[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to determine outcomes in patients with and without symptomatic cerebrovascular disease (sCVD) undergoing heart transplantation. Second, we sought to determine factors associated with stroke in the perioperative period after heart transplantation.
sCVD is considered a relative contraindication to heart transplantation. Despite this concern, outcomes in patients with sCVD undergoing heart transplantation have not been well defined.
Data on all single-organ heart transplants performed in the United States between April 1994 and December 2006 in patients age 40 years or older were analyzed. Survival analysis was performed to examine the effect of sCVD on the combined outcome of stroke or death, stroke, death, and functional decline, adjusting for potential confounding variables over long-term follow-up. In a separate analysis, predictors of perioperative stroke during the transplant-related hospitalization were examined using multiple logistic regression.
There were 1,078 patients with and 16,765 patients without sCVD. The annualized rates of stroke or death (11.5% vs. 7.8%; p < 0.001), stroke (4% vs. 1.4%; p < 0.001), death (8.9% vs. 7.4%; p < 0.001), and functional decline (3.7% vs. 3.0%; p = 0.002) were higher in patients with sCVD than in patients without sCVD. In multivariable analysis, patients with sCVD were at increased risk of stroke or death (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17 to 1.42), stroke (HR: 2.24; 95% CI: 2.02 to 2.87), and functional decline (HR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.42) compared with those without sCVD. We did not identify a higher risk of death in patients with sCVD (HR: 1.08; 95% CI: 0.98 to 1.20), compared with those without sCVD. sCVD, ventilator use, and ventricular assist device use were the most important predictors of perioperative stroke.
Patients with sCVD are at an increased risk of stroke and functional decline after transplantation independent of other variables, but not death, during long-term follow-up. These results should assist programs in making informed decisions in patients with sCVD who are undergoing evaluation for heart transplantation.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 08/2011; 58(10):1036-41. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2011.04.038 · 16.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thyroid nodules are common in the adult population. Widespread use of sensitive imaging studies often leads to their incidental discovery. Recent guidelines recommend thyroid-stimulating hormone determination and ultrasonography during initial nodule evaluation. Fine-needle aspiration is often performed to detect malignancy. However, the management of thyroid nodules in cardiac transplantation patients has not been directly addressed by recent guidelines. Confounding medications such as amiodarone and anti-coagulants present a management dilemma. The timing of fine-needle aspiration is crucial because (1) malignancy diagnosed pre-operatively usually precludes organ transplantation, and (2) patients undergoing solid-organ transplantation are at increased risk of developing de novo malignancies, including thyroid. With the rising incidence of thyroid cancer, donor-related malignancy will likely become a more prominent issue. This review addresses thyroid nodule management in the cardiac transplant population and provides recommendations for organ donation and transplantation in donors and recipients with thyroid cancer.
The Journal of heart and lung transplantation: the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation 08/2010; 29(8):831-7. DOI:10.1016/j.healun.2010.04.003 · 6.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite major advances in the treatment of heart failure over the past 2 decades improving the natural history of this condition, heart failure continues to be a major source of morbidity and mortality. Although availability of donor hearts for transplantation has declined over the past several years, innovations in ventricular assist device (VAD) technology has provided an alternative therapeutic option for patients with advanced heart failure. Initiated as a mechanical option to 'bridge' critically ill patients awaiting transplantation, VADs are being increasingly deployed as 'destination' devices to provide long-term support. With technical advances resulting in improved mechanical reliability, reduced postoperative morbidity and greater likelihood of patient acceptance, there is interest in expanding the applicability for destination VAD treatment beyond the current indication of severely ill patients who are not candidates for transplant. This Review examines the newer, third-generation VADs for mechanical cardiac support. These devices are at various stages of development and clinical investigation. One or more of these newer devices is likely to emerge as an important development in the treatment of patients with advanced heart failure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study sought to determine the relationship between pre-transplant ventricular assist device (VAD) support and mortality after heart transplantation.
Increasingly, VADs are being used to bridge patients to heart transplantation. The effect of these devices on post-transplant mortality is unclear.
Patients 18 years or older who underwent first-time, single-organ heart transplantation in the U.S. between 1995 and 2004 were included in the analyses. This study compared 1,433 patients bridged with intracorporeal and 448 patients bridged with extracorporeal VADs with 9,455 United Network for Organ Sharing status 1 patients not bridged with a VAD with respect to post-transplant mortality. Because the proportional hazards assumption was not met, hazard ratios (HRs) for different time periods were estimated.
Intracorporeal VADs were associated with an HR of 1.20 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02 to 1.43; p = 0.03) for mortality in the first 6 months after transplant and an HR of 1.99 (95% CI: 1.44 to 2.75; p < 0.0001) beyond 5 years. Between 6 months and 5 years, the HRs were not significantly different from 1. Extracorporeal VADs were associated with an HR of 1.91 (95% CI: 1.53 to 2.37; p < 0.0001) for mortality in the first 6 months and an HR of 2.93 (95% CI: 1.19 to 7.25; p = 0.02) beyond 5 years. The HRs were not significantly different from 1 between 6 months and 5 years, except for an HR of 0.23 (95% CI: 0.06 to 0.91; p = 0.04) between 24 and 36 months.
Extracorporeal VADs are associated with higher mortality within 6 months and again beyond 5 years after transplantation. Intracorporeal VADs are associated with a small increase in mortality in the first 6 months and a clinically significant increase in mortality beyond 5 years. These data do not provide evidence supporting VAD implantation in stable United Network for Organ Sharing status I patients awaiting heart transplantation.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 01/2009; 53(3):264-71. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2008.08.070 · 16.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heart transplantation from donors with a history of cocaine abuse remains controversial. Therefore, we examined the consequence of donor cocaine-use history on all-cause mortality and the development of coronary artery disease after heart transplantation. Using the United Network for Organ Sharing Thoracic Registry we identified 9,217 first-time heart-only adult transplant recipients between January 1999 and December 2003, and then divided this cohort into sub-groups based on the reported history of donor cocaine use. Multivariate analysis revealed no difference in mortality or development of coronary artery disease at 1 and 5 years between transplant recipients who received an organ from donors with a history of cocaine use when compared with donors having no history of cocaine use.
The Journal of heart and lung transplantation: the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation 01/2009; 27(12):1350-2. DOI:10.1016/j.healun.2008.08.008 · 6.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fatty infiltration of the right ventricle is usually an incidental finding at post-mortem, but may have clinical significance at times of physiologic stress. We report a case of fatal right ventricular dysfunction immediately after cardiac transplantation secondary to massive fatty infiltration of the donor right ventricle. Ante-mortem diagnosis of fatty infiltration may be difficult to determine despite non-invasive cardiac evaluation. If the diagnosis of fatty infiltration is suspected at time of donor harvest, the relative risks and benefits of proceeding with transplantation should be carefully assessed.
The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 09/2005; 24(8):1143-5. DOI:10.1016/j.healun.2004.07.002 · 6.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rapid advances have been made over the last decade in the nonpharmacological treatment of patients with advanced heart failure. This article reviews the current application of device therapy including cardiac resynchronization, defibrillators, cardiac restraint devices and mechanical ventricular support in patients with advanced heart failure.
Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy 08/2004; 2(4):573-80. DOI:10.1586/14779072.2.4.573
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite recent advances in medical therapy, mortality remains high following the diagnosis of heart failure (HF). Cardiac transplantation is still the standard surgical treatment option for highly selected patients with severe end-stage HF; however, it is only available to a small percentage of patients. The small number of available donor hearts is an inherent limitation on the ability of cardiac transplantation to greatly impact the management of advanced HF. The increased incidence and prevalence of HF in an ever aging and medically complex population has paved the way for alternative surgical and device treatment strategies. Some of these treatment options include ventricular reduction/remodeling surgery, mitral valve repair, mechanical ventricular assist device implantation, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, and cardiac resynchronization therapy. Several recent trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of these therapies with regard to improvement in primary cardiac end points, HF symptoms, and survival. Surgical and device techniques are usually combined with optimal medical management of HF. The total cost and actual cost-effectiveness of employing these new therapeutic modalities in a growing population of HF patients remains to be determined.
Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine 12/2003; 5(6):487-499. DOI:10.1007/s11936-003-0038-4