Wei Fan

Wuhan University, Wu-han-shih, Hubei, China

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Publications (29)112.36 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The interaction between host and donor cells is believed to play an important role in osteogenesis. However, it is still unclear how donor osteogenic cells behave and interact with host cells in vivo. The purpose of this study was to track the interactions between transplanted osteogenic cells and host cells during osteogenesis. In vitro migration assay was carried out to investigate the ability of osteogenic differentiated human mesenchymal stem cells (O-hMSCs) to recruit MSCs. At the in vivo level, O-hMSCs were implanted subcutaneously or into skull defects in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. New bone formation was observed by micro-CT and histological procedures. In situ hybridization (ISH) against human Alu sequences was performed to distinguish donor osteogenic cells from host cells. In vitro migration assay revealed an increased migration potential of MSCs by co-culturing with O-hMSCs. In agreement with the results of in vitro studies, ISH against human Alu sequences showed that host mouse MSCs migrated in large numbers into the transplantation site in response to O-hMSCs. Interestingly, host cells recruited by O-hMSCs were the major cell populations in newly formed bone tissues, indicating that O-hMSCs can trigger and initiate osteogenesis when transplanted in orthotopic sites. The observations from this study demonstrated that in vitro induced O-hMSCs were able to attract host MSCs in vivo and were involved in osteogenesis together with host cells, which may be of importance for bone tissue-engineering applications. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine 02/2015; 9(2). DOI:10.1002/term.1619 · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. Stem cells are regularly cultured under normoxic conditions. However, the physiological oxygen tension in the stem cell niche is known to be as low as 1-2% oxygen, suggesting that hypoxia has a distinct impact on stem cell maintenance. Periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) and dental pulp cells (DPCs) are attractive candidates in dental tissue regeneration. It is of great interest to know whether hypoxia plays a role in maintaining the stemness and differentiation capacity of PDLCs and DPCs. Methods. PDLCs and DPCs were cultured either in normoxia (20% O2) or hypoxia (2% O2). Cell viability assays were performed and the expressions of pluripotency markers (Oct-4, Sox2, and c-Myc) were detected by qRT-PCR and western blotting. Mineralization, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) deposition, and lipid droplets formation were assessed by Alizarin red S, Safranin O, and Oil red O staining, respectively. Results. Hypoxia did not show negative effects on the proliferation of PDLCs and DPCs. The pluripotency markers and differentiation potentials of PDLCs and DPCs significantly increased in response to hypoxic environment. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that hypoxia plays an important role in maintaining the stemness and differentiation capacity of PDLCs and DPCs.
    02/2014; 2014:890675. DOI:10.1155/2014/890675
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    ABSTRACT: Controllable drug delivery is one of the important ways for the therapy of bone cancer. Conventional mesoporous silica nano-particles may lack dual properties for combining controllable delivery of anti-cancer drugs and bone-forming bioactivity for bone cancer therapy. The aim of this study is to synthesize mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) nanospheres with combined dual functions of bioactivity and controlled drug delivery, and to further investigate their delivery property of anti-cancer drugs as well as the functional effect on bone-cancer cells. MBG nanospheres with spherical morphology and internal mesoporous microstructures were successfully prepared by a facile hydrothermal method. The prepared MBG nanospheres possess high specific surface area and mesopore volume (443 m2 g−1, 0.57 cm3 g−1) as well as uniform mesopore size distribution (2.9 nm). The MBG nanospheres demonstrate excellent bioactivity by inducing apatite mineralization in simulated body fluids. An anti-cancer drug, doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX), was successfully loaded in the MBG nanospheres with a distinctively high loading efficiency of around 90%. The loading amount of DOX can be effectively controlled by adjusting the initial drug-loading concentrations. MBG nanospheres can maintain a sustained release of DOX, and their release kinetics can be controlled by varying the pH microenvironment and initial drug-loading concentrations. In addition, the prepared MBG nanospheres showed obvious degradation by releasing Ca2+ and SiO44− ions in PBS. Furthermore, the delivery of DOX from MBG nanospheres into cell culture environment shows a significant inhibitory effect on the viability of osteosarcoma cells with the increase of interaction time. The prepared MBG nanospheres have high specific surface area and mesopore volume, excellent apatite-mineralization ability, distinct degradability, high DOX-loading efficiency and controllable DOX release as well as anti-cancer functions. These unique characteristics suggest that the obtained MBG nanospheres may be used for the therapy of bone cancer.
    05/2013; 1(21):2710-2718. DOI:10.1039/C3TB20275E
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to prepare Ca, P and Si-containing ternary oxide nagelschmidtite (NAGEL, Ca7Si2P2O16) bioceramics and explore their in vitro bioactivity for potential bone tissue regeneration. We prepared dense NAGEL ceramics through high-temperature sintering of NAGEL ceramic powders. The apatite-mineralization ability, dissolution rate, and human osteoblast response (including cytotoxicity analysis, attachment, morphology, proliferation, and bone-related gene expression) to NAGEL ceramics have been systematically studied by comparing with conventional β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ceramics. The results showed that NAGEL ceramics possessed more obvious apatite mineralization and dissolution (degradation) and stimulated bone-related gene expression (OCN and OPN) of osteoblasts than β-TCP ceramics. NAGEL ceramics also showed no significant cytotoxicity. NAGEL ceramics supported osteoblast attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic gene expression, with a comparable cell proliferation activity with β-TCP ceramics. These results indicate that novel NAGEL bioceramics with the specific composition of Ca7Si2P2O16, are a promising biomaterial for bone tissue regeneration application.
    Journal of the American Ceramic Society 03/2013; 96(3). DOI:10.1111/jace.12059 · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Strontium (Sr), Zinc (Zn), magnesium (Mg), and silicon (Si) are reported to be essential trace elements for the growth and mineralization of bone. We speculated that the combination of these bioactive elements in bioceramics may be effective to regulate the osteogenic property of bone-forming cells. In this study, two Sr-containing silicate bioceramics, Sr(2) ZnSi(2) O(7) (SZS) and Sr(2) MgSi(2) O(7) (SMS), were prepared. The biological response of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to the two bioceramics (in the forms of powders and dense ceramic bulks) was systematically studied. In powder form, the effect of powder extracts on the viability and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of BMSCs was investigated. In ceramic disc form, both direct and indirect coculture of BMSCs with ceramic discs were used to investigate their biological response, including attachment, proliferation, ALP activity, and bone-related genes expression. Beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and akermanite (Ca(2) MgSi(2) O(7) , CMS) were used as control materials. The results showed that the Sr, Zn, and Si (or Sr, Mg, and Si)-containing ionic products from SZS and SMS powders enhanced ALP activity of BMSCs, compared to those from β-TCP. Both SZS and SMS ceramic discs supported the growth of BMSCs, and most importantly, significantly enhanced the ALP activity and bone-related genes expression of BMSCs as compared to β-TCP. The results suggest that the specific combination of bioactive ions (Sr, Zn, Si, e.g.) in bioceramics is a viable way to improve the biological performance of biomaterials, and the form of materials and surface properties were nonnegligible factors to influence cell response. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 100A:2979-2990, 2012.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 11/2012; 100(11):2979-90. DOI:10.1002/jbm.a.34246 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to develop a new intra-canal disinfectant-carrier for infected canal treatment. To achieve this purpose, a new porous Ca–Si (CS)-based nanosphere was synthesized and characterized. Results showed that the nanospheres can infiltrate into dentinal tubules and released the ampicillin over one week time in a sustained manner. The release of ampicillin from spheres has significant antibacterial property. Extensive and well-organized in vitro mineralization and crystallization of apatite were induced on the surface of dentin slices covered by CS nanospheres. All these features indicate that the porous CS nanospheres may be developed into a new intra-canal disinfectant-carrier for infected canal treatment.
    Materials Letters 08/2012; 81:16–19. DOI:10.1016/j.matlet.2012.04.142 · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this article, we, for the first time, investigated mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds for the delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor. We have found that mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds have significantly higher loading efficiency and more sustained release of vascular endothelial growth factor than non-mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds. In addition, vascular endothelial growth factor delivery from mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds has improved the viability of endothelial cells. The study has suggested that mesopore structures in mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds play an important role in improving the loading efficiency, decreasing the burst release, and maintaining the bioactivity of vascular endothelial growth factor, indicating that mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds are an excellent carrier of vascular endothelial growth factor for potential bone tissue engineering applications.
    Journal of Biomaterials Applications 07/2012; 28(3). DOI:10.1177/0885328212453635 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The repair of articular cartilage typically involves the repair of cartilage-subchondral bone tissue defects. Although various bioactive materials have been used to repair bone defects, how these bioactive materials in subchondral bone defects influence the repair of autologous cartilage transplant remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different subchondral biomaterial scaffolds on the repair of autologous cartilage transplant in a sheep model. Cylindrical cartilage-subchondral bone defects were created in the right femoral knee joint of each sheep. The subchondral bone defects were implanted with hydroxyapatite-β-tricalcium phosphate (HA-TCP), poly lactic-glycolic acid (PLGA)-HA-TCP dual-layered composite scaffolds (PLGA/HA-TCP scaffolds), or autologous bone chips. The autologous cartilage layer was placed on top of the subchondral materials. After 3 months, the effect of different subchondral scaffolds on the repair of autologous cartilage transplant was systematically studied by investigating the mechanical strength, structural integration, and histological responses. The results showed that the transplanted cartilage layer supported by HA-TCP scaffolds had better structural integration and higher mechanical strength than that supported by PLGA/HA-TCP scaffolds. Furthermore, HA-TCP-supported cartilage showed higher expression of acid mucosubstances and glycol-amino-glycan contents than that supported by PLGA/HA-TCP scaffolds. Our results suggested that the physicochemical properties, including the inherent mechanical strength and material chemistry of the scaffolds, play important roles in influencing the repair of autologous cartilage transplants. The study may provide useful information for the design and selection of proper subchondral biomaterials to support the repair of both subchondral bone and cartilage defects.
    Journal of Biomaterials Applications 06/2012; 27(8). DOI:10.1177/0885328211431310 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Calcium silicate (CaSiO3, CS) ceramics have received significant attention for application in bone regeneration due to their excellent in vitro apatite-mineralization ability; however, how to prepare porous CS scaffolds with a controllable pore structure for bone tissue engineering still remains a challenge. Conventional methods could not efficiently control the pore structure and mechanical strength of CS scaffolds, resulting in unstable in vivo osteogenesis. The aim of this study is to set out to solve these problems by applying a modified 3D-printing method to prepare highly uniform CS scaffolds with controllable pore structure and improved mechanical strength. The in vivo osteogenesis of the prepared 3D-printed CS scaffolds was further investigated by implanting them in the femur defects of rats. The results show that the CS scaffolds prepared by the modified 3D-printing method have uniform scaffold morphology. The pore size and pore structure of CS scaffolds can be efficiently adjusted. The compressive strength of 3D-printed CS scaffolds is around 120 times that of conventional polyurethane templated CS scaffolds. 3D-Printed CS scaffolds possess excellent apatite-mineralization ability in simulated body fluids. Micro-CT analysis has shown that 3D-printed CS scaffolds play an important role in assisting the regeneration of bone defects in vivo. The healing level of bone defects implanted by 3D-printed CS scaffolds is obviously higher than that of 3D-printed β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds at both 4 and 8 weeks. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining shows that 3D-printed CS scaffolds induce higher quality of the newly formed bone than 3D-printed β-TCP scaffolds. Immunohistochemical analyses have further shown that stronger expression of human type I collagen (COL1) and alkaline phosphate (ALP) in the bone matrix occurs in the 3D-printed CS scaffolds than in the 3D-printed β-TCP scaffolds. Considering these important advantages, such as controllable structure architecture, significant improvement in mechanical strength, excellent in vivo osteogenesis and since there is no need for second-time sintering, it is indicated that the prepared 3D-printed CS scaffolds are a promising material for application in bone regeneration.
    Journal of Materials Chemistry 05/2012; 22(24):12288-12295. DOI:10.1039/C2JM30566F · 6.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study describes the design of a biphasic scaffold composed of a Fused Deposition Modeling scaffold (bone compartment) and an electrospun membrane (periodontal compartment) for periodontal regeneration. In order to achieve simultaneous alveolar bone and periodontal ligament regeneration a cell-based strategy was carried out by combining osteoblast culture in the bone compartment and placement of multiple periodontal ligament (PDL) cell sheets on the electrospun membrane. In vitro data showed that the osteoblasts formed mineralized matrix in the bone compartment after 21 days in culture and that the PDL cell sheet harvesting did not induce significant cell death. The cell-seeded biphasic scaffolds were placed onto a dentin block and implanted for 8 weeks in an athymic rat subcutaneous model. The scaffolds were analyzed by μCT, immunohistochemistry and histology. In the bone compartment, a more intense ALP staining was obtained following seeding with osteoblasts, confirming the μCT results which showed higher mineralization density for these scaffolds. A thin mineralized cementum-like tissue was deposited on the dentin surface for the scaffolds incorporating the multiple PDL cell sheets, as observed by H&E and Azan staining. These scaffolds also demonstrated better attachment onto the dentin surface compared to no attachment when no cell sheets were used. In addition, immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of CEMP1 protein at the interface with the dentine. These results demonstrated that the combination of multiple PDL cell sheets and a biphasic scaffold allows the simultaneous delivery of the cells necessary for in vivo regeneration of alveolar bone, periodontal ligament and cementum.
    Biomaterials 05/2012; 33(22):5560-73. DOI:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2012.04.038 · 8.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bioactive materials are playing an important role in sealing apical root canals of teeth, inducing bone/cementum tissue regeneration and inhibiting bacterial viability. Conventional Ca(OH)2 materials have limitations for filling apical root canals of teeth due to their low mineralization ability and potential cytotoxicity. The aim of this study is to prepare bioactive mesoporous calcium–silicate (MCS) nanoparticles for the potential application of filling an apical root canal of a tooth. The mesoporous structure, specific surface area, pore volume and morphology of MCS particles were characterized. The apatite-mineralization ability, in vitro osteogenesis, drug delivery and antibacterial properties were further investigated. The results showed that MCS nanoparticles (around 100 nm) with high specific surface area and pore volume were successfully prepared by a facile template method. The prepared MCS could be easily injected to fill the apical root canal of a tooth. MCS nanoparticles induced apatite-mineralization in DMEM solution, did not show cytotoxicity, and their ionic products could stimulate the proliferation of periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs). In contrast, conventional Ca(OH)2 materials did not induce mineralization and showed significant cytotoxic effects on PDLCs. Furthermore, MCS extracts at low concentrations (12.5 and 25 mg mL−1) induced higher ALP activity of PDLCs than those at high concentrations (50 and 100 mg mL−1). In addition, MCS extracts significantly stimulated osteogenic gene expression (OPN, ALP and OCN) of PDLCs compared to a blank control, indicating the excellent osteostimulation property of MCS. MCS nanoparticles could be used for loading the antibiotic ampicillin due to their mesoporous microstructures, and the loaded ampicillin in MCS nanoparticles could be released with a slow and sustained release profile. Moreover, it was found that pure MCS nanoparticles revealed antibacterial effects, while the delivery of ampicillin from MCS nanoparticles further inhibited bacterial viability. Therefore, the results suggest that MCS nanoparticles are an advanced biomaterial with multiple functions for filling the apical root canal of a tooth due to their unique nanostructure, injectability, apatite-mineralization, osteostimulation, drug-delivery and antibacterial properties.
    Journal of Materials Chemistry 01/2012; 22(33-33). DOI:10.1039/c2jm33387b · 6.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Low oxygen pressure (hypoxia) plays an important role in stimulating angiogenesis; there are, however, few studies to prepare hypoxia-mimicking tissue engineering scaffolds. Mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) has been developed as scaffolds with excellent osteogenic properties for bone regeneration. Ionic cobalt (Co) is established as a chemical inducer of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, which induces hypoxia-like response. The aim of this study was to develop hypoxia-mimicking MBG scaffolds by incorporating ionic Co(2+) into MBG scaffolds and investigate if the addition of Co(2+) ions would induce a cellular hypoxic response in such a tissue engineering scaffold system. The composition, microstructure and mesopore properties (specific surface area, nano-pore volume and nano-pore distribution) of Co-containing MBG (Co-MBG) scaffolds were characterized and the cellular effects of Co on the proliferation, differentiation, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion, HIF-1α expression and bone-related gene expression of human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in MBG scaffolds were systematically investigated. The results showed that low amounts of Co (<5%) incorporated into MBG scaffolds had no significant cytotoxicity and that their incorporation significantly enhanced VEGF protein secretion, HIF-1α expression, and bone-related gene expression in BMSCs, and also that the Co-MBG scaffolds support BMSC attachment and proliferation. The scaffolds maintain a well-ordered mesopore channel structure and high specific surface area and have the capacity to efficiently deliver antibiotics drugs; in fact, the sustained released of ampicillin by Co-MBG scaffolds gives them excellent anti-bacterial properties. Our results indicate that incorporating cobalt ions into MBG scaffolds is a viable option for preparing hypoxia-mimicking tissue engineering scaffolds and significantly enhanced hypoxia function. The hypoxia-mimicking MBG scaffolds have great potential for bone tissue engineering applications by combining enhanced angiogenesis with already existing osteogenic properties.
    Biomaterials 12/2011; 33(7):2076-85. DOI:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2011.11.042 · 8.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Porous SiO2 scaffolds with mesopore structure (named as MS scaffolds) have been proposed as suitable for bone tissue engineering due to their excellent drug-delivery ability; however, the mineralization and cytocompatibility of MS scaffolds are far from optimal for bone tissue engineering, and it is also unclear how the delivery of drugs from MS scaffolds affects osteoblastic cells. The aims of the present study were to improve the mineralization and cytocompatibility of MS scaffolds by coating mussel-inspired polydopamine on the pore walls of scaffolds. The effects of polydopamine modification on MS scaffolds were investigated with respect to apatitemineralization and the attachment, proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), as was the release profile of the drugdexamethasone (DEX). Our results show that polydopamine can readily coat the pore walls of MS scaffolds and that polydopamine-modified MS scaffolds have a significantly improved apatite-mineralization ability as well as better attachment and proliferation of BMSCs in the scaffolds, compared to controls. Polydopamine modification did not alter the release profile of DEX from MS scaffolds but the sustained delivery of DEX significantly improved alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of BMSCs in the scaffolds. These results suggest that polydopamine modification is a viable option to enhance the bioactivity of bone tissue engineering scaffolds and, further, that DEX-loaded polydopamine MS scaffolds have potential uses as a release system to enhance the osteogenic properties of bone tissue engineering applications.
    Journal of Materials Chemistry 11/2011; 21(45):18300-18307. DOI:10.1039/C1JM12770E · 6.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Porous yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) has been regarded as a potential candidate for bone substitute due to its high mechanical strength. However, porous YSZ is biologically inert to bone tissue. It is therefore necessary to introduce bioactive coatings onto the walls of the porous structures to enhance its bioactivity. In this study, porous YSZ scaffolds were prepared using a replication technique and then coated with mesoporous bioglass due to its excellent bioactivity. The microstructures were examined using scanning electron microscopy and the mechanical strength was evaluated via compression test. The biocompatibility and bioactivity were also evaluated using bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) proliferation test and simulated body fluid test.
    10/2011; 365. DOI:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.365.209
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    ABSTRACT: Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres have been used for regenerative medicine due to their ability for drug delivery and generally good biocompatibility, but they lack adequate bioactivity for bone repair application. CaSiO₃ (CS) has been proposed as a new class of material suitable for bone tissue repair due to its excellent bioactivity. In this study, we set out to incorporate CS into PLGA microspheres to investigate how the phase structure (amorphous and crystal) of CS influences the in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of the composite microspheres, with a view to the application for bone regeneration. X-ray diffraction (XRD), N₂ adsorption-desorption analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to analyze the phase structure, surface area/pore volume, and microstructure of amorphous CS (aCS) and crystal CS (cCS), as well as their composite microspheres. The in vitro bioactivity of aCS and cCS-PLGA microspheres was evaluated by investigating their apatite-mineralization ability in simulated body fluids (SBF) and the viability of human bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The in vivo bioactivity was investigated by measuring their de novo bone-formation ability. The results showed that the incorporation of both aCS and cCS enhanced the in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of PLGA microspheres. cCS/PLGA microspheres improved better in vitro BMSC viability and de novo bone-formation ability in vivo, compared to aCS/PLGA microspheres. Our study indicates that controlling the phase structure of CS is a promising method to modulate the bioactivity of polymer microsphere system for potential bone tissue regeneration.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 07/2011; 98(1):122-31. DOI:10.1002/jbm.a.33092 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hyperthermia and local drug delivery have been proposed as potential therapeutic approaches for bone defects resulting from malignant bone tumors. The development of bioactive materials with magnetic and drug delivery properties may potentially meet this target. The aim of this study was to develop a multifunctional mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) scaffold system for both hyperthermic and local drug delivery applications. To this end iron (Fe)-containing MBG (Fe-MBG) scaffolds with a hierarchical large pores structure (300-500 μm) and fingerprint-like mesopores (4.5 nm) have been prepared. The effects of Fe on the mesopore structure and physiochemical, magnetic, drug delivery and biological properties of MBG scaffolds have been systematically investigated. The results show that the morphology of the mesopores varied from straight channels to curved fingerprint-like channels after incorporation of Fe into MBG scaffolds. The magnetism of MBG scaffolds can be tailored by controlling the Fe content. Furthermore, the incorporation of Fe into mesoporous MBG glass scaffolds enhanced the mitochondrial activity and the expression of bone-related genes (ALP and OCN) in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) attached to the scaffolds. The Fe-MBG scaffolds obtained also possessed high specific surface areas and demonstrated sustained drug delivery. Thus Fe-MBG scaffolds are magnetic, degradable and bioactive. The multifunctionality of Fe-MBG scaffolds suggests that there is great potential for their use in the treatment and regeneration of large-bone defects caused by malignant bone tumors through a combination of hyperthermia, local drug delivery and osteoconductivity.
    Acta biomaterialia 06/2011; 7(10):3563-72. DOI:10.1016/j.actbio.2011.06.028 · 5.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The efficient loading and sustained release of proteins from bioactive microspheres remain a significant challenge. In this study, we have developed bioactive microspheres which can be loaded with protein and then have a controlled rate of protein release into a surrounding medium. This was achieved by preparing a bioactive microsphere system with core-shell structure, combining a calcium silicate (CS) shell with an alginate (A) core by a one-step in situ method. The result was to improve the microspheres' protein adsorption and release, which yielded a highly bioactive material with potential uses in bone repair applications. The composition and the core-shell structure, as well as the formation mechanism of the obtained CS-A microspheres, were investigated by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer dot and line-scanning analysis. The protein loading efficiency reached 75 per cent in CS-A microspheres with a core-shell structure by the in situ method. This is significantly higher than that of pure A or CS-A microspheres prepared by non-in situ method, which lack a core-shell structure. CS-A microspheres with a core-shell structure showed a significant decrease in the burst release of proteins, maintaining sustained release profile in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at both pH 7.4 and 4.3, compared with the controls. The protein release from CS-A microspheres is predominantly controlled by a Fickian diffusion mechanism. The CS-A microspheres with a core-shell structure were shown to have improved apatite-mineralization in simulated body fluids compared with the controls, most probably owing to the existence of bioactive CS shell on the surface of the microspheres. Our results indicate that the core-shell structure of CS-A microspheres play an important role in enhancing protein delivery and mineralization, which makes these composite materials promising candidates for application in bone tissue regeneration.
    Journal of The Royal Society Interface 05/2011; 8(65):1804-14. DOI:10.1098/rsif.2011.0201 · 3.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For a scaffold material to be considered effective and efficient for tissue engineering, it should be biocompatible and bioinductive. Silk fiber is a natural biocompatible material suitable for scaffold fabrication; however, silk is tissue conductive and lacks tissue-inductive properties. One proposed method to make the scaffold tissue inductive is to introduce plasmids or viruses encoding a specific growth factor into the scaffold. In this study, we constructed adenoviruses encoding bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) and incorporated these into silk scaffolds. The osteoinductive and new bone formation properties of these constructs were assessed in vivo in a critical-sized skull defect animal model. Silk fibroin scaffolds containing adenovirus particles coding BMP-7 were prepared. The release of the adenovirus particles from the scaffolds was quantified by tissue-culture infective dose (TCID50), and the bioactivity of the released viruses was evaluated on human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs). To demonstrate the in vivo bone forming ability of the virus-carrying silk fibroin scaffold, the scaffold constructs were implanted into calvarial defects in SCID mice. In vitro studies demonstrated that the virus-carrying silk fibroin scaffold released virus particles over a 3-week period while preserving their bioactivity. In vivo test of the scaffold constructs in critical-sized skull defect areas revealed that silk scaffolds were capable of delivering the adenovirus encoding BMP-7, resulting in significantly enhanced new bone formation. Silk scaffolds carrying BMP-7 encoding adenoviruses can effectively transfect cells and enhance both in vitro and in vivo osteogenesis. The findings of this study indicate that silk fibroin is a promising biomaterial for gene delivery to repair critical-sized bone defects.
    Tissue Engineering Part C Methods 04/2011; 17(8):789-97. DOI:10.1089/ten.tec.2010.0453 · 4.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Introduction and aims: For a scaffold material to be considered effective and efficient for tissue engineering it must be biocompatible as well as bioinductive. Silk fiber is a natural biocompatible material suitable for scaffold fabrication; however, silk is tissue-conductive and lacks tissue-inductive properties. One proposed method to make the scaffold tissue-inductive is to introduce plasmids or viruses encoding a specific growth factor into the scaffold. In this study, we constructed adenoviruses encoding bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) and incorporated these into silk scaffolds. The osteo-inductive and new bone formation properties of these constructs were assessed in vivo in a critical-sized skull defect animal model. Materials and methods: Silk fibroin scaffolds containing adenovirus particles coding BMP-7 were prepared. The release of the adenovirus particles from the scaffolds was quantified by tissue-culture infective dose (TCID50) and the bioactivity of the released viruses was evaluated on human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs). To demonstrate the in vivo bone forming ability of the virus-carrying silk fibroin scaffold, the scaffold constructs were implanted into calvarial defects in SCID mice. Results: In vitro studies demonstrated that the virus-carrying silk fibroin scaffold released virus particles over a 3 week period while preserving their bioactivity. In vivo test of the scaffold constructs in critical-sized skull defect areas revealed that silk scaffolds were capable of delivering the adenovirus encoding BMP-7, resulting significantly enhanced new bone formation. Conclusions: Silk scaffolds carrying BMP-7 encoding adenoviruses can effectively transfect cells and enhance both in vitro and in vivo osteogenesis. The findings of this study indicate silk fibroin is a promising biomaterial for gene delivery to repair critical-sized bone defects.
    Tissue Engineering Part C Methods 03/2011; DOI:10.1089/ten.TEA.2010.0453 · 4.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis, or neovascularization, is a finely balanced process controlled by pro- and anti-angiogenic factors. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a major pro-angiogenic factor, whereas pigment epithelial-derived factor (PEDF) is the most potent natural angiogenesis inhibitor. In this study, the regulatory role of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) during angiogenesis was assessed by the endothelial differentiation potential, VEGF/PEDF production and responses to pro-angiogenic and hypoxic conditions. The in vivo regulation of blood vessel formation by BMSCs was also explored in a SCID mouse model. Results showed that PEDF was expressed more prominently in BMSCs compared to VEGF. This contrasted with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) where the expression of VEGF was higher than that of PEDF. The ratio of VEGF/PEDF gene expression in BMSCs increased when VEGF concentration reached 40ng/ml in the culture medium, but decreased at 80ng/ml. Under CoCl(2)-induced hypoxic conditions, the VEGF/PEDF ratio of BMSCs increased significantly in both normal and angiogenic culture media. There was no expression of endothelial cell markers in BMSCs cultured in either pro-angiogenic or hypoxia culture conditions when compared with HUVECs. The in vivo study showed that VEGF/PEDF expression closely correlated with the degree of neovascularization, and that hypoxia significantly induced pro-angiogenic activity in BMSCs. These results indicate that, rather than being progenitors of endothelial cells, BMSCs play an important role in regulating the neovascularization process, and that the ratio of VEGF and PEDF may, in effect, be an indicator of the pro- or anti-angiogenic activities of BMSCs.
    Differentiation 03/2011; 81(3):181-91. DOI:10.1016/j.diff.2010.12.003 · 2.84 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

455 Citations
112.36 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2014
    • Wuhan University
      • School and Hospital of Stomatology
      Wu-han-shih, Hubei, China
  • 2008–2012
    • Queensland University of Technology
      • Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia