[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A strong connection between spondylarthropathies and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is well established. About 10-15 % of IBD are associated with different forms of spondylarthritis. Arthritis can be manifested as axial, peripheral form or both. The primary functions of the gastrointestinal tract are digestion and absorption of nutrients, electrocytes and maintenance of water homoeostasis. The anatomic and functional lesions could lead to the development of IBD based on molecular mimicry and bystander effects. The mechanism of the macromolecules is uptaken may affect intestinal and extraintestinal manifestation in genetically susceptible individuals by gut-associated lymphoid tissue, the interplay between innate and adaptive immunity and the neuroendocrine network.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) is a unique clinical entity, a potential forerunner of well-established systemic autoimmune/rheumatic diseases. UCTD is characterized by the presence of various clinical symptoms, as well as a diverse repertoire of autoantibodies, resembling systemic autoimmune diseases. Since approximately one third of these patients consequently transform into a full-blown systemic autoimmune/rheumatic disease, it is of major importance to assess pathogenic factors leading to this progression. In view of the fact that the serological and clinical picture of UCTD and systemic autoimmune diseases are very similar, it is assumed that analogous pathogenic factors perpetuate both disease entities. In systemic autoimmune conditions, a quantitative and qualitative impairment of regulatory T cells has been shown previously, and in parallel, a relative dominance of pro-inflammatory Th17 cells has been introduced. Moreover, the imbalance between regulatory and Th17 cells plays a pivotal role in the initiation and propagation of UCTD. Additionally, we depict a cytokine imbalance, which give raise to a biased T cell homeostasis from the UCTD phase throughout the fully developed systemic autoimmune disease stage. The levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, IL-17, IL-23, and interferon (IFN)-γ were pathologically increased with a parallel reduction of IL-10. We believe that the assessment of Th17/Treg cell ratio, as well as the simultaneous quantitation of cytokines may give a useful diagnostic tool at the early UCTD stage to identify patients with a higher chance of consecutive disease progression toward serious systemic autoimmune diseases. Moreover, the early targeted immunomodulating therapy in these patients may decelerate, or even stop this progression, before the development of serious autoimmune conditions with organ damage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heat-shock protein 60 (Hsp60) has been shown to provoke inflammation, and anti-Hsp60 may facilitate the development of atherosclerosis. In this study, we have investigated 30 patients with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) and assessed anti-Hsp60 and their relationship to cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Out of 30 patients with MCTD, 15 had CVDs. Anti-Hsp60 antibody was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Since endothelial dysfunction and accelerated atherosclerosis are characteristic to MCTD, a wide array of MCTD-, endothelial dysfunction- and CVD-associated parameters was investigated: serum lipid levels, paraoxonase activity (PON1), rich nuclear ribonucleoprotein U1 (anti-U1RNP), anti-endothelial cell antibodies, anti-cardiolipin and anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibody isotypes (anti-CL and anti-β2GPI), endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels, also intima-media thickness (IMT), a quantitative indicator of atherosclerosis. In MCTD, anti-Hsp60 antibody levels were significantly higher than in healthy individuals (p < 0.02). MCTD patients with CVD had significantly higher levels of anti-Hsp60 compared to MCTD without CVD (p = 0.001). Patients with MCTD had significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.02) and PON activity (p < 0.001), and significantly increased systolic (p < 0.0002) and diastolic (p < 0.001) blood pressure compared to healthy individuals. Anti-U1RNP levels (p < 0.002) and IMT were higher in patients compared to controls (p = 0.002). The CVD-positive MCTD patients had increased anti-Hsp60 (p < 0.0013), anti-CL IgG (p = 0.0005), ET-1 serum concentration (p < 0.05) and IMT levels (p < 0.001) compared to MCTD patients without CVD. Anti-Hsp60 showed a strong correlation with anti-oxLDL (r = 0.36, p = 0.01) and serum ET-1 (r = 0.62, p < 0.001) and negative correlation with PON activity (r = -0.47, p = 0.01). Anti-Hsp60 indicates endothelial injury, CVD, and can function as a novel atherosclerotic risk factor, also a valuable diagnostic marker in patients with MCTD.
Immunologic Research 05/2014; · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors report a rare case of a female patient with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) with coexisting antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Five years after the diagnosis of MCTD high concentrations of anticardiolipin (anti-CL) and anti-β2-glycoprotein (anti-β2GPI) autoantibodies were present in the patient's serum without thrombotic events. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation provoked APS, with the clinical manifestations of livedo reticularis, digital gangrene and leg ulcers. Skin biopsy from the necrotic area showed multiple fibrin microthrombi in the superficial vessels. Corticosteroid pulse therapy, and plasma exchange in combination with synchronized cyclophosphamide was administered, which led to improvement of the digital gangrenes, while no new lesions developed. The number of CD27(high) plasma cells decreased, and the previous high levels of autoantibodies also normalized in the peripheral blood. In the case of MCTD with coexisting APS combination therapy, including plasmapheresis has beneficial effects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our aim was to assess whether the presence of highly active effector T-cells in atopic dermatitis (AD) is associated with changes in the number and/or function of regulatory T-cells (Tregs). Flow cytometry was utilised to determine the percentage of CD4+CD25brightCD127-/lowFOXP3+ and skin-homing CLA+CD4+CD25brightFOXP3+ Tregs in healthy controls and AD patients. The correlation between disease severity and Treg percentages was estimated. Treg suppressor activity and cell proliferation were measured after T-cell stimulation. Significantly increased percentages of Tregs were found in AD patients compared to healthy individuals, and significant correlation between the frequency of Tregs and disease severity was also detected. The otherwise normal suppressor activity of Tregs decreased in the presence of Staphylococcus enterotoxin B (SEB). In conclusion, the continuous presence of SEB can trigger an acquired functional impairment of Tregs in AD patients and the correlation between the increased frequency of Tregs and disease severity supports their important role in AD pathogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several autoimmune rheumatic diseases have been associated with accelerated atherosclerosis or other different types of vasculopathy depending on the underlying disease, leading to increased cardio- and cerebrovascular disease risk. Polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM), members of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs), a group of systemic autoimmune diseases are also associated with elevated risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Up until now, no specific data is known on the mechanisms, risk factors, or possible vasculopathy leading to increased CVD risk. The aims of the present study were to assess the flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery by a TensioClinic arteriograph and to measure the thickness of carotid artery intima-media, the augmentation index, and the pulse wave velocity using high-resolution ultrasonography in a cohort of PM and DM patients. We also investigated the correlation of these parameters with the traditional risk factors of atherosclerosis and overall cardiovascular status within PM and DM patients. Twenty-seven patients (21 females, six males) with IIMs were enrolled in this study, and 38 healthy individuals matched for sex and age served as controls. We found a decreased flow-mediated dilatation in the brachial artery (6.36 vs. 8.39 %) with increased arterial stiffness and carotid artery thickness in our patients compared to healthy controls. We found significantly decreased flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery (5.57 vs. 8.39 %) in DM patients. We also detected a correlation between these parameters and the traditional cardiovascular risk factors, as well as hypertriglyceridemy, hypertension, and peripheral arterial disease. In DM, overall, more vascular abnormalities were found than in PM. Our findings suggest that flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery, arterial stiffness, and carotid artery thickness measurements could be beneficial for predicting the CVD risk in myositis patients. Further investigations need to find the potential differences and role of inflammation and immune mechanisms in atherosclerotic processes in DM and PM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common autoimmune disease in which a heterogeneous course and different pathogenic mechanisms are implicated in chronic inflammation and joint destruction. Despite the diagnostic contribution of anti-citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies (ACPAs) and rheumatoid factors, about one-third of RA patients remain seronegative. ACPAs belong to a heterogeneous family of autoantibodies targeting citrullinated proteins, including myelin-basic protein, several histone proteins, filaggrin and fibrin, fibrinogen or vimentin. In addition to ACPAs, antibodies directed against other post-translationally modified-carbamylated proteins (anti-CarP) were detected in up to 30% of ACPA-negative patients. Using phage display technology, further autoantibodies were recently discovered as candidate biomarkers for seronegative RA patients. Furthermore, in clinical practice, ultrasound may reveal subclinical synovitis and radiographically undetected bone erosions. To improve diagnostic certainty in undifferentiated arthritis and seronegative patients, ultrasound imaging and several new biomarkers may help to identify at risk patients and those with early disease. In this commentary we summarize recent advances in joint ultrasound and future potential of serological biomarkers to improve diagnosis of RA.
BMC Medicine 01/2014; 12(1):49. · 7.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Avascular or aseptic necrosis is a well-defined entity leading to the degradation of cellular elements of the bone. The pathogenesis of osteonecrosis (ON) is still unknown. There are two main types of ON: traumatic or non-traumatic. Several clinical entities could associate with ON, systemic diseases, environmental factors, pregnancy, systemic autoimmune or rheumatic diseases, thrombophilia, corticosteroid therapy, cytotoxic dugs, infections, metabolic and hematologic diseases, etc. Corticosteroids (CS) are still the most frequently used therapeutic options in the early phase and during flares of these diseases. Inflammatory cytokines and antibodies have been described to participate in the pathogenesis of ON. The infiltrative disorders of the bone marrow could also contribute to the development of ON. Hereby, we describe a female patient with NHL followed by SLE in whom ON has developed at least in two localisations. Lupus flare, long-term CS therapy, lymphoma relapse or the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies were excluded. Although the bi-localised ON could be contributed to immunologic factors or trauma, the exact aetiology in this case could not be elucidated.
Osteoporosis International 12/2013; · 4.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hodgkin's lymphoma is a lymphoid malignancy of the immune system. Its hallmark the pathognomonic Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells (HRS) are derived mainly from monoclonal pre-apoptotic B-cells and carry rearranged somatically mutated immunoglobulin heavy chains. In an appropriate microenvironment HRS cells escape from apoptosis by several mechanisms, including single mutations, aberrant signaling pathways. Eventually weakened immune surveillance leads to uncontrolled, disproportional B-cell proliferation. This review summarizes the latest findings on the pathogenesis of Hodgkin's lymphoma with a special emphasis on immunological processes and depicts current and future immunotherapeutic regimes, which improve treatment outcome and reduce late toxicities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A shift in the balance between Th17-cells and regulatory T-cells (Treg) is an important feature of systemic autoimmune diseases (SAID), and may also contribute to their development. Hereby, we assessed the distribution of peripheral Th17 and Treg-cells in patients with undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD), the forerunner of SAIDs and followed these parameters during the development towards definitive SAIDs. Fifty-one UCTD patients were investigated and followed-up for 3 years. Flow cytometry was used to identify and follow three cell-populations: Th17-cells (CD4+IL-17+ T-cells), natural regulatory T-cells (CD4(+)CD25(bright)FoxP3(+); nTregs) and IL-10 producing Type-1 regulatory T-cells (CD4+IL-10+ T-cells; Tr1). Altogether 37.3% of these patients progressed into SAIDs. Th17-cells were increased in UCTD vs. controls, which further increased in those, whom developed SAIDs eventually. The Th17/nTreg ratio gradually increased from controls through UCTD patients, reaching the highest values in SAID-progressed patients. Regarding the Th17/Tr1 ratios, a similar tendency was observed moreover Th17/Tr1 could distinguish between UCTD patients with, or without subsequent SAID progression in a very early UCTD stage. Various immunoserological markers showed association with Th17 and Th17/nTreg at baseline, indicating the consecutive development of a distinct SAID. The derailed Th17/Treg balance may contribute to disease progression therefore could function as a prognostic marker.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To study the survival rate and prognostic indicators of mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) in a Hungarian population. METHODS: Two hundred eighty patients with MCTD diagnosed between 1979 and 2011 were followed prospectively. Clinical features, autoantibodies, and mortality data were assessed. Prognostic factors for survival were investigated and survival was calculated from the time of the diagnosis by Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: A total of 22 of 280 patients died: the causes of death were pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in 9 patients, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in 3, infections in 3, and cardiovascular events in 7. The 5, 10, and 15-year survival rates after the diagnosis was established were 98%, 96%, and 88%, respectively. The deceased patients were younger at the diagnosis of MCTD compared to patients who survived (35.5 ± 10.4 vs 41.8 ± 10.7 yrs; p < 0.03), while there was no difference in the duration of the disease (p = 0.835). Our cohort study showed that the presence of cardiovascular events (p < 0.0001), esophageal hypomotility (p = 0.04), serositis (p < 0.001), secondary antiphospholipid syndrome (p = 0.039), and malignancy (p < 0.001) was significantly higher in the deceased patients with MCTD. The presence of anticardiolipin (p = 0.019), anti-β2-glycoprotein I (p = 0.002), and antiendothelial cell antibodies (p = 0.002) increased the risk of mortality. CONCLUSION: Overall, PAH remained the leading cause of death in patients with MCTD. The prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, malignancy, and thrombotic events increased during the disease course of MCTD. The presence of antiphospholipid antibodies raised the risk of mortality.
The Journal of Rheumatology 05/2013; · 3.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is a systemic autoimmune disorder, characterized by the presence of antibodies to U1-RNP protein. We aimed to determine phenotypic abnormalities of peripheral B cell subsets in MCTD. Blood samples were obtained from 46 MCTD patients, and 20 controls. Using anti-CD19, anti-CD27, anti-IgD and anti-CD38 monoclonal antibodies, the following B cell subsets were identified by flow cytometry: 1.transitional B cells (CD19+CD27-IgD+CD38(high)); 2.naive B cells (CD19+CD27-IgD+CD38(low)); 3.non-switched memory B cells (CD19+CD27+IgD+); 4.switched memory B cells (CD19+CD27+IgD-); 5.double negative (DN) memory B cells (CD19+CD27-IgD-) and 6.plasma cells (CD19+CD27(high)IgD-). The proportion of transitional B cells, naive B cells and DN B lymphocytes was higher in MCTD than in controls. The DN B cells were positive for CD95 surface marker. This memory B cells population showed a close correlation with disease activity. The number of plasma cells was also increased, and there was an association between the number of plasma cells and the anti-U1RNP levels. Cyclophosphamide, Methotrexate, and corticosteroid treatment decreased the number of DN and CD27(high) B cells. In conclusion, several abnormalities were found in the peripheral B-cell subsets in MCTD, which reinforces the role of derailed humoral autoimmune processes in the pathogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serum and intracytoplasmic cytokines are mandatory in host defense against microbes, but also play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases by initiating and perpetuating various cellular and humoral autoimmune processes. The intricate interplay and fine balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory processes drive, whether inflammation and eventually organ damage will occur, or the inflammatory cascade quenches. In the early and late, as well as inactive and active stages of autoimmune diseases, different cellular and molecular patterns can dominate in these patients. However, the simultaneous assessment of pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers aids to define the immunological state of a patient. A group of the most useful inflammatory biomarkers are cytokines, and with increasing knowledge during the last decade their role have been well-defined in patients with autoimmune diseases and immunodeficiencies. Multiple pathological processes drive the development of autoimmunity and immunodeficiencies, most of which involve quantitative and qualitative disturbances in regulatory cells, cytokine synthesis and signaling pathways. The assessment of these biomarkers does not aid only in the mechanistic description of autoimmune diseases and immunodeficiencies, but further helps to subcategorize diseases and to evaluate therapy responses. Here, we provide an overview, how monitoring of cytokines and regulatory cells aid in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with autoimmune diseases and immunodeficiencies furthermore, we pinpoint novel cellular and molecular diagnostic possibilities in these diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to assess whether the efficacy of bisphosphonate treatment is influenced by PTH levels measured in newly diagnosed osteoporotic patients and to identify the threshold value, beyond which PTH level negatively influences therapeutic efficacy. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-eight osteoporotic patients were enrolled into the study. All subjects underwent laboratory screening, bone densitometry with DEXA, and x-ray imaging. The changes in bone density were evaluated after a mean follow-up period of 13.37 +/- 1.29 months. Correlation analysis was performed on the clinical data of patients, the percentage changes of BMD values, and the PTH levels measured at the beginning of study, using SPSS software. RESULTS: The mean age of the subjects was 64.82 +/- 10.51 years, and the female-to-male ratio was 116/22. Baseline BMD value measured with AP DEXA scanning was 0.854 +/- 0.108 g/cm2 in the L1-4 vertebrae and 0.768 +/- 0.115 g/cm2 in the left femoral neck. By the end of the follow-up period, these values changed to 0.890 +/- 0.111 g/cm2 and 0.773 +/- 0.111 g/cm2, respectively. We found a statistically significant, negative correlation between PTH levels and the percentage changes of lumbar BMD values measured at the end of the follow-up (correlation coefficient R2 = 0.121, p < 0.0001). The analysis of frequency histograms suggested that negative effects on bone might be expected above a PTH level of 60 pg/mL (7.3 pmol/L). CONCLUSION: Our findings imply that a baseline PTH level over 60 ng/mL can reduce the efficacy of bisphosphonate treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to assess the autoantibody profile, dominant clinical symptoms and cluster characteristics of different Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD phenotypes. Two-hundred-and-one patients with MCTD were followed-up longitudinally. Five clinical parameters, Raynaud's phenomenon, pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH), myositis, interstitial lung disease (ILD), erosive arthritis and five auto-antibodies besides anti-U1RNP, antiendothelial cell antibodies (AECA), anti-CCP, anti-cardiolipin (anti-CL), anti-SSA/SSB and IgM rheumatoid factor (RF) were selected for cluster analysis. The mean age of patients was 52.9 ± 12.4 years and the mean follow-up of the disease was 12.5 ± 7.2 years. Patients were classified into three cluster groups. Cluster 1 with 77 patients, cluster 2 with 79 patients and cluster 3 with 45 patients. In cluster 1 the prevalence of PAH (55.8%; p < 0.001), Raynaud's phenomenon (92.2%; p < 0.001) and livedo reticularis (24.6%, p < 0.001) was significantly greater than in cluster 2 and 3. In cluster 2, the incidence of ILD (98.7%; p < 0.001), myositis (77.2%; p < 0.001), and esophageal dysmotility (89.8%; p < 0.001) was significantly greater than that in cluster 1 and 3. In cluster 3, anti-CCP antibodies were present in 31 of 45 patients (68.8%) with erosions. Anti-CCP antibodies were present in 37 of 42 patients (88.0%) with erosions. PAH, angina, venous thrombosis was observed in cluster 1 and pulmonary fibrosis in cluster 2, musculosceletal damage, gastrointestinal symptoms and osteoporotic fractures were most frequent in cluster 3. Cumulative survival assessment indicated cluster 1 patients having the worst prognosis. Cluster analysis is valuable to differentiate among various subsets of MCTD and useful prognostic factor regarding the disease course.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the study, we investigated the influence of extracorporeal photochemotherapy (ECP) on lymphocyte activation and cell death by determining CD95, Annexin V, CD69 and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR expression on circulating T and B cells in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients and assessed their changes after ECP therapies. Moreover, we evaluated the relationship between lymphocyte activation and the observed changes in immunoregulatory functions following ECP treatments. We enrolled 19 SSc patients, who received 12 ECP treatments in total. Blood samples were taken prior to the first therapy and 6 weeks after each cycle. Samples were also obtained from 16 healthy controls. Lymphocyte subgroups were quantified by flow cytometry. Initially, patients had higher numbers and percentages of peripheral CD95(+) T cells, but not CD95(+) B cells, compared to control values. After ECP treatments, values of CD95(+) T cells decreased and became similar to controls. Annexin V expression on T and B cells did not change during the therapy. We observed a significant negative correlation between the changes in percentages of peripheral CD95(+) T cells and CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells. Although neither early-activated (CD69(+)) nor late-activated (HLA-DR+) T lymphocytes showed significant changes after ECP, clear negative correlations developed between them and the functional ability of CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells after the last treatment. Our results indicate that the initial increase of CD95(+) expression in SSc presumably reflects a physiological response to the pronounced autoimmune processes, which can be effectively attenuated by the restoration of regulative T cell numbers and functions as the result of ECP therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and immunomodulatory effects of extracorporeal photochemotherapy (ECP) in systemic sclerosis (SSc). We enrolled 16 patients with diffuse cutaneous SSc, who received 12 ECP treatments in total. After ECP treatments, the dermal thickness reduced and the mobility of joints improved. Internal organ involvement did not deteriorate. The percentages and numbers of peripheral Th17 cells decreased, the values of Tr1 and Treg cells increased, and the suppressor capacity of Treg cells improved. Interestingly, we found a positive correlation between the reduction of IL-17 levels and skin thickness measured by ultrasound. Moreover, levels of CCL2 and TGF-beta decreased, while the concentration of IL-1Ra, IL-10 and HGF elevated during the therapy. ECP treatments contribute to the restoration of disproportional autoimmune responses and attenuate fibrotic processes, thus decelerate the disease progression. Accordingly, ECP can be a useful element of novel treatment modalities proposed for SSc.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the review is to consider pathomechanisms of Sjögren's syndrome (SS), which could explain the female dominance (9:1), the most common age of onset (40-50 years) and targeting of the exocrine glands. Estrogens seem to specifically protect secretory glandular acinar cells against apoptosis whereas lack of estrogens during menopause and climacterium specifically leads to increased apoptosis of the exocrine secretory cells. Male gonads produce testosterone and convert it in exocrine glands to dihydrotesterosterone (DHT), which is anti-apoptotic and protects against acinar cell apoptosis. Estrogen-deficient women need to produce dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in the adrenal glands and convert it to DHT in exocrine glands in a complex and branching reaction network in which individual enzymatic reactions are catalyzed in forward and backward directions by a myriad of different isoforms of steroidogenic enzymes. Tailoring DHT in peripheral tissues is much more complex and vulnerable in women than in men. In SS the intracrine steroidogenic enzyme machinery is deranged. These endo-/intracrine changes impair acinar remodeling due to impaired integrin α1β1 and integrin α2β1 expression so that the intercalated duct progenitor cells are unable to migrate to the acinar space, to differentiate to secretory acinar cells upon contact with laminin-111 and laminin-211 specifically found in the acinar basement membrane. The disarranged endo-/intracrine estrogen/androgen balance induces acinar cells to release microparticles and apoptotic bodies and to undergo apoptotis and/or anoikis. Membrane particles contain potential autoantigens recognized by T- (TCRs) and B-cell receptors (BCRs) and danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLRs). In membrane particles (or carrier-complexes) antigen/adjuvant complexes could stimulate professional antigen capturing, processing and presenting cells, which can initiate auto-inflammatory and autoimmune cascades, break the self-tolerance and finally lead to SS.
Journal of Autoimmunity 01/2012; 39(1-2):49-56. · 8.15 Impact Factor