[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Instability in the composition of gut bacterial communities (dysbiosis) has been linked to common human intestinal disorders, such as Crohn's disease and colorectal cancer. Here, we show that dysbiosis caused by Nod2 deficiency gives rise to a reversible, communicable risk of colitis and colitis-associated carcinogenesis in mice. Loss of either Nod2 or RIP2 resulted in a proinflammatory microenvironment that enhanced epithelial dysplasia following chemically induced injury. The condition could be improved by treatment with antibiotics or an anti-interleukin-6 receptor-neutralizing antibody. Genotype-dependent disease risk was communicable via maternally transmitted microbiota in both Nod2-deficient and WT hosts. Furthermore, reciprocal microbiota transplantation reduced disease risk in Nod2-deficient mice and led to long-term changes in intestinal microbial communities. Conversely, disease risk was enhanced in WT hosts that were recolonized with dysbiotic fecal microbiota from Nod2-deficient mice. Thus, we demonstrated that licensing of dysbiotic microbiota is a critical component of disease risk. Our results demonstrate that NOD2 has an unexpected role in shaping a protective assembly of gut bacterial communities and suggest that manipulation of dysbiosis is a potential therapeutic approach in the treatment of human intestinal disorders.
The Journal of clinical investigation 01/2013; · 15.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The colonic epithelium self-renews every 3 to 5 d, but our understanding of the underlying processes preserving wound healing from carcinogenesis remains incomplete. Here, we demonstrate that Nod-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein 6 (NLRP6) suppresses inflammation and carcinogenesis by regulating tissue repair. NLRP6 was primarily produced by myofibroblasts within the stem-cell niche in the colon. Although NLRP6 expression was lowered in diseased colon, NLRP6-deficient mice were highly susceptible to experimental colitis. Upon injury, NLRP6 deficiency deregulated regeneration of the colonic mucosa and processes of epithelial proliferation and migration. Consistently, absence of NLRP6 accelerated colitis-associated tumor growth in mice. A gene-ontology analysis on a whole-genome expression profiling revealed a link between NLRP6 and self-renewal of the epithelium. Collectively, the integrity of the epithelial barrier is preserved by NLRP6 that may be manipulated to develop drugs capable of preventing adenoma formation in inflammatory bowel diseases.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2011; 108(23):9601-6. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Small bacterial RNAs (sRNAs) have been shown to participate in the regulation of gene expression and have been identified in numerous prokaryotic species. Some of them are involved in the regulation of virulence in pathogenic bacteria. So far, little is known about sRNAs in Bordetella, and only very few sRNAs have been identified in the genome of Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough.
An in silico approach was used to predict sRNAs genes in intergenic regions of the B. pertussis genome. The genome sequences of B. pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis, Bordetella bronchiseptica and Bordetella avium were compared using a Blast, and significant hits were analyzed using RNAz. Twenty-three candidate regions were obtained, including regions encoding the already documented 6S RNA, and the GCVT and FMN riboswitches. The existence of sRNAs was verified by Northern blot analyses, and transcripts were detected for 13 out of the 20 additional candidates. These new sRNAs were named Bordetella pertussis RNAs, bpr. The expression of 4 of them differed between the early, exponential and late growth phases, and one of them, bprJ2, was found to be under the control of BvgA/BvgS two-component regulatory system of Bordetella virulence. A phylogenetic study of the bprJ sequence revealed a novel, so far undocumented repeat of ~90 bp, found in numerous copies in the Bordetella genomes and in that of other Betaproteobacteria. This repeat exhibits certain features of mobile elements.
We shown here that B. pertussis, like other pathogens, expresses sRNAs, and that the expression of one of them is controlled by the BvgA/BvgS system, similarly to most virulence genes, suggesting that it is involved in virulence of B. pertussis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are defined by an increased aortic diameter and characterized by impairment of the extracellular matrix, macrophages infiltration and decreased density of smooth muscle cells. Our aim is to identify the key molecules involved in the pathogenesis of AAAs. This study investigated transcriptomic and proteomic profiles of macrophages from AAA patients (>50 mm aortic diameter) (n = 24) and peripheral arterial occlusion (PAO) patients without AAA detected (n = 18), who both needed a surgery. An antibody protein microarray, generated by printing antibodies onto membranes against proteins selected from the transcriptomic and proteomic analysis, was performed to validate the proteins differentially expressed specifically in macrophages and plasma from the same patients. We found a restricted number of proteins differentially expressed between AAA and PAO patients: TIMP-3, ADAMTS5, and ADAMTS8 that differ significantly in plasma of AAA patients compared to PAO patients, as found in the macrophages. In contrast to plasma MMP-9, soluble glycoprotein V (sGPV) and plasmin-antiplasmin complex levels, plasma TIMP-3 levels were not correlated to AAA size but interestingly correlated to sGPV, a platelet activation marker. Combining transcriptomic and proteomic is a valid approach to identify diseases causing proteins and potential biomarkers.
Journal of Proteome Research 07/2010; 9(7):3720-9. · 5.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In our laboratory we use cultured chicory (Cichorium intybus) explants as a model to investigate cell reactivation and somatic embryogenesis and have produced 2 chicory genotypes (K59, C15) sharing a similar genetic background. K59 is a responsive genotype (embryogenic) capable of undergoing complete cell reactivation i.e. cell de- and re-differentiation leading to somatic embryogenesis (SE), whereas C15 is a non-responsive genotype (non-embryogenic) and is unable to undergo SE. Previous studies 1 showed that the use of the beta-D-glucosyl Yariv reagent (beta-GlcY) that specifically binds arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) blocked somatic embryo production in chicory root explants. This observation indicates that beta-GlcY is a useful tool for investigating somatic embryogenesis (SE) in chicory. In addition, a putative AGP (DT212818) encoding gene was previously found to be significantly up-regulated in the embryogenic K59 chicory genotype as compared to the non-embryogenic C15 genotype suggesting that this AGP could be involved in chicory re-differentiation 2. In order to improve our understanding of the molecular and cellular regulation underlying SE in chicory, we undertook a detailed cytological study of cell reactivation events in K59 and C15 genotypes, and used microarray profiling to compare gene expression in these 2 genotypes. In addition we also used beta-GlcY to block SE in order to identify genes potentially involved in this process.
Microscopy confirmed that only the K59, but not the C15 genotype underwent complete cell reactivation leading to SE formation. beta-GlcY-treatment of explants blocked in vitro SE induction, but not cell reactivation, and induced cell wall modifications. Microarray analyses revealed that 78 genes were differentially expressed between induced K59 and C15 genotypes. The expression profiles of 19 genes were modified by beta-GlcY-treatment. Eight genes were both differentially expressed between K59 and C15 genotypes during SE induction and transcriptionally affected by beta-GlcY-treatment: AGP (DT212818), 26 S proteasome AAA ATPase subunit 6 (RPT6), remorin (REM), metallothionein-1 (MT1), two non-specific lipid transfer proteins genes (SDI-9 and DEA1), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), and snakin 2 (SN2). These results suggest that the 8 genes, including the previously-identified AGP gene (DT212818), could be involved in cell fate determination events leading to SE commitment in chicory.
The use of two different chicory genotypes differing in their responsiveness to SE induction, together with beta-GlcY-treatment represented an efficient tool to discriminate cell reactivation from the SE morphogenetic pathway. Such an approach, together with microarray analyses, permitted us to identify several putative key genes related to the SE morphogenetic pathway in chicory.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The only recognized genetic determinant of the common forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the epsilon 4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE). To identify new candidate genes, we recently performed transcriptomic analysis of 2741 genes in chromosomal regions of interest using brain tissue of AD cases and controls. From 82 differentially expressed genes, 1156 polymorphisms were genotyped in two independent discovery subsamples (n=945). Seventeen genes exhibited at least one polymorphism associated with AD risk, and following correction for multiple testing, we retained the interleukin (IL)-33 gene. We first confirmed that the IL-33 expression was decreased in the brain of AD cases compared with that of controls. Further genetic analysis led us to select three polymorphisms within this gene, which we analyzed in three independent case-control studies. These polymorphisms and a resulting protective haplotype were systematically associated with AD risk in non-APOE epsilon 4 carriers. Using a large prospective study, these associations were also detected when analyzing the prevalent and incident AD cases together or the incident AD cases alone. These polymorphisms were also associated with less cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) in the brain of non-APOE epsilon 4 AD cases. Immunohistochemistry experiments finally indicated that the IL-33 expression was consistently restricted to vascular capillaries in the brain. Moreover, IL-33 overexpression in cellular models led to a specific decrease in secretion of the A beta(40) peptides, the main CAA component. In conclusion, our data suggest that genetic variants in IL-33 gene may be associated with a decrease in AD risk potentially in modulating CAA formation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among the members of the genus Bordetella B. petrii is unique, since it is the only species isolated from the environment, while the pathogenic Bordetellae are obligately associated with host organisms. Another feature distinguishing B. petrii from the other sequenced Bordetellae is the presence of a large number of mobile genetic elements including several large genomic regions with typical characteristics of genomic islands collectively known as integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs). These elements mainly encode accessory metabolic factors enabling this bacterium to grow on a large repertoire of aromatic compounds.
During in vitro culture of Bordetella petrii colony variants appear frequently. We show that this variability can be attributed to the presence of a large number of metastable mobile genetic elements on its chromosome. In fact, the genome sequence of B. petrii revealed the presence of at least seven large genomic islands mostly encoding accessory metabolic functions involved in the degradation of aromatic compounds and detoxification of heavy metals. Four of these islands (termed GI1 to GI3 and GI6) are highly related to ICEclc of Pseudomonas knackmussii sp. strain B13. Here we present first data about the molecular characterization of these islands. We defined the exact borders of each island and we show that during standard culture of the bacteria these islands get excised from the chromosome. For all but one of these islands (GI5) we could detect circular intermediates. For the clc-like elements GI1 to GI3 of B. petrii we provide evidence that tandem insertion of these islands which all encode highly related integrases and attachment sites may also lead to incorporation of genomic DNA which originally was not part of the island and to the formation of huge composite islands. By integration of a tetracycline resistance cassette into GI3 we found this island to be rather unstable and to be lost from the bacterial population within about 100 consecutive generations. Furthermore, we show that GI3 is self transmissible and by conjugation can be transferred to B. bronchiseptica thus proving it to be an active integrative and conjugative element
The results show that phenotypic variation of B. petrii is correlated with the presence of genomic islands. Tandem integration of related islands may contribute to island evolution by the acquisition of genes originally belonging to the bacterial core genome. In conclusion, B. petrii appears to be the first member of the genus in which horizontal gene transfer events have massively shaped its genome structure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the extensive use of efficacious pertussis vaccines, Bordetella pertussis infections are still among the main causes for childhood morbidity and mortality. Severe pertussis occurs mostly in very young children, often too young to be sufficiently protected by current vaccines, which require several administrations in regimens that vary between countries. Since natural infection with B. pertussis is able to induce protection, we have developed the live attenuated B. pertussis vaccine strain BPZE1 that protects mice upon a single intranasal administration. This strain was obtained by genetically inactivating pertussis toxin via two point mutations in the ptx gene, by deleting dnt encoding dermonecrotic toxin, and by replacing the B. pertussis ampG gene by Escherichia coli ampG, resulting in the removal of tracheal cytotoxin. Here, we assessed the genetic stability of BPZE1 after 20 and 27 weeks of continuous passaging in vitro and in vivo, respectively. BPZE1 was passaged 20 times in vitro and 9 times in vivo in Balb/C mice. After these passages, 8 hemolytic colonies were analyzed by PCR for the absence of dnt and B. pertussis ampG and the presence of E. coli ampG, by DNA sequencing for the presence of the two ptx point mutations and by DNA microarrays for the global genomic stability. In addition, the protective capacity of BPZE1 was evaluated after the passages. No genetic or protective difference was detected between the passaged bacteria and non-passaged BPZE1, indicating that stability of the vaccine strain is not a concern for BPZE1 to be considered as an attenuated live vaccine against whooping cough.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To more rapidly identify candidate genes located within chromosomal regions of interest defined by genome scan studies in Alzheimer's disease (AD), we have developed a customized microarray containing all the ORFs (n=2741) located within nine of these regions. Levels of gene expression were assessed in total RNA from brain tissue of 12 controls and 12 AD patients. Of all genes showing differential expression, we focused on the ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) gene on Xp21.1., a key enzyme of the urea cycle which we found to be expressed in AD brains but not in controls, as confirmed by RT-PCR. We also detected mRNA expression of all the other urea cycle enzymes in AD brains. Immunochemistry experiments revealed that the OTC expression was strictly restricted to vascular endothelial cells in brain. Furthermore, OTC activity was 880% increased in the CSF of probable AD cases compared with controls. We analysed the association of the OTC -389 G/A and -241 A/G promoter polymorphisms with the risk of developing AD. We observed that rare haplotypes may be associated with the risk of AD through a possible modulation of the methylation of the OTC promoter. In conclusion, our results suggest the involvement of a new pathway in AD brains involving the urea cycle.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bordetella pertussis, a gram-negative beta-proteobacterium, is the agent of whooping cough in humans. Whooping cough remains a public health problem worldwide, despite well-implemented infant/child vaccination programs. It continues to be endemic and is observed cyclically in vaccinated populations. Classical molecular subtyping methods indicate that genome diversity among B. pertussis isolates is limited. Although the whole bacterial genome has been studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, the genes implicated in the diversity have not been identified. We developed a B. pertussis whole-genome DNA microarray representing over 91% of the predicted coding sequences of the sequenced strain Tohama I. Genomic DNA from clinical isolates with various pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile patterns was competitively hybridized with the DNA microarray and coding sequences were classified as present, absent or duplicated. Our data strongly suggest that the B. pertussis population is dynamic. In France, with highly vaccinated population, the genetic diversity is low and decreasing with time, and clonal expansion correlates with cycles of the disease. This decrease in diversity is essentially due to loss of genes and pseudogenes. The genes deleted are most of the time flanked by insertion sequences.
Microbes and Infection 08/2006; 8(8):2228-35. · 2.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This unit describes the preparation of alpha-oxo aldehyde functionalized oligodeoxynucleotides, the preparation and characterization of semicarbazide glass slides, and the fabrication of alpha-oxo semicarbazone microarrays by site-specific ligation of alpha-oxo-aldehyde oligodeoxynucleotides to the semicarbazide glass slides. The alpha-oxo aldehyde group COCHO is extensively used in ligation chemistry for the preparation of large molecular constructs. It is stable toward air oxidation and mainly present in aqueous solution in the hydrated form COC(OH)(2). It reacts efficiently with hydrazine derivatives, in particular, with the semicarbazide group. The reaction occurs spontaneously in water at pH 5.5. Site-specific immobilization of glyoxylyl oligodeoxynucleotides on semicarbazide glass slides allows the preparation of high-quality microarrays that can be used directly in hybridization experiments.
Current protocols in nucleic acid chemistry / edited by Serge L. Beaucage ... [et al.] 02/2005; Chapter 12:Unit 12.6.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: At the present time, there is little information on mechanisms of innate immunity in invertebrate groups other than insects, especially annelids. In the present study, we have performed a transcriptomic study of the immune response in the leech Theromyzon tessulatum after bacterial challenge, by a combination of differential display RT (reverse transcriptase)-PCR and cDNA microarrays. The results show relevant modulations concerning several known and unknown genes. Indeed, threonine deaminase, malate dehydrogenase, cystatin B, polyadenylate-binding protein and alpha-tubulin-like genes are up-regulated after immunostimulation. We focused on cystatin B (stefin B), which is an inhibitor of cysteine proteinases involved in the vertebrate immune response. We have cloned the full-length cDNA and named the T. tessulatum gene as Tt-cysb. Main structural features of cystatins were identified in the derived amino acid sequence of Tt-cysb cDNA; namely, a glycine residue in the N-terminus and a consensus sequence of Gln-Xaa-Val-Xaa-Gly (QXVXG) corresponding to the catalytic site. Moreover, Tt-cysb is the first cystatin B gene characterized in invertebrates. We have determined by in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry that Tt-cysb is only expressed in large coelomic cells. In addition, this analysis confirmed that Tt-cysb is up-regulated after bacterial challenge, and that increased expression occurs only in coelomic cells. These data demonstrate that the innate immune response in the leech involves a cysteine proteinase inhibitor that is not found in ecdysozoan models, such as Drosophila melanogaster or Caenorhabditis elegans, and so underlines the great need for information about innate immunity mechanisms in different invertebrate groups.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whooping cough still represents a major health problem, despite the use of effective vaccines for several decades. Being classically a typical childhood disease, whooping cough in young adults is now more common than it used to be, suggesting that protection after vaccination wanes during adolescence. As an alternative to the current vaccines, we wish to develop live attenuated vaccines to be delivered by the nasal route, such as to mimic the natural route of infection and to induce long lasting immunity. Bordetella pertussis, the etiological agent of whooping cough, produces a number of virulence factors, including toxins. Its recently determined genome sequence makes it now possible to apply functional genomics, such as transcriptomics and systematic knock-out mutagenesis. The expression of most known B. pertussis virulence genes is controlled by the two-component system BvgA/S. DNA microarray analyses have led to the identification of novel genes in the BvgA/S regulon, some of which are activated by BvgA/S and others are repressed by BvgA/S. In addition, some genes appear to be differentially modulated by nicotinic acid and MgSO4, both known to modulate the expression of BvgA/S-regulated genes. Among others, the functional genomics approach has uncovered two strongly BvgA/S-activated genes, named hotA and hotB (for 'homolog of toxin'), the products of which show high sequence similarities to pertussis toxin subunits. The identification of the full array of virulence factors, as well as an integrated understanding of the bacterial physiology should allow us to design attenuated B. pertussis strains useful for intranasal vaccination. A first generation of attenuated strains has already shown full protection in mice after a single intranasal administration. Such strains may also serve as vaccine carriers for heterologous antigens, in order to vaccinate against several different pathogens simultaneously.
International Journal of Medical Microbiology 05/2004; 293(7-8):583-8. · 4.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The production of most factors involved in Bordetella pertussis virulence is controlled by a two-component regulatory system termed BvgA/S. In the Bvg+ phase virulence-activated genes (vags) are expressed, and virulence-repressed genes (vrgs) are down-regulated. The expression of these genes can also be modulated by MgSO(4) or nicotinic acid. In this study we used microarrays to analyse the influence of BvgA/S or modulation on the expression of nearly 200 selected genes. With the exception of one vrg, all previously known vags and vrgs were correctly assigned as such, and the microarray analyses identified several new vags and vrgs, including genes coding for putative autotransporters, two-component systems, extracellular sigma factors, the adenylate cyclase accessory genes cyaBDE, and two genes coding for components of a type III secretion system. For most of the new vrgs and vags the results of the microarray analyses were confirmed by RT-PCR analysis and/or lacZfusions. The degree of regulation and modulation varied between genes, and showed a continuum from strongly BvgA/S-activated genes to strongly BvgA/S-repressed genes. The microarray analyses also led to the identification of a subset of vags and vrgs that are differentially regulated and modulated by MgSO(4) or nicotinic acid, indicating that these genes may be targets for multiple regulatory circuits. For example, the expression of bilA, a gene predicted to encode an intimin-like protein, was found to be activated by BvgA/S and up-modulated by nicotinic acid. Furthermore, surprisingly, in the strain analysed here, which produces only type 2 fimbriae, the fim3 gene was identified as a vrg, while fim2 was confirmed to be a vag.
Molecular and General Genetics 08/2003; 269(4):475-86. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In conjunction with the completion of the human genome sequence, microarray technology offers a complementary strategy to traditional methodologies used to search for genetic determinants involved in multifactorial diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. In order to gain benefits from this strategy, we have designed home-made microarrays to compare the expression of all ORFs located within loci of interest defined by genome scanning in Alzheimer family studies. Two approaches were selected using either probes amplified by PCR from a cDNA bank or specific oligonucleotides. Here, we report the challenging task of validating, prioritising and selecting the best ORFs derived from the genome sequence. The initial inventory from the NCBI website allowed us to select 5849 ORF's within nine loci. Half of them resulted from prediction models using the GenomeScan software. However, our data have shown that predicted ORFs may not be representative of exonic sequences, or even real genes. These observations have led us to exclude these ORFs from our study, decreasing their number from 5849 to 2748. Microarrays may be only 'snapshots' of our current knowledge of the human genome.
The Pharmacogenomics Journal 02/2003; 3(4):235-41. · 5.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe in this paper the preparation and characterization of semicarbazide glass slides and their use for the fabrication of microarrays using site-specific alpha-oxo semicarbazone ligation. The functional density and homogeneity of the semicarbazide glass slides were optimized by analyzing the reactivity of the layer toward a synthetic glyoxylyl fluorescent probe. Oligonucleotide microarrays were prepared by site-specific immobilization of glyoxylyl oligodeoxynucleotides. The slides were directly used in the hybridization assays using fluorescence detection and displayed a significant gain in sensibility as compared to the aldehyde glass slide/amino oligodeoxynucleotide chemistry. Semicarbazide slides were also used for the immobilization of a biotinylated peptide alpha-oxo aldehyde. The peptide microarrays allowed model interaction studies with streptavidin or an anti-biotin antibody.