J M Lapierre

Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (17)42.23 Total impact

  • V. Malan, J.-M. Lapierre, M. Vekemans, S. P. Romana
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    ABSTRACT: The advent of comparative genomic hybridization on DNA chips or CGH-arrays is changing drastically the present clinical practice in the detection and diagnosis of human chromosome abnormalities. Several studies have shown that, using classical and molecular cytogenetics techniques, a chromosome abnormality is observed in at least 15% of mentally-retarded patients with or without a congenital malformation (2–3% of the general population). Also, this technology contributes to the nosology and to our understanding of the molecular basis of numerous malignancies, improving therefore their diagnosis and opening up new avenues for drugs discovery. Today, still limited to some research laboratories, this novel technology is establishing itself as the method of choice to detect and diagnose human constitutional and acquired chromosome abnormalities observed in hospital-based laboratories. In the present review, we are explaining the basic principles of CGH-arrays, showing its main place in the armamentarium of cytogenetic techniques, stating its indications and limitations in the detection and the diagnosis of human chromosome abnormalities and describing the drastic changes induced by its application into hospital-based laboratories.
    Irbm. 01/2007; 28(5):245-251.
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    ABSTRACT: Chips technology has allowed to miniaturize process making possible to realize in one step and using the same device a lot of chemical reactions. The application of this technology to molecular cytogenetics resulted in the development of comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) on microarrays technique. Using this technique it is possible to detect very small genetic imbalances anywhere in the genome. Its usefulness has been well documented in cancer and more recently in constitutional disorders. In particular it has been used to detect interstitial and subtelomeric submicroscopic imbalances, to characterize their size at the molecular level or to define the breakpoints of translocation. The challenge today is to transfer this technology in laboratory medicine. Nevertheless this technology remains expensive and the existence of numerous sequence polymorphisms makes its interpretation difficult. Finally its is unlikely that it will make karyotyping obsolete as it does not allow to detect balanced rearrangements which after meiotic segregation might result in genome imbalance in the progeny.
    Archives de Pédiatrie 11/2005; 12(10):1515-20. · 0.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hirschsprung's (HSCR) disease is a congenital intestinal malformation of the enteric nervous system. It is a multigenic malformation and until now, eight genes have been involved in the etiology of this disease: genes encoding proteins of the RET signaling pathway (RET, GDNF and NTN), genes participating in the endothelin (EDN) type B receptor pathway (EDNRB, EDN3 and ECE-1), the SOX10 gene and the SIP1 gene that is mutated in syndromic forms of HSCR. Mutations of these genes are found in not more than 50-60% of affected individuals. Here, we report on the results of a molecular cytogenetic study performed in a girl who presented with a syndromic short segment HSCR associated with a de novo t(4;8)(p13;p22) translocation. A comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) study found a 4p12p13 deletion. A molecular characterization of this rearrangement showed that the 4p13 deletion was 5 Mb in length and included the paired mesoderm homeobox gene (PMX2B) (MIM 603851), a gene expressed in the human embryonic gut and essential for the development of autonomic neural crest derivatives. The present observation suggests that PMX2B haploinsuffciency might predispose to HSCR.
    Clinical Genetics 10/2003; 64(3):204-9. · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    Journal of Medical Genetics 09/2002; 39(8):594-6. · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CHARGE association is a non-random occurrence of congenital malformations including coloboma, heart disease, choanal atresia, retarded growth and/or retarded development, genital hypoplasia, ear anomalies and/or deafness. The cause of this association remains unknown. Various genetic mechanisms have been proposed, including a contiguous gene syndrome but, so far, no recurrent locus has been identified. To address this question, we decided to perform a comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) study on a cohort of 27 patients with CHARGE association and a normal standard karyotype. We found two chromosomal anomalies: a der(9)t(9;13) derived from a paternal translocation and a der(6)t(4;6) of unknown origin. This suggests that chromosome imbalances may well mimic CHARGE association. Therefore patients with CHARGE association must be carefully tested with classical and molecular cytogenetic techniques to detect a potential chromosome imbalance. It is expected that more stringent diagnostic criteria of CHARGE association could define a more homogeneous group of patients where a single genetic cause might be identified.
    Clinical Genetics 03/2002; 61(2):135-8. · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on a young male with mental retardation, slightly upslanting palpebral fissures, strabismus, high-arched palate, retrognathia, and flat feet. Cytogenetic analysis in addition to fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) showed the presence of a chromosome 10p11.2-->p12.2 duplication. Karyotypes of the parents were normal. Comparison of the clinical findings observed in the present patient with those observed in other reported cases with duplication 10p suggest that the presence of high arched/cleft palate and retrognathia may be related to the 10p11.2-->p12.2 duplication. Also, no critical region for the trisomy 10p syndrome has been delimited.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics 12/2001; 104(3):204-8. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Segmental aneusomy for small chromosomal regions has been shown to be a common cause of mental retardation and multiple congenital anomalies. A screening method for such chromosome aberrations that are not detected using standard cytogenetic techniques is needed. Recent studies have focused on detection of subtle terminal chromosome aberrations using subtelomeric probes. This approach however excludes significant regions of the genome where submicroscopic rearrangements are also liable to occur. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) for screening of submicroscopic chromosomal rearrangements. CGH was performed in a cohort of 17 patients (14 families) with mental retardation, dysmorphic features and a normal karyotype. Five subtle unbalanced rearrangements were identified in 7 patients. Subsequent FISH studies confirmed these results. Although no interstitial submicroscopic rearrangement was detected in this small series, the study emphasises the value of CGH as a screening approach to detect subtle chromosome rearrangements in mentally retarded patients with dysmorphic features and a normal karyotype.
    Clinical Genetics 10/2001; 60(3):212-9. · 3.65 Impact Factor
  • Journal de Gynécologie Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction 03/2001; 30(1 Suppl):75-9. · 0.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on a girl with psychomotor retardation, growth retardation, microcephaly, frontal bossing, large ears, small nose, high arched and narrow palate, short neck, and generalized hirsutism. Cytogenetic analysis in addition to fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) showed the presence of a chromosome 7q22-->q31.3 duplication. Comparison with other reported cases shows some resemblance but insufficient to enable us to establish a definite syndrome with specific clinical manifestations. The importance in better analyzing further cases by new molecular cytogenetics techniques is raised.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics 11/2000; 95(2):164-8. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a new molecular cytogenetic technique which can detect and map whole and partial aneuploidies throughout a genomic specimen DNA without culturing specimen cells. Thus, CGH may be used as a comprehensive and rapid screening test in prenatal unbalanced chromosomal abnormalities detection. We report the results of the first prospective study to evaluate the use of the CGH technique on uncultured amniocytes. Seventy-one amniotic fluid samples, obtained by transabdominal amniocentesis between the 14th and 35th weeks of gestation, were simultaneously investigated using CGH and conventional cytogenetics. Amniocentesis were done for advanced maternal age (21.1%), fetal ultrasound anomalies (73.3%) and high level of biochemical markers in maternal serum (5.6%). Sixty-six (93%) informative results were generated on a total of 71 analysed specimens. Fifty-nine samples were reported as disomic for all autosomes with a normal sex chromosome constitution using CGH and conventional cytogenetics. Among them, three pericentromeric chromosomal inversions were undetected by CGH analysis. Seven numerical aberrations were characterized, including one case of trisomy 13, one case of trisomy 18 and five cases of trisomy 21. Advantages and limitations of CGH for a rapid prenatal screening of unbalanced chromosomal aberrations are discussed.
    Prenatal Diagnosis 03/2000; 20(2):123-31. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on clinical and cytogenetic findings in a boy with partial 9p duplication, dup(9)(p21pter). Clinical manifestations included facial and hand anomalies and mental retardation. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) were used to characterize further and confirm the conventional banding data. Investigation by FISH using whole chromosome 9 paint probe showed that the additional material was derived from chromosome 9. Using CGH, a region of gain was found in the chromosome segment 9p21pter. YACs and telomeric probes confirmed the duplicated region. Using the all-human telomeric sequences probe, intrachromosomal telomeric signal was noted on the short arm of the abnormal chromosome 9. Mechanism of formation of the duplication, including intrachromosomal telomeric sequences, is discussed.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics 04/1999; 83(2):125-31. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the characterization of a de novo unbalanced chromosome rearrangement by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) in a 15-day-old child with hypotonia and dysmorphia. We describe the combined use of CGH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to identify the origin of the additional chromosomal material on the short arm of chromosome 6. Investigation with FISH revealed that the excess material was not derived from chromosome 6. Identification of unknown unbalanced aberrations that could not be identified by traditional cytogenetics procedures is possible by CGH analysis. Visual analysis of digital images from CGH-metaphase spreads revealed a predominantly green signal on the telomeric region of chromosome 10p. After quantitative digital ratio imaging of 10 CGH-metaphase spreads, a region of gain was found in the chromosome band 10p14-pter. The CGH finding was confirmed by FISH analysis, using a whole chromosome 10 paint probe. These results show the usefulness of CGH for a rapid characterization of de novo unbalanced translocation, unidentifiable by karyotype alone.
    Clinical Genetics 11/1998; 54(4):334-40. · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An immunodetection technique has been developed to map with high resolution the methylated sites of human chromosomes. We have used this method to define the methylated areas of chromosomes from normal donors and from leukemia cell lines. The chromosomes were exposed for a short time to UV light to induce mild denaturation. The methylated sites were detected in situ by using monoclonal antibodies against 5-methylcytosine (prepared in mouse), and fluorescein-conjugated antimouse immunoglobulins. The chromosomes from normal cells exhibited a fluorescent pattern with RCT banding, although some differences from previously reported patterns could be detected. With this method we have been able to show the presence of two types of R-bands: High fluorescence R-band (HFR) and low fluorescence R-band (LFR). Chromosomes from leukemia cell lines exhibited low global staining with disrupted RCT banding of the chromosomes. The decreased level of the methylation status of the chromosomes from leukemia cells was confirmed by detection of 5-methylcytosines on total immobilized DNA. Thus, we have shown that this method can be used to determine the methylated status of chromosomes and, in turn, to map not only the structural (banding) but also the functional (methylation status) properties of the different chromosome domains in normal and pathologic human cells.
    Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics 07/1998; 103(2):101-9. · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) technique was initially used for detection of chromosomal imbalances in tumor cells. CGH can also be used as a supplementary method to karyotypic analysis in clinical cytogenetic cases. In order to evaluate CGH usefulness in prenatal and postnatal analysis of whole chromosome and segmental aneusomies, we investigated 13 clinical samples from blood, cultured chorionic villi, cultured amniotic fluids and uncultured amniotic fluids. These specimens, initially analyzed by conventional cytogenetics, included 5p monosomy, 9p duplication, add 6p, unbalanced translocation between chromosomes 5 and 10, mosaic tetrasomy 12p (50%), unbalanced (X;X) translocation and Prader-Willi deletion (15q11-13). In addition, six numerical chromosome aberrations (tetrasomy X, trisomies 13, 18, 21 and monosomy X) were analysed. All the chromosomal abnormalities, except the Prader-Willi deletion, were correctly detected by CGH. Here, we have demonstrated that the CGH technique is an alternative to classical fluorescence in situ hybridization using specific probes for detection of the unbalanced chromosomal aberrations in prenatal and postnatal diagnosis and could be used for rapid prenatal screening for unbalanced aberrations.
    Annales de Génétique 02/1998; 41(3):133-40.
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    ABSTRACT: Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) offers a new global approach for detection of chromosomal material imbalances of the entire genome in a single experiment without cell culture. In this paper, we discuss the technical development and the cytogenetic aspects of CGH in a clinical laboratory. Based only on the visual inspection of CGH metaphase spreads, the correct identification of numerical and structural anomalies are reported. No commercial image analysis software was required in these experiments. We have demonstrated that this new technology can be set up easily for routine use in a clinical cytogenetics laboratory.
    Annales de Génétique 02/1998; 41(1):56-62.
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    ABSTRACT: CDKN4/p27Kip1 is a cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor implicated in G1 phase arrest, which negatively regulates G1 phase progression in response to TGF beta, and might represent a tumor suppressor gene. We report here the chromosomal assignment of the human CDKN4 gene to chromosome 12p12.3 in close proximity to highly polymorphic microsatellite markers.
    Human Genetics 01/1996; 96(6):668-70. · 4.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A de novo structural abnormality of one X chromosome was prenatally detected in a female fetus. This chromosomal abnormality has been analyzed by conventional cytogenetic methods, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and laser scanning image cytometry. The association of these techniques has demonstrated that this anomaly corresponds to a (X;X) translocation. Analysis of hybridization signals by laser scanning image cytometry allowed to localize that the breakpoints were at the X-centromeric region and Xp11.3, respectively. These results show the usefulness of image analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization for a rapid characterization of de novo structural chromosome anomalies in prenatal diagnosis.
    Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy 01/1995; 10(6):387-92. · 2.30 Impact Factor