Christos Katsaros

Universität Bern, Berna, Bern, Switzerland

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Publications (145)163.64 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To clinically evaluate the healing of mandibular Miller Class I and II isolated gingival recessions treated with the modified coronally advanced tunnel (MCAT) in conjunction with an enamel matrix derivative (EMD) and subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG). Method and Materials: Sixteen healthy patients (13 women and 3 men) exhibiting one isolated mandibular Miller Class I and II gingival recessions of a depth of ≥ 3 mm, were consecutively treated with the MCAT in conjunction with EMD and SCTG. Treatment outcomes were assessed at baseline and at 12 months postoperatively. The primary outcome variable was complete root coverage (CRC) (eg, 100% root coverage). Results: Postoperative pain and discomfort were low and no complications such as postoperative bleeding, allergic reactions, abscesses, or loss of SCTG were observed. At 12 months, statistically significant (P < .0001) root coverage was obtained in all 16 defects. CRC was measured in 12 out of the 16 cases (75%) while in the remaining 4 defects root coverage amounted to 90% (in two cases) and 80% (in two cases), respectively. Mean root coverage was 96.25%. Mean keratinized tissue width increased from 1.98 ± 0.8 mm at baseline to 2.5 ± 0.9 mm (P < .0001) at 12 months, while mean probing depth did not show any statistically significant changes (ie, 1.9 ± 0.3 mm at baseline vs 1.8 ± 0.2 mm at 12 months). Conclusion: Within their limits, the present results indicate that the described treatment approach may lead to predictable root coverage of isolated mandibular Miller Class I and II gingival recessions.
    Quintessence international (Berlin, Germany: 1985) 09/2014; · 0.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Facial appearance is important for normal psychosocial development in children with cleft lip and palate (CLP). There is conflicting evidence on how deficient maxillary growth may affect nasolabial esthetics. We retrospectively investigated nasolabial appearance in two groups, the Langenback (35 children; mean age 11.1 years; range: 7.9-13.6) and Vomerplasty (58 children; mean age 10.8 years; range: 7.8-14), who received unilateral CLP surgery by the same surgeon. The hard palate repair technique differed between the two groups. In the Langenback group, palatal bone on the non-cleft side only was left denuded, inducing scar formation and inhibiting maxillary growth. In the Vomerplasty group, a vomerplasty with tight closure of the soft tissues on the palate was applied. Thirteen lay judges rated nasolabial esthetics on photographs using a modified Asher-McDade's index. Nasolabial esthetics in both groups was comparable (p > 0.1 for each nasolabial component). Inferior view was judged as the least esthetic component and demonstrated mean scores 3.18 (SD = 0.63) and 3.13 (SD = 0.47) in the Langenback and Vomerplasty groups, respectively. Mean scores for other components were from 2.52 (SD = 0.63) to 2.81 (SD = 0.62). Regression analysis showed that vomerplasty is related with slight improvement in the nasal profile only (coefficient B = -0.287; p = 0.043; R(2 ) = 0.096). This study demonstrates that the use of vomerplasty instead of the Langenbeck technique is weakly associated with the nasolabial appearance among pre-adolescent patients with UCLP.
    Orthodontics and Craniofacial Research 01/2014; · 1.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives:To evaluate the location and morphologic characteristics of supernumerary teeth and to assess the frequency and extent of root resorption of adjacent teeth using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).Materials and methods:CBCT scans of 82 patients with supernumerary teeth in the maxilla and mandible were evaluated by two orthodontists independently. Data regarding the type, shape, and three-dimensional (3D) location of the supernumeraries including the frequency and extent of root resorption of adjacent teeth were recorded and evaluated for possible associations.Results:The study comprised a total of 101 supernumerary teeth. Most of the patients (80.5 per cent) exhibited one single supernumerary tooth, while 15.8 per cent had two and 3.7 per cent had three supernumeraries. Males were affected more than females with a ratio of 1.65:1. Mesiodentes were the most frequently diagnosed type of supernumerary teeth (48.52 per cent), followed by supernumerary premolars (23.76 per cent) and lateral incisors (18.81 per cent). Supernumeraries were most commonly conical in shape (42.6 per cent) with a normal or inclined vertical position (61.4 per cent). Root resorption of adjacent teeth was detected for 22.8 per cent of the supernumerary teeth, most frequently for supernumerary premolars. There was a significant association between root resorption of adjacent teeth and type and shape of tooth. Interrater agreement for the measurements performed showed kappa values ranging from 0.55 to 1 with a kappa value of 1 for type and shape of the supernumerary teeth.Conclusions:CBCT provides 3D information about location and shape of supernumerary teeth as well as prevalence and degree of root resorption of neighbouring teeth with moderate to high interrater correlation.
    The European Journal of Orthodontics 01/2014; · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Summary Objective: To survey retention procedures used in orthodontic practices in Switzerland. Material and methods: A questionnaire previously developed by Renkema et al. (2009) was sent to 223 Swiss orthodontists. The questionnaire com- prised six parts, mainly containing multiple-choice questions. Information as to background educa- tion of the individual orthodontist, retention in general, frequency of different types of removable or bonded retainers that were used, retention pro- tocol, and the type and size of the wire used for bonded retainers was assessed. Results: The overall response rate was 65 percent. Most orthodontists placed a bonded retainer in the upper and lower arch, except when the upper arch was expanded during treatment or when extractions were performed in the upper arch, in which case they placed a combination of fixed and removable retainers. Opinions varied with regard to how many hours the removable retainers should be worn and the duration of the retention phase. As far as bonded retainers were concerned, 87 percent of the orthodontists preferred life-long retention. Ninety-three percent of the orthodon- tists considered that the development of a guide- line on retention procedures would be useful. Conclusions: The choice of retention procedures is mostly based on orthodontist’s personal pref- erence. A further research into the long-term effectiveness of individual retention protocols is needed.
    Swiss dental journal. 01/2014; 124(6):655-61.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the survey was to obtain information on the treatment plan preferences, mechanics and characteristics of temporary anchorage device (TAD) application using a single case presented to orthodontists in Switzerland.
    Progress in orthodontics. 01/2014; 15(1):29.
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    ABSTRACT: Histomorphometric evaluation of the buccal aspects of periodontal tissues in rodents requires reproducible alignment of maxillae and highly precise sections containing central sections of buccal roots; this is a cumbersome and technically sensitive process due to the small specimen size. The aim of the present report is to describe and analyze a method to transfer virtual sections of micro-computer tomographic (CT)-generated image stacks to the microtome for undecalcified histological processing and to describe the anatomy of the periodontium in rat molars. A total of 84 undecalcified sections of all buccal roots of seven untreated rats was analyzed. The accuracy of section coordinate transfer from virtual micro-CT slice to the histological slice, right-left side differences and the measurement error for linear and angular measurements on micro-CT and on histological micrographs were calculated using the Bland-Altman method, interclass correlation coefficient and the method of moments estimator. Also, manual alignment of the micro-CT-scanned rat maxilla was compared with multiplanar computer-reconstructed alignment. The supra alveolar rat anatomy is rather similar to human anatomy, whereas the alveolar bone is of compact type and the keratinized gingival epithelium bends apical to join the junctional epithelium. The high methodological standardization presented herein ensures retrieval of histological slices with excellent display of anatomical microstructures, in a reproducible manner, minimizes random errors, and thereby may contribute to the reduction of number of animals needed.
    Journal of Anatomy 11/2013; · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives:To investigate the composition and the microstructural and mechanical characterization of three different types of lingual brackets.Materials and Methods:Incognito™ (3M Unitek), In-Ovation L (DENTSPLY GAC) and STb™ (Light Lingual System, ORMCO) lingual brackets were studied under the scanning electron microscope employing backscattered electron imaging and their elemental composition was analysed by energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Additionally, Vickers hardness was assessed using a universal hardness-testing machine, and the indentation modulus was measured according to instrumented indentation test. Two-way analysis of variance was conducted employing bracket type and location (base and wing) as discriminating variable. Significant differences among groups were allocated by post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparison analysis at 95% level of significance.Results:Three different phases were identified for Incognito and In-Ovation L bracket based on mean atomic number contrast. On the contrary, STb did not show mean atomic contrast areas and thus it is recognized as a single phase. Incognito is a one-piece bracket with the same structure in wing and base regions. Incognito consists mainly of noble metals while In-Ovation L and STb show similar formulations of ferrous alloys in wing and base regions. No significant differences were found between ferrous brackets in hardness and modulus values, but there were significant differences between wing and base regions. Incognito illustrated intermediate values with significant differences from base and wing values of ferrous brackets.Conclusions/Implications:Significant differences exist in microstructure, elemental composition, and mechanical properties of brackets tested, and thus differences in their clinical performance are anticipated.
    The European Journal of Orthodontics 11/2013; · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective:To assess the indication and timing of soft tissue augmentation for prevention or treatment of gingival recession when a change in the inclination of the incisors is planned during orthodontic treatment.Materials and methods:Electronic database searches of literature were performed. The following electronic databases with no restrictions were searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, and CENTRAL. Two authors performed data extraction independently using data collection forms.Results:No randomized controlled trial was identified. Two studies of low-to-moderate level of evidence were included: one of prospective and retrospective data collection and one retrospective study. Both implemented a periodontal intervention before orthodontics. Thus, best timing of soft tissue augmentation could not be assessed. The limited available data from these studies appear to suggest that soft tissue augmentation of bucco-lingual gingival dimensions before orthodontics may yield satisfactory results with respect to the development or progression of gingival recessions. However, the strength of the available evidence is not adequate in order to change or suggest a possible treatment approach in the daily practice based on solid scientific evidence.Conclusions:Despite the clinical experience that soft tissue augmentation of bucco-lingual gingival dimensions before orthodontic treatment may be a clinically viable treatment option in patients considered at risk, this treatment approach is not based on solid scientific evidence. Moreover, the present data do not allow to draw conclusions on the best timing of soft tissue augmentation when a change in the inclination of the incisors is planned during orthodontic treatment and thus, there is a stringent need for randomized controlled trials to clarify these open issues.
    The European Journal of Orthodontics 10/2013; · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives:To assess the diagnostic value of panoramic views (2D) of patients with impacted maxillary canines by a group of trained orthodontists and oral surgeons, and to quantify the subjective need and reasons for further three-dimensional (3D) imaging.Materials and Methods:The study comprises 60 patients with panoramic radiographs (2D) and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans (3D), and a total of 72 impacted canines. Data from a standardized questionnaire were compared within (intragroup) and between (intergroup) a group of orthodontists and oral surgeons to assess possible correlations and differences. Furthermore, the questionnaire data were compared with the findings from the CBCT scans to estimate the correlation within and between the two specialties. Finally, the need and reasons for further 3D imaging was analysed for both groups.Results:When comparing questionnaire data with the analysis of the respective CBCT scans, orthodontists showed probability (Pr) values ranging from 0.443 to 0.943. Oral surgeons exhibited Pr values from 0.191 to 0.946. Statistically significant differences were found for the labiopalatal location of the impacted maxillary canine (P = 0.04), indicating a higher correlation in the orthodontist group. The most frequent reason mentioned for the further need of 3D analysis was the labiopalatal location of the impacted canines. Oral surgeons were more in favour of performing further 3D imaging (P = 0.04).Conclusions:Orthodontists were more likely to diagnose the exact labiopalatal position of impacted maxillary canines when using panoramic views only. Generally, oral surgeons more often indicated the need for further 3D imaging.
    The European Journal of Orthodontics 10/2013; · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The optimal long-term management of the congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisor continues to cause controversy within the specialty. The Angle Society of Europe meeting 2012 dedicated a day to address some of the current controversies relating to the management of these missing lateral incisors. Findings: The format of the day consisted of morning presentations and afternoon breakout sessions to discuss a variety of questions related to the management of missing lateral incisors. Conclusions: The consensus viewpoint from this day was that the care of patients with congenitally missing lateral incisors is best achieved through a multi-disciplinary approach. The current evidence base is weak, and further well-designed, prospective trials are needed.
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this trial was to compare the survival rates of mandibular lingual retainers bonded with either chemically cured or light-cured adhesive after orthodontic treatment. Patients having undergone orthodontic treatment at a private orthodontic office were randomly allocated to fixed retainers placed with chemically cured composite or light-cured composite. Eligibility criteria included no active caries, restorations, or fractures on the mandibular anterior teeth, and adequate oral hygiene. The main outcome was any type of first-time lingual retainer breakage; pattern of failure (adapted adhesive remnant index scores) was a secondary outcome. Randomization was accomplished with random permuted blocks of 20 patients with allocation concealed in sequentially numbered, opaque, sealed envelopes. Blinding was applicable for outcome assessment only. Patients were reviewed at 1, 3, and 6 months and then every 6 months after placement of the retainer until completion of the study. Data were analyzed using survival analysis including Cox regression; sensitivity analysis was carried out after data imputation for subjects lost to follow-up. Two hundred twenty patients (median age, 16 years; interquartile range, 2; range, 12-47 years) were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either chemical or light curing. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups, the median follow-up period was 2.19 years (range, 0.003-3.64 years), and 16 patients were lost to follow-up. At a minimum follow-up of 2 years, 47 of 110 (42.7%) and 55 of 110 (50.0%) retainers had some type of failure with chemically cured and light-cured adhesive, respectively (log-rank test, P = 0.35). Data were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis, and the hazard ratio (HR) was 1.15 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-1.70; P = 0.47). There was weak evidence that age is a significant predictor for lingual retainer failures (HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-1.00; P = 0.08). Adhesive remnant index scoring was possible for only 66 of the 102 (64.7%) failures and did not differ between composites (Fisher exact test, P = 0.16). No serious harm was observed other than gingivitis associated with plaque accumulation. The results of this study indicated no evidence that survival of mandibular lingual retainers differs between chemically and light-cured adhesives. The overall failure rate was 46.4%; however, this included any type of failure, which may have exaggerated the overall failure rate.
    American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics: official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics 08/2013; 144(2):169-75. · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Factorial designs for clinical trials are often encountered in medical, dental, and orthodontic research. Factorial designs assess two or more interventions simultaneously and the main advantage of this design is its efficiency in terms of sample size as more than one intervention may be assessed on the same participants. However, the factorial design is efficient only under the assumption of no interaction (no effect modification) between the treatments under investigation and, therefore, this should be considered at the design stage. Conversely, the factorial study design may also be used for the purpose of detecting an interaction between two interventions if the study is powered accordingly. However, a factorial design powered to detect an interaction has no advantage in terms of the required sample size compared to a multi-arm parallel trial for assessing more than one intervention. It is the purpose of this article to highlight the methodological issues that should be considered when planning, analysing, and reporting the simplest form of this design, which is the 2×2 factorial design. An example from the field of orthodontics using two parameters (bracket type and wire type) on maxillary incisor torque loss will be utilized in order to explain the design requirements, the advantages and disadvantages of this design, and its application in orthodontic research.
    The European Journal of Orthodontics 07/2013; · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/objectives:The purpose of this study was to compare the mechanical, structural, and aesthetic properties of two types of aesthetic coated nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires compared with comparable regular NiTi wires in the as-received state and after clinical use.Materials/methods:Sixty one subjects were randomly assigned to four groups (N = 61), two groups of coated wires and two groups of comparable, non-coated controls (n = 15/group). The period in the mouth ranged from 4 to 12 weeks after insertion. In total, 121 wires (61 retrieved and 60 as-received) were used in the study. The percentages of coating retention and loss were extrapolated from scans. A brief survey of five questions with three choices was given to all patients. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and three-point bending tests were done on as-received and used wires.Results:The surface characterization by the percentage of resin remaining indicated that most wires in both test groups lost a significant amount of coating. A patient survey indicated that this was a noticeable feature for patients. DSC analysis of the wires indicated that the metallurgical properties of the coated wires were not similar to the uncoated wires in the as-received condition. Three-point bending results indicate a wide variation in test results with large standard deviations among all the groups.Limitations:The extent of coating loss requires investigating, as do the biological properties of the detached coating.Conclusions:Both wires lost a significant amount of aesthetic coating after varying periods in the mouth. The metallurgical testing of these findings may indicate that these wires perform differently in the mouth.
    The European Journal of Orthodontics 07/2013; · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To present the development of an experimental model in rats for translational expansive tooth movement. Section of Periodontology at Department of Dentistry Aarhus University. Twenty male Wistar rats in two pilot experimental settings plus seven animals without any intervention serving as controls. The second molar (group P1) or the second and third molar (group P2) in the maxillae of the animals were moved buccally using transpalatal β-titanium springs. In the group P2, two spring types (high force and low force) and two preangulations (0° passive or 30° torsion moment) were tested. The amount and type of tooth movement achieved and the resulting skeletal effect were assessed on microCT images, histological analysis was performed on few selected specimens. Expansive translational root movement amounting half a tooth width was achieved. Comparison of the amount of tooth movement at the right and left side of the maxilla showed that the expansion was rather symmetrical in the P2 group. Skeletal widening of the maxilla contributed in the P2 group to approximately one-third of the total root movement, whereas two-thirds were dental movement. With the model used in the P2 group, further research on translational expansive tooth movement and its effect on the periodontium can be pursued. In models for orthodontic expansion, it is strongly recommended to separately evaluate skeletal and dental effects.
    Orthodontics and Craniofacial Research 06/2013; · 1.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to examine the overall success of miniscrews inserted in the paramedian palatal region for support of various appliances during orthodontic treatment. METHODS: The patients received 1 or 2 miniscrews in the paramedian anterior palate of 8.0-mm length and 1.6-mm diameter placed during orthodontic treatment by the same experienced orthodontist. RESULTS: In total, 196 patients (121 girls, 75 boys; median age, 11.7; interquartile range, 3.7) who received 384 miniscrews were evaluated. Two hundred four miniscrews were used with rapid palatal expansion appliances, 136 with appliances for distalization of posterior teeth, and 44 with other appliances, such as transpalatal arches for tooth stabilization. The overall survival of the miniscrews was excellent (97.9%) in the cases examined. Cox regression analysis showed no difference in the overall survival rates of miniscrews loaded with different appliances for sex (hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-1.27; P = 0.73) after adjusting for appliance and age. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that miniscrews placed in the paramedian anterior palate for supporting various orthodontic appliances have excellent survival.
    American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics: official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics 06/2013; 143(6):767-772. · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: To compare the archwires inserted during the final stages of the orthodontic treatment with the generated moments at 0.018- and 0.022-inch brackets. Materials and Methods: The same bracket type, in terms of prescription, was evaluated in both slot dimensions. The brackets were bonded on two identical maxillary acrylic resin models, and each model was mounted on the orthodontic measurement and simulation system. Ten 0.017 × 0.025-inch TMA and ten 0.017 × 0.025-inch stainless steel archwires were evaluated in the 0.018-inch brackets. In the 0.022-inch brackets, ten 0.019 × 0.025-inch TMA and ten 0.019 × 0.025-inch stainless steel archwires were measured. A 15° buccal root torque (+15°) and then a 15° palatal root torque (-15°) were gradually applied to the right central incisor bracket, and the moments were recorded at these positions. A t-test was conducted to compare the generated moments between wires within the 0.018- and 0.022-inch bracket groups separately. Results: The 0.017 × 0.025-inch archwire in the 0.018-inch brackets generated mean moments of 9.25 Nmm and 14.2 Nmm for the TMA and stainless steel archwires, respectively. The measured moments in the 0.022-inch brackets with the 0.019 × 0.025-inch TMA and stainless steel archwires were 6.6 Nmm and 9.3 Nmm, respectively. Conclusion: The 0.017 × 0.025-inch stainless steel and β-Ti archwires in the 0.018-inch slot generated higher moments than the 0.019 × 0.025-inch archwires because of lower torque play. This difference is exaggerated in steel archwires, in comparison with the β-Ti, because of differences in stiffness. The differences of maximum moments between the archwires of the same cross-section but different alloys were statistically significant at both slot dimensions.
    The Angle Orthodontist 05/2013; · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our objective was to investigate potential associations between maxillary sinus floor extension and inclination of maxillary second premolars and second molars in patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion whose orthodontic treatment included maxillary first molar extractions. The records of 37 patients (18 boys, 19 girls; mean age, 13.2 years; SD, 1.62 years) treated between 1998 and 2004 by 1 orthodontist with full Begg appliances were used in this study. Inclusion criteria were white patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion, sagittal overjet of ≥4 mm, treatment plan including extraction of the maxillary first permanent molars, no missing teeth, and no agenesis. Maxillary posterior tooth inclination and lower maxillary sinus area in relation to the palatal plane were measured on lateral cephalograms at 3 time points: at the start and end of treatment, and on average 2.5 years posttreatment. Data were analyzed for the second premolar and second molar inclinations by using mixed linear models. The analysis showed that the second molar inclination angle decreased by 7° after orthodontic treatment, compared with pretreatment values, and by 11.5° at the latest follow-up, compared with pretreatment. There was evidence that maxillary sinus volume was negatively correlated with second molar inclination angle; the greater the volume, the smaller the inclination angle. For premolars, inclination increased by 15.4° after orthodontic treatment compared with pretreatment, and by 8.1° at the latest follow-up compared with baseline. The volume of the maxillary sinus was not associated with premolar inclination. We found evidence of an association between maxillary second molar inclination and surface area of the lower sinus in patients treated with maxillary first molar extractions. Clinicians who undertake such an extraction scheme in Class II patients should be aware of this potential association and consider appropriate biomechanics to control root uprighting.
    American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics: official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics 04/2013; 143(4):479-85. · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the success rate of paramedian palatal Orthosystem first- and second-generation implants used for anchorage in orthodontic treatment in patients treated by one experienced orthodontist.The records of 143 patients (90 female, 53 male, median age: 15.7 years, range: 10.2-50.9) receiving 145 palatal implants of the first or second generation (Orthosystem, Straumann AG, Basel, Switzerland) were examined. All the palatal implants were placed in a paramedian palatal location by three experienced surgeons. Stable implants were orthodontically loaded after a healing period of 3 months. Out of the 145 inserted paramedian palatal implants only seven implants (4.8%) were not considered stable after insertion. All the successfully osseointegrated implants remained stable during orthodontic treatment.Paramedian palatal implants are highly reliable and effective devices to obtain skeletal anchorage for orthodontic treatment. This study has shown that the paramedian location is a good alternative to the median location.
    The European Journal of Orthodontics 03/2013; · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Palatogenesis is a complex process implying growth, elevation and fusion of the two lateral palatal shelves during embryogenesis. This process is tightly controlled by genetic and mechanistic cues that also coordinate the growth of other orofacial structures. Failure at any of these steps can result in cleft palate, which is a frequent craniofacial malformation in humans. To understand the etiology of cleft palate linked to the BMP signaling pathway, we studied palatogenesis in Bmp7- deficient mouse embryos. Bmp7 expression was found in several orofacial structures including the edges of the palatal shelves prior and during their fusion. Bmp7 deletion resulted in a general alteration of oral cavity morphology, unpaired palatal shelf elevation, delayed shelf approximation, and subsequent lack of fusion. Cell proliferation and expression of specific genes involved in palatogenesis were not altered in Bmp7-deficient embryos. Conditional ablation of Bmp7 with Keratin14-Cre or Wnt1-Cre revealed that neither epithelial nor neural crest-specific loss of Bmp7 alone could recapitulate the cleft palate phenotype. Palatal shelves from mutant embryos were able to fuse when cultured in vitro as isolated shelves in proximity, but not when cultured as whole upper jaw explants. Thus, deformations in the oral cavity of Bmp7-deficient embryos such as the shorter and wider mandible were not solely responsible for cleft palate formation. These findings indicate a requirement for Bmp7 for the coordination of both developmental and mechanistic aspects of palatogenesis.
    PLoS ONE 03/2013; 8(3):e59463. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the long-term development of labial gingival recessions during orthodontic treatment and retention phase. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this retrospective case-control study, the presence of gingival recession was scored (Yes or No) on plaster models of 100 orthodontic patients (cases) and 120 controls at the age of 12 (T12 ), 15 (T15 ), 18 (T18 ), and 21 (T21 ) years. In the treated group, T12 reflected the start of orthodontic treatment and T15 - the end of active treatment and the start of retention phase with bonded retainers. Independent t-tests, Fisher's exact tests and a fitted two-part "hurdle" model were used to identify the effect of orthodontic treatment/retention on recessions. RESULTS: The proportion of subjects with recessions was consistently higher in cases than controls. Overall, the odds ratio for orthodontic patients as compared with controls to have recessions is 4.48 (p < 0.001; 95% CI: 2.61-7.70). CONCLUSIONS: Within the limits of the present research design, orthodontic treatment and/or the retention phase may be risk factors for the development of labial gingival recessions. In orthodontically treated subjects, mandibular incisors seem to be the most vulnerable to the development of gingival recessions.
    Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 03/2013; · 3.69 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

882 Citations
163.64 Total Impact Points


  • 2009–2014
    • Universität Bern
      • Faculty of Medicine
      Berna, Bern, Switzerland
  • 2013
    • Marquette University
      Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States
  • 2012–2013
    • University of Groningen
      • Department of Orthodontics
      Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands
  • 2006–2013
    • Queen Mary, University of London
      • • Institute of Dentistry
      • • Centre for Oral Growth and Development
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2003–2013
    • Radboud University Medical Centre (Radboudumc)
      • Department of Human Genetics
      Nymegen, Gelderland, Netherlands
  • 2009–2012
    • Institute of Mother and Child
      Warszawa, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland
  • 2011
    • Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
      • Division of Orthodontics
      Thessaloníki, Kentriki Makedonia, Greece
    • Athens State University
      Athens, Alabama, United States
  • 2007–2011
    • Radboud University Nijmegen
      • • Medical Centre
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      Nijmegen, Provincie Gelderland, Netherlands
  • 2010
    • Cairo University
      • Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine
      Cairo, Muhafazat al Qahirah, Egypt
  • 2008
    • Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences
      • Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry
      Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam Region, Tanzania
  • 2003–2007
    • University of Geneva
      • Department of Orthodontics
      Genève, Geneva, Switzerland
  • 1993–2000
    • Universität des Saarlandes
      Saarbrücken, Saarland, Germany