this risk. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Andalusia, a western Mediterranean region in southern Spain. Body composition was studied with anthropometric methods and bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) in a random sample of 394 subjects (169 men, 225 women) between 20 and 60 years of age. When anthropometric methods were used, we found that 19.4% of the individuals had a body mass index (BMI) > or = 30 kg/m(2). In 46.2% of the men, more than 25% of the body weight consisted of fat, and in 74.1% of the women, more than 30% of the body weight consisted of fat. When BIA data were used, these values rose to 34.7% and 60.6% for men and women respectively. After controlling for sex, age correlated directly with percentage of body fat when skinfold thickness (r = 0.58) or BIA (r = 0.40) was used. In smokers, the number of cigarettes/day correlated directly with waist circumference (r = 0.76), after controlling for both age and sex. We found high percentages of obesity regardless of the indicator or method used, particularly in women. Factors such as sex, age, leisure-time physical exercise, educational level, and smoking appeared to influence obesity. The factors that made the greatest contribution to the rates of obesity and high waist-hip ratio were the age, time spent exercising, and educational level. In contrast, the risk of high body fat (as determined with both methods) was associated only with sex and age.
    International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 11/2007; 77(6):406-14. · 1.27 Impact Factor
  • Jesus M Porres, Pilar Aranda, María López-Jurado, Gloria Urbano
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    ABSTRACT: The protein and mineral composition of different varieties of three different lupin species (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, and Lupinus luteus) and the effect of alpha-galactoside removal by means of a hydroalcoholic extraction process on such composition were studied in relationship to nutrient distribution among the different anatomical parts of the seed (embryo, cotyledon, and seed coat). The extent of processing-derived protein insolubilization was assessed by both chemical and electrophoretic techniques and related to the amount of nitrogen soluble in H(2)O, NaCl, ethanol, NaOH, and sodium dodecyl sulfate/beta-mercaptoethanol (SDS/BME). The alpha-galactoside extraction process caused a significant increase in the amount of total and insoluble nitrogen and decreased the amount of soluble protein nitrogen, without affecting the content of soluble nonprotein nitrogen. alpha-Galactoside extraction was not effective at decreasing the levels of Mn present in lupins, and processing caused an increase in the content of this mineral in all of the species studied with the exception of L. albus var. multolupa. In general, the effect of processing on mineral content varied with the different lupin species, and mineral losses were lower in L. luteus.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 10/2007; 55(18):7445-52. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of treatment with α-galactosidase, tannase or a cell-wall-degrading enzyme complex under optimal conditions of pH, temperature and length of incubation time on the chemical composition and nutritive utilisation of protein and carbohydrates from pea (Pisum sativum L.) flour was studied. Soaking of pea flours in combination with enzyme treatment led to reductions of 77–90% in the levels of α-galactosides, and of 60–80% in the levels of trypsin inhibitor activity, increasing the content of total available sugars, which was highest in the pea flour treated with the cell-wall-degrading enzyme complex. All the treatments assayed caused a significant improvement in daily food intake, whereas the nutritive utilisation of protein was not increased in any of the pea products tested when compared to the raw pea flour. However, all the soaking and enzymatic treatments led to a significant improvement in daily weight gain associated with a higher dietary intake of food and total available sugars. Copyright © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry
    Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 04/2007; 87(7):1356 - 1363. · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of dephytinization of Pisum sativum, L. flour on the bioavailability of Mg and Zn was evaluated in growing rats. Processing of legume flours under optimal conditions for phytase activity (pH 5.5, 37°C, 60min) and subsequent removal of the soaking solution led to a 42 and 61% reduction in the content of Mg and Zn, respectively. Treatment with phytase led to an additional reduction in the concentration of the above-mentioned seed flour components, compared to the raw pea flour (69% and 74% for Mg and Zn, respectively). The considerable reduction in the content of inositol phosphates with high degree of phosphorylation attained under both processing conditions did not affect the digestive utilization of Mg, whereas the metabolic utilization of this mineral increased significantly. The digestive and metabolic utilization of Zn increased significantly in response to both processes assayed, reaching the highest values in the experimental group that was fed the phytase-treated pea flour diet. The amount of Mg retained by the experimental animals was reflected in the content of this mineral in the different tissues studied (femur, sternum, kidney, and heart), whereas no correlation was found in the case of Zn.
    European Food Research and Technology 01/2007; 226(1):105-111. · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of dephytinization, using an exogenous microbial phytase under optimal conditions (pH 5.5, 37 °C), and subsequent removal of the soaking solution after processing, on the bioavailability of iron from pea (Pisum sativum L.) flour was studied in growing rats by examining the chemical composition of pea flours, and the digestive and metabolic utilization of the above-mentioned mineral. Soaking of the pea flour led to a considerable reduction in the content of iron (33%), whereas a lower reduction in iron content (7%), associated with a higher concentration of total phosphorus, was obtained after additional treatment with phytase, than in the soaked pea flour. The digestive utilization of iron from the raw and soaked pea flours by growing rats was negligible, but increased significantly as a result of phytase treatment. The low iron absorption obtained for the former two dietary treatments during an experimental period of ten days was not reflected in any of the haematological indices (red blood count, haemoglobin, haematocrit) or tissues (femur, heart, kidney) studied, with the exception of the sternum.
    Food Chemistry. 01/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to assess factors influencing the intake and plasma levels of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and magnesium (Mg) in an adult population from southern Spain, in order to identify patterns of intake and groups at risk for deficiency. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in Andalusia, a western Mediterranean region in southern Spain. Nutrient intakes were studied in a random sample of 3,421 subjects (1,747 men, 1,674 women) between 25 and 60 years of age. Blood samples were obtained for biochemical assays in a random subsample of 354 subjects (170 men, 184 women). Food consumption was assessed by a 48-h recall. Concentrations of Ca, P and Mg were measured in plasma. Information about level of education, smoking habit, alcohol consumption and physical exercise was collected with a structured questionnaire. Intakes were below two-thirds of the RDA in 39.52% of the sample for Ca, and in 32.31% for Mg. Gender, age, educational level, obesity, smoking, alcohol use and physical activity were associated with differences in nutrient intakes. Plasma concentrations were below the reference value in 14.81% of the sample for Ca, and in 8.82% for Mg. Obese persons [body mass index (BMI) >/= 30 kg/m(2)] consumed less Ca, P and Mg, and had lower plasma Ca concentrations (P < 0.05) than non-obese persons. BMI showed an inverse correlation with plasma concentrations of Ca (r = -0.21, P < 0.05). Our results provide an estimate of the intake of Ca, P and Mg in the adult population of southern Spain. Of the factors that affected the intake of these nutrients, logistic regression analysis showed that only female gender and older age were associated with the risk of low plasma Ca concentrations.
    European Journal of Nutrition 09/2006; 45(6):349-54. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    Jesús M Porres, Pilar Aranda, María López-Jurado, Gloria Urbano
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    ABSTRACT: The nutritional composition of the legume Lupinus albus var. multolupa, raw or after alpha-galactoside extraction, and its effect on the bioavailability of protein, P, Ca, and Mg by growing rats was evaluated using a balance technique. The protein and dietary fibre content of the lupin flours studied was high, and 89-94% of the dietary fibre was present as insoluble dietary fibre. The alpha-galactoside extraction process did not disrupt the nutritional quality of protein, and the digestive and metabolic utilisation of this nutrient was high and comparable with that obtained from a casein-cystine control diet (pair-fed to the average daily food intake of the experimental groups fed the different lupin diets). Bioavailability of P, Ca, and Mg from the lupin diets tested was high, and supplementation of an exogenous microbial phytase (750 phytase units/kg) did not cause any further improvement. Mineral content in the bone tissue (femur and sternum) did not correlate to mineral balance, which, on the other hand, was related to the mineral content of other tissues such as blood, plasma, liver and kidney. Due to its ability to grow under adverse edaphic and climatic conditions and to its good nutritional quality, alpha-galactoside-free lupin flour supplemented with the required amounts of minerals and vitamins to meet nutrient requirements can be used as an excellent dietary source for the preparation of dietetic products.
    British Journal Of Nutrition 07/2006; 95(6):1102-11. · 3.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with obesity, and their influence on plasma lipid profile in an adult Mediterranean population. The data were obtained from a cross-sectional epidemiological survey. The study population resided in Andalusia, a western Mediterranean region in southern Spain. The survey was carried out with a random sample of 3421 subjects (1747 men, 1674 women) between 25 and 60 years of age. Blood samples were obtained for biochemical assays in a random subsample of 340 subjects (167 men, 173 women). Food consumption was assessed by 48-h recall. Height, weight, triceps, biceps, subscapular and suprailiac skinfolds, mid-upper arm, waist (WC) and hip circumferences, glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were measured. Information about lifestyles was obtained with a questionnaire. Of the adult population we studied, 18.9% were obese (body mass index [BMI] > or = 30 kg/m2). A larger proportion of men than women were overweight, but the opposite was found for obesity. Mean plasma lipid values were not modified significantly by obesity or lifestyle factors, and were within the normal range. Sex, age, physical exercise and lower educational level were associated directly with the risk of obesity, and smoking was associated inversely with the risk of obesity. In obese smokers WC and waist-hip ratio were larger, and levels of HDL-cholesterol were lower (p < 0.05) than in obese nonsmokers. Glucemia was higher in obese persons who consumed alcohol (p < 0.05) than in obese persons who did not consume alcohol. The risk of hypercholesterolemia and high levels of LDL-cholesterol was associated only with age, and the risk of low levels of HDL-cholesterol was associated only with high WC. Our results provide an estimate of the prevalence of obesity in the adult population in southern Spain, and of the associated factors. Sex, age, leisure-time physical exercise and educational level appear to influence obesity. Only age and WC but not BMI were associated with a risk of dyslipidemia. No dietary associations were observed between energy or macronutrient intake and plasma lipid concentrations in overweight or obese persons.
    Journal of the American College of Nutrition 01/2006; 24(6):456-65. · 1.74 Impact Factor