Leatrice Vogel

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Maryland, United States

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Publications (34)218.85 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The threat of future influenza pandemics and their potential for rapid spread, morbidity, and mortality has led to the development of pandemic vaccines. We generated 7 reassortant pandemic live attenuated influenza vaccines (pLAIV) with the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes derived from animal influenza viruses on the backbone of the 6 internal protein gene segments of the temperature sensitive, cold-adapted (ca) A/Ann Arbor/60 (H2N2) virus (AA/60 ca) of the licensed seasonal LAIV. The pLAIVs were moderately to highly restricted in replication in seronegative adults; we sought to determine the biological basis for this restriction. Avian influenza viruses generally replicate at higher temperatures than human influenza viruses and although they shared the same backbone, the pLAIVs had a lower shut off temperature than seasonal LAIVs, suggesting the HA and NA influence the degree of temperature sensitivity. The pH of HA activation of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses was greater than human and low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses, as reported by others. However, pLAIVs had a consistently higher pH of HA activation and reduced HA thermostability compared with the corresponding wild-type parental viruses. From studies with single gene reassortant viruses bearing one gene segment from the AA/60 ca virus in recombinant H5N1 or pH1N1 viruses, we found that the lower HA thermal stability and increased pH of HA activation were associated with the AA/60 M gene. Together, the impaired HA acid and thermal stability and temperature sensitivity likely contributed to the restricted replication of the pLAIVs we observed in seronegative adults.
    Journal of virology. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Although lymphopenia is a hallmark of severe infection with highly pathogenic H5N1 and the newly emerged H7N9 influenza viruses in humans, the mechanism(s) by which lethal H5N1 viruses cause lymphopenia in mammalian hosts remains poorly understood. Because influenza-specific T cell responses are initiated in the lung draining lymph nodes (LNs), and lymphocytes subsequently traffic to the lungs or peripheral circulation, we compared the immune responses in the lung draining LNs postinfection with a lethal A/HK/483/97 or nonlethal A/HK/486/97 (H5N1) virus in a mouse model. We found that lethal H5N1, but not nonlethal H5N1, virus infection in mice enhances Fas ligand (FasL) expression on plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), resulting in apoptosis of influenza-specific CD8(+) T cells via a Fas-FasL-mediated pathway. We also found that pDCs, but not other DC subsets, preferentially accumulate in the lung draining LNs of lethal H5N1 virus-infected mice, and that the induction of FasL expression on pDCs correlates with high levels of IL-12p40 monomer/homodimer in the lung draining LNs. Our data suggest that one of the mechanisms of lymphopenia associated with lethal H5N1 virus infection involves a deleterious role for pDCs.
    The Journal of Immunology 05/2014; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The hypothesis of original antigenic sin (OAS) states that the imprint established by an individual's first influenza infection governs the antibody response thereafter. Subsequent influenza virus infections result in an antibody response against the original infecting virus, impairing the immune response against a newer influenza virus. The purpose of our study was to seek evidence of OAS after infection or vaccination with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (2009 pH1N1) virus in ferrets and humans that had prior H1N1 infections with viruses of variable antigenic distance from the 2009 pH1N1 virus, including viruses from 1935 through 1999. In ferrets, seasonal H1N1 priming did not diminish the antibody response to infection or vaccination with the 2009 pH1N1 virus, nor did it diminish the T-cell response, indicating the absence of OAS in seasonal H1N1-virus primed ferrets. Analysis of paired samples of human sera taken before and after vaccination with a monovalent inactivated 2009 pH1N1 vaccine showed a significantly greater fold-rise in antibody titer against the 2009 pH1N1 virus compared to H1N1 viruses that circulated during the childhood of each subject. Thus, prior experience with H1N1 viruses did not result in an impairment of the antibody response against the 2009 pH1N1 vaccine. Our data from ferrets and humans suggest that prior exposure to H1N1 viruses did not impair the immune response against the 2009 pH1N1 virus.
    Clinical and vaccine Immunology: CVI 03/2014; · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Influenza A viruses cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is a need for alternative or adjunct therapies, as resistance to currently used antiviral drugs is emerging rapidly. We tested ligand epitope antigen presentation system (LEAPS) technology as a new immune-based treatment for influenza virus infection in a mouse model. Influenza-J-LEAPS peptides were synthesized by conjugating the binding ligand derived from the β2-microglobulin chain of the human MHC class I molecule (J-LEAPS) with 15 to 30 amino acid-long peptides derived from influenza virus NP, M, or HA proteins. DCs were stimulated with influenza-J-LEAPS peptides (influenza-J-LEAPS) and injected intravenously into infected mice. Antigen-specific LEAPS-stimulated DCs were effective in reducing influenza virus replication in the lungs and enhancing survival of infected animals. Additionally, they augmented influenza-specific T cell responses in the lungs and reduced the severity of disease by limiting excessive cytokine responses, which are known to contribute to morbidity and mortality following influenza virus infection. Our data demonstrate that influenza-J-LEAPS-pulsed DCs reduce virus replication in the lungs, enhance survival, and modulate the protective immune responses that eliminate the virus while preventing excessive cytokines that could injure the host. This approach shows promise as an adjunct to antiviral treatment of influenza virus infections.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 07/2013; 123(7):2850-61. · 15.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the replication of influenza A/California/07/09 (H1N1) wild type (CA09wt) virus in two non-human primate species and used one of these models to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a live attenuated cold-adapted vaccine, which contains the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase from the H1N1 wild type (wt) virus and six internal protein gene segments of the A/Ann Arbor/6/60 cold-adapted (ca) master donor virus. We infected African green monkeys (AGMs) and rhesus macaques with 2×10(6) TCID(50) of CA09wt and CA09ca influenza viruses. The virus CA09wt replicated in the upper respiratory tract of all animals but the titers in upper respiratory tract tissues of rhesus macaques were significant higher than in AGMs (mean peak titers 10(4.5) TCID(50)/g and 10(2.0) TCID(50)/g on days 4 and 2 post-infection, respectively; p<0.01). Virus replication was observed in the lungs of all rhesus macaques (10(2.0)-10(5.4) TCID(50)/g) whereas only 2 out of 4 AGMs had virus recovered from the lungs (10(2.5)-10(3.5) TCID(50)/g). The CA09ca vaccine virus was attenuated and highly restricted in replication in both AGMs and rhesus macaques. We evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the CA09ca vaccine in rhesus macaques because CA09wt virus replicated more efficiently in this species. One or two doses of vaccine were administered intranasally and intratracheally to rhesus macaques. For the two-dose group, the vaccine was administered 4-weeks apart. Immunogenicity was assessed by measuring hemagglutination-inhibiting (HAI) antibodies in the serum and specific IgA antibodies to CA09wt virus in the nasal wash. One or two doses of the vaccine elicited a significant rise in HAI titers (range 40-320). Two doses of CA09ca elicited higher pH1N1-specific IgA titers than in the mock-immunized group (p<0.01). Vaccine efficacy was assessed by comparing titers of CA09wt challenge virus in the respiratory tract of mock-immunized and CA09ca vaccinated monkeys. Significantly lower virus titers were observed in the lungs of vaccinated animals than mock-immunized animals (p≤0.01). Our results demonstrate that AGMs and rhesus macaques support the replication of pandemic H1N1 influenza virus to different degrees and a cold-adapted pH1N1 vaccine elicits protective immunity against pH1N1 virus infection in rhesus macaques.
    Vaccine 07/2012; 30(38):5603-10. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Compared to seasonal influenza viruses, the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus caused greater morbidity and mortality in children and young adults. People over 60 years of age showed a higher prevalence of cross-reactive pH1N1 antibodies, suggesting that they were previously exposed to an influenza virus or vaccine that was antigenically related to the pH1N1 virus. To define the basis for this cross-reactivity, ferrets were infected with H1N1 viruses of variable antigenic distance that circulated during different decades from the 1930s (Alaska/35), 1940s (Fort Monmouth/47), 1950s (Fort Warren/50), and 1990s (New Caledonia/99) and challenged with 2009 pH1N1 virus 6 weeks later. Ferrets primed with the homologous CA/09 or New Jersey/76 (NJ/76) virus served as a positive control, while the negative control was an influenza B virus that should not cross-protect against influenza A virus infection. Significant protection against challenge virus replication in the respiratory tract was observed in ferrets primed with AK/35, FM/47, and NJ/76; FW/50-primed ferrets showed reduced protection, and NC/99-primed ferrets were not protected. The hemagglutinins (HAs) of AK/35, FM/47, and FW/50 differ in the presence of glycosylation sites. We found that the loss of protective efficacy observed with FW/50 was associated with the presence of a specific glycosylation site. Our results suggest that changes in the HA occurred between 1947 and 1950, such that prior infection could no longer protect against 2009 pH1N1 infection. This provides a mechanistic understanding of the nature of serological cross-protection observed in people over 60 years of age during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic.
    Journal of Virology 06/2012; 86(16):8625-33. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2009, a novel H1N1 influenza A virus (2009 pH1N1) emerged and caused a pandemic. A human monoclonal antibody (hMAb; EM4C04), highly specific for the 2009 pH1N1 virus hemagglutinin (HA), was isolated from a severely ill 2009 pH1N1 virus-infected patient. We postulated that under immune pressure with EM4C04, the 2009 pH1N1 virus would undergo antigenic drift and mutate at sites that would identify the antibody binding site. To do so, we infected MDCK cells in the presence of EM4C04 and generated 11 escape mutants, displaying 7 distinct amino acid substitutions in the HA. Six substitutions greatly reduced MAb binding (K123N, D131E, K133T, G134S, K157N, and G158E). Residues 131, 133, and 134 are contiguous with residues 157 and 158 in the globular domain structure and contribute to a novel pH1N1 antibody epitope. One mutation near the receptor binding site, S186P, increased the binding affinity of the HA to the receptor. 186P and 131E are present in the highly virulent 1918 virus HA and were recently identified as virulence determinants in a mouse-passaged pH1N1 virus. We found that pH1N1 escape variants expressing these substitutions enhanced replication and lethality in mice compared to wild-type 2009 pH1N1 virus. The increased virulence of these viruses was associated with an increased affinity for α2,3 sialic acid receptors. Our study demonstrates that antibody pressure by an hMAb targeting a novel epitope in the Sa region of 2009 pH1N1 HA is able to inadvertently drive the development of a more virulent virus with altered receptor binding properties. This broadens our understanding of antigenic drift. IMPORTANCE: Influenza viruses accumulate amino acid substitutions to evade the antibody response in a process known as antigenic drift, making it necessary to vaccinate against influenza annually. Mapping human monoclonal antibody (hMAb) epitopes is a necessary step towards understanding antigenic drift in humans. We defined the specificity of an hMAb that specifically targeted the 2009 pH1N1 virus and describe a novel epitope. In addition, we identified a previously unappreciated potential for antibody escape to enhance the pathogenicity of a virus. The escape mutation that we identified with in vitro immune pressure was independently reported by other investigators using in vivo selection in nonimmune mice. Although in vitro generation of escape mutants is unlikely to recapitulate antigenic drift in its entirety, the data demonstrate that pressure by a human monoclonal antibody targeting a novel epitope in the hemagglutinin of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus can inadvertently drive the development of escape mutants, of which a subset have increased virulence and altered receptor binding properties.
    mBio 01/2012; 3(3). · 6.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5 and H7 subtypes typically possess multiple basic amino acids around the cleavage site (MBS) of their hemagglutinin (HA) protein, a recognized virulence motif in poultry. To determine the importance of the H5 HA MBS as a virulence factor in mammals, recombinant wild-type HPAI A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1) viruses that possessed (H5N1) or lacked (ΔH5N1) the H5 HA MBS were generated and evaluated for their virulence in BALB/c mice, ferrets, and African green monkeys (AGMs) (Chlorocebus aethiops). The presence of the H5 HA MBS was associated with lethality, significantly higher virus titers in the respiratory tract, virus dissemination to extrapulmonary organs, lymphopenia, significantly elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and inflammation in the lungs of mice and ferrets. In AGMs, neither H5N1 nor ΔH5N1 virus was lethal and neither caused clinical symptoms. The H5 HA MBS was associated with mild enhancement of replication and delayed virus clearance. Thus, the contribution of H5 HA MBS to the virulence of the HPAI H5N1 virus varies among mammalian hosts and is most significant in mice and ferrets and less remarkable in nonhuman primates.
    Journal of Virology 12/2011; 86(5):2706-14. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The epidemiological success of pandemic and epidemic influenza A viruses relies on the ability to transmit efficiently from person-to-person via respiratory droplets. Respiratory droplet (RD) transmission of influenza viruses requires efficient replication and release of infectious influenza particles into the air. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus originated by reassortment of a North American triple reassortant swine (TRS) virus with a Eurasian swine virus that contributed the neuraminidase (NA) and M gene segments. Both the TRS and Eurasian swine viruses caused sporadic infections in humans, but failed to spread from person-to-person, unlike the pH1N1 virus. We evaluated the pH1N1 and its precursor viruses in a ferret model to determine the contribution of different viral gene segments on the release of influenza virus particles into the air and on the transmissibility of the pH1N1 virus. We found that the Eurasian-origin gene segments contributed to efficient RD transmission of the pH1N1 virus likely by modulating the release of influenza viral RNA-containing particles into the air. All viruses replicated well in the upper respiratory tract of infected ferrets, suggesting that factors other than viral replication are important for the release of influenza virus particles and transmission. Our studies demonstrate that the release of influenza viral RNA-containing particles into the air correlates with increased NA activity. Additionally, the pleomorphic phenotype of the pH1N1 virus is dependent upon the Eurasian-origin gene segments, suggesting a link between transmission and virus morphology. We have demonstrated that the viruses are released into exhaled air to varying degrees and a constellation of genes influences the transmissibility of the pH1N1 virus.
    PLoS Pathogens 12/2011; 7(12):e1002443. · 8.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) causes severe acute respiratory tract disease characterized by diffuse alveolar damage and hyaline membrane formation. This pathology often progresses to acute respiratory distress (such as acute respiratory distress syndrome [ARDS]) and atypical pneumonia in humans, with characteristic age-related mortality rates approaching 50% or more in immunosenescent populations. The molecular basis for the extreme virulence of SARS-CoV remains elusive. Since young and aged (1-year-old) mice do not develop severe clinical disease following infection with wild-type SARS-CoV, a mouse-adapted strain of SARS-CoV (called MA15) was developed and was shown to cause lethal infection in these animals. To understand the genetic contributions to the increased pathogenesis of MA15 in rodents, we used reverse genetics and evaluated the virulence of panels of derivative viruses encoding various combinations of mouse-adapted mutations. We found that mutations in the viral spike (S) glycoprotein and, to a much less rigorous extent, in the nsp9 nonstructural protein, were primarily associated with the acquisition of virulence in young animals. The mutations in S likely increase recognition of the mouse angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor not only in MA15 but also in two additional, independently isolated mouse-adapted SARS-CoVs. In contrast to the findings for young animals, mutations to revert to the wild-type sequence in nsp9 and the S glycoprotein were not sufficient to significantly attenuate the virus compared to other combinations of mouse-adapted mutations in 12-month-old mice. This panel of SARS-CoVs provides novel reagents that we have used to further our understanding of differential, age-related pathogenic mechanisms in mouse models of human disease.
    Journal of Virology 11/2011; 86(2):884-97. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A live attenuated H7N7 candidate vaccine virus was generated by reverse genetics using the modified hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of highly pathogenic (HP) A/Netherlands/219/03 (NL/03) (H7N7) wild-type (wt) virus and the six internal protein genes of the cold-adapted (ca) A/Ann Arbor/6/60 ca (AA ca) (H2N2) virus. The reassortant H7N7 NL/03 ca vaccine virus was temperature sensitive and attenuated in mice, ferrets, and African green monkeys (AGMs). Intranasal (i.n.) administration of a single dose of the H7N7 NL/03 ca vaccine virus fully protected mice from lethal challenge with homologous and heterologous H7 viruses from Eurasian and North American lineages. Two doses of the H7N7 NL/03 ca vaccine induced neutralizing antibodies in serum and provided complete protection from pulmonary replication of homologous and heterologous wild-type H7 challenge viruses in mice and ferrets. One dose of the H7N7 NL/03 ca vaccine elicited an antibody response in one of three AGMs that was completely protected from pulmonary replication of the homologous wild-type H7 challenge virus. The contribution of CD8(+) and/or CD4(+) T cells to the vaccine-induced protection of mice was evaluated by T-cell depletion; T lymphocytes were not essential for the vaccine-induced protection from lethal challenge with H7 wt viruses. Additionally, passively transferred neutralizing antibody induced by the H7N7 NL/03 ca virus protected mice from lethality following challenge with H7 wt viruses. The safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the H7N7 NL/03 ca vaccine virus in mice, ferrets, and AGMs support the evaluation of this vaccine virus in phase I clinical trials.
    Journal of Virology 11/2010; 84(22):11950-60. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The immunogenicity and efficacy of β-propiolactone (BPL) inactivated whole virion SARS-CoV (WI-SARS) vaccine was evaluated in BALB/c mice and golden Syrian hamsters. The vaccine preparation was tested with or without adjuvants. Adjuvant Systems AS01(B) and AS03(A) were selected and tested for their capacity to elicit high humoral and cellular immune responses to WI-SARS vaccine. We evaluated the effect of vaccine dose and each adjuvant on immunogenicity and efficacy in mice, and the effect of vaccine dose with or without the AS01(B) adjuvant on the immunogenicity and efficacy in hamsters. Efficacy was evaluated by challenge with wild-type virus at early and late time points (4 and 18 wk post-vaccination). A single dose of vaccine with or without adjuvant was poorly immunogenic in mice; a second dose resulted in a significant boost in antibody levels, even in the absence of adjuvant. The use of adjuvants resulted in higher antibody titers, with the AS01(B)-adjuvanted vaccine being slightly more immunogenic than the AS03(A)-adjuvanted vaccine. Two doses of WI-SARS with and without Adjuvant Systems were highly efficacious in mice. In hamsters, two doses of WI-SARS with and without AS01(B) were immunogenic, and two doses of 2 μg of WI-SARS with and without the adjuvant provided complete protection from early challenge. Although antibody titers had declined in all groups of vaccinated hamsters 18 wk after the second dose, the vaccinated hamsters were still partially protected from wild-type virus challenge. Vaccine with adjuvant provided better protection than non-adjuvanted WI-SARS vaccine at this later time point. Enhanced disease was not observed in the lungs or liver of hamsters following SARS-CoV challenge, regardless of the level of serum neutralizing antibodies.
    Viral immunology 10/2010; 23(5):509-19. · 1.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dysfunction of CFTR in cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelium perturbs the normal regulation of ion transport, leading to a reduced volume of airway surface liquid (ASL), mucus dehydration, decreased mucus transport, and mucus plugging of the airways. CFTR is normally expressed in ciliated epithelial cells of the surface and submucosal gland ductal epithelium and submucosal gland acinar cells. Critical questions for the development of gene transfer strategies for CF airway disease are what airway regions require CFTR function and how many epithelial cells require CFTR expression to restore normal ASL volume regulation and mucus transport to CF airway epithelium? An in vitro model of human CF ciliated surface airway epithelium (CF HAE) was used to test whether a human parainfluenza virus (PIV) vector engineered to express CFTR (PIVCFTR) could deliver sufficient CFTR to CF HAE to restore mucus transport, thus correcting the CF phenotype. PIVCFTR delivered CFTR to >60% of airway surface epithelial cells and expressed CFTR protein in CF HAE approximately 100-fold over endogenous levels in non-CF HAE. This efficiency of CFTR delivery fully corrected the basic bioelectric defects of Cl(-) and Na(+) epithelial ion transport and restored ASL volume regulation and mucus transport to levels approaching those of non-CF HAE. To determine the numbers of CF HAE surface epithelial cells required to express CFTR for restoration of mucus transport to normal levels, different amounts of PIVCFTR were used to express CFTR in 3%-65% of the surface epithelial cells of CF HAE and correlated to increasing ASL volumes and mucus transport rates. These data demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that restoration of normal mucus transport rates in CF HAE was achieved after CFTR delivery to 25% of surface epithelial cells. In vivo experimentation in appropriate models will be required to determine what level of mucus transport will afford clinical benefit to CF patients, but we predict that a future goal for corrective gene transfer to the CF human airways in vivo would attempt to target at least 25% of surface epithelial cells to achieve mucus transport rates comparable to those in non-CF airways.
    PLoS Biology 08/2009; 7(7):e1000155. · 12.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) virus is a member of the Coronaviridae (CoV) family that first appeared in the Guangdong Province of China in 2002 and was recognized as an emerging infectious disease in March 2003. Over 8000 cases and 900 deaths occurred during the epidemic. We report the safety and immunogenicity of a SARS DNA vaccine in a Phase I human study. A single-plasmid DNA vaccine encoding the Spike (S) glycoprotein was evaluated in 10 healthy adults. Nine subjects completed the 3 dose vaccination schedule and were evaluated for vaccine safety and immune responses. Immune response was assessed by intracellular cytokine staining (ICS), ELISpot, ELISA, and neutralization assays. The vaccine was well tolerated. SARS-CoV-specific antibody was detected by ELISA in 8 of 10 subjects and neutralizing antibody was detected in all subjects who received 3 doses of vaccine. SARS-CoV-specific CD4+ T-cell responses were detected in all vaccinees, and CD8+ T-cell responses in approximately 20% of individuals. The VRC SARS DNA vaccine was well tolerated and produced cellular immune responses and neutralizing antibody in healthy adults.
    Vaccine 10/2008; 26(50):6338-43. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between immunosenescence and the host response to virus infection is poorly understood at the molecular level. Two different patterns of pulmonary host responses to virus were observed when gene expression profiles from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-infected young mice that show minimal disease were compared to those from SARS-CoV-infected aged mice that develop pneumonitis. In young mice, genes related to cellular development, cell growth, and cell cycle were downregulated during peak viral replication, and these transcripts returned to basal levels as virus was cleared. In contrast, aged mice had a greater number of upregulated immune response and cell-to-cell signaling genes, and the expression of many genes was sustained even after viral clearance, suggesting an exacerbated host response to virus. Interestingly, in SARS-CoV-infected aged mice, a subset of genes, including Tnfa, Il6, Ccl2, Ccl3, Cxcl10, and Ifng, was induced in a biphasic pattern that correlated with peak viral replication and a subsequent influx of lymphocytes and severe histopathologic changes in the lungs. We provide insight into gene expression profiles and molecular signatures underlying immunosenescence in the context of the host response to viral infection.
    Journal of Virology 10/2008; 82(19):9465-76. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The appearance of human infections caused by avian influenza A H7 subtype viruses underscores their pandemic potential and the need to develop vaccines to protect humans from viruses of this subtype. A live attenuated H7N3 virus vaccine was generated by reverse genetics using the HA and NA genes of a low pathogenicity A/chicken/BC/CN-6/04 (H7N3) virus and the six internal protein genes of the cold-adapted A/Ann Arbor/6/60 ca (H2N2) virus. The reassortant H7N3 BC 04 ca vaccine virus was temperature sensitive and showed attenuation in mice and ferrets. Intranasal immunization with one dose of the vaccine protected mice and ferrets when challenged with homologous and heterologous H7 viruses. The reassortant H7N3 BC 04 ca vaccine virus showed comparable levels of attenuation, immunogenicity and efficacy in mice and ferret models. The safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of this vaccine in mice and ferrets support the evaluation of this vaccine in clinical trials.
    Virology 07/2008; 378(1):123-32. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We summarize findings of SARS-CoV infections in several animal models each of which support viral replication in lungs accompanied by histopathological changes and/or clinical signs of illness to varying degrees. New findings are reported on SARS-CoV replication and associated pathology in two additional strains (C57BL/6 and 129S6) of aged mice. We also provide new comparative data on viral replication and associated pathology following infection of golden Syrian hamsters with various SARS-CoV strains and report the levels of neutralizing antibody titers following these infections and the cross-protective efficacy of infection with these strains in protecting against heterologous challenge. Finally, we summarize findings of a variety of vaccine approaches and discuss the available in vitro and in vivo data addressing the potential for disease enhancement following re-infection in animals previously vaccinated against or infected with SARS-CoV.
    Virus Research 05/2008; 133(1):20-32. · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The causative agent of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) was identified as a coronavirus (CoV) following the outbreak of 2002-2003. There are currently no licensed vaccines or treatments for SARS-CoV infections. Potential prevention and control strategies that show promise in vitro must be evaluated in animal models. The aged BALB/c mouse model for SARS supports a high level of viral replication in association with clinical illness and disease that mimics SARS in the elderly. We tested two preventive strategies, vaccination and passive transfer of serum antibody, to determine the extent of protection achieved against SARS-CoV challenge in this model. These approaches were able to achieve or induce antibody titers sufficient to reduce viral load, protect from weight loss and reduce or eliminate histopathologic changes in the lungs of aged mice. This study validates the utility of the aged BALB/c mouse model for evaluation of the efficacy of vaccines and immunoprophylaxis.
    Vaccine 04/2007; 25(12):2173-9. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: No single animal model for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) reproduces all aspects of the human disease. Young inbred mice support SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) replication in the respiratory tract and are available in sufficient numbers for statistical evaluation. They are relatively inexpensive and easily accessible, but their use in SARS research is limited because they do not develop illness following infection. Older (12- to 14-mo-old) BALB/c mice develop clinical illness and pneumonitis, but they can be hard to procure, and immune senescence complicates pathogenesis studies. We adapted the SARS-CoV (Urbani strain) by serial passage in the respiratory tract of young BALB/c mice. Fifteen passages resulted in a virus (MA15) that is lethal for mice following intranasal inoculation. Lethality is preceded by rapid and high titer viral replication in lungs, viremia, and dissemination of virus to extrapulmonary sites accompanied by lymphopenia, neutrophilia, and pathological changes in the lungs. Abundant viral antigen is extensively distributed in bronchial epithelial cells and alveolar pneumocytes, and necrotic cellular debris is present in airways and alveoli, with only mild and focal pneumonitis. These observations suggest that mice infected with MA15 die from an overwhelming viral infection with extensive, virally mediated destruction of pneumocytes and ciliated epithelial cells. The MA15 virus has six coding mutations associated with adaptation and increased virulence; when introduced into a recombinant SARS-CoV, these mutations result in a highly virulent and lethal virus (rMA15), duplicating the phenotype of the biologically derived MA15 virus. Intranasal inoculation with MA15 reproduces many aspects of disease seen in severe human cases of SARS. The availability of the MA15 virus will enhance the use of the mouse model for SARS because infection with MA15 causes morbidity, mortality, and pulmonary pathology. This virus will be of value as a stringent challenge in evaluation of the efficacy of vaccines and antivirals.
    PLoS Pathogens 02/2007; 3(1):e5. · 8.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vaccine-induced antibodies can prevent or, in the case of feline infectious peritonitis virus, aggravate infections by coronaviruses. We investigated whether a recombinant native full-length S-protein trimer (triSpike) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was able to elicit a neutralizing and protective immune response in animals and analyzed the capacity of anti-S antibodies to mediate antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of virus entry in vitro and enhancement of replication in vivo. SARS-CoV-specific serum and mucosal immunoglobulins were readily detected in immunized animals. Serum IgG blocked binding of the S-protein to the ACE2 receptor and neutralized SARS-CoV infection in vitro. Entry into human B cell lines occurred in a FcgammaRII-dependent and ACE2-independent fashion indicating that ADE of virus entry is a novel cell entry mechanism of SARS-CoV. Vaccinated animals showed no signs of enhanced lung pathology or hepatitis and viral load was undetectable or greatly reduced in lungs following challenge with SARS-CoV. Altogether our results indicate that a recombinant trimeric S protein was able to elicit an efficacious protective immune response in vivo and warrant concern in the safety evaluation of a human vaccine against SARS-CoV.
    Vaccine 02/2007; 25(4):729-40. · 3.49 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
218.85 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2012
    • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
      • Laboratory of Immunoregulation
      Maryland, United States
  • 2005–2010
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Laboratory of Infectious Diseases
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 2008
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • Influenza Division
      Atlanta, Michigan, United States
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Microbiology
      Seattle, WA, United States