Christos Katsaros

Universität Bern, Berna, Bern, Switzerland

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Publications (166)201.4 Total impact

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  • Matthias Chiquet, Christos Katsaros, Dimitris Kletsas
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    ABSTRACT: Fibroblasts are cells of mesenchymal origin. They are responsible for the production of most extracellular matrix in connective tissues and are essential for wound healing and repair. In recent years, it has become clear that fibroblasts from different tissues have various distinct traits. Moreover, wounds in the oral cavity heal under very special environmental conditions compared with skin wounds. Here, we reviewed the current literature on the various interconnected functions of gingival and mucoperiosteal fibroblasts during the repair of oral wounds. The MEDLINE database was searched with the following terms: (gingival OR mucoperiosteal) AND fibroblast AND (wound healing OR repair). The data gathered were used to compare oral fibroblasts with fibroblasts from other tissues in terms of their regulation and function during wound healing. Specifically, we sought answers to the following questions: (i) what is the role of oral fibroblasts in the inflammatory response in acute wounds; (ii) how do growth factors control the function of oral fibroblasts during wound healing; (iii) how do oral fibroblasts produce, remodel and interact with extracellular matrix in healing wounds; (iv) how do oral fibroblasts respond to mechanical stress; and (v) how does aging affect the fetal-like responses and functions of oral fibroblasts? The current state of research indicates that oral fibroblasts possess unique characteristics and tightly controlled specific functions in wound healing and repair. This information is essential for developing new strategies to control the intraoral wound-healing processes of the individual patient. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Periodontology 2000 06/2015; 68(1):21-40. DOI:10.1111/prd.12076 · 3.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the risk of failure of fixed orthodontic retention protocols. Screening for inclusion eligibility, quality assessment of studies and data extraction was performed independently by two authors. The electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL were searched with no restrictions on publication date or language using detailed strategies. The main outcome assessed was bond failure. Twenty-seven studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Randomized controlled trials and prospective studies were evaluated according to the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Retrospective studies were graded employing the predetermined criteria of Bondemark. Nine randomized controlled trials, four of which were of low quality, were identified. Six studies had a prospective design and all were of low quality. Twelve studies were retrospective. The quality of trial reporting was poor in general. Four studies assessing glass-fibre retainers, three RCTs and one prospective, reported bond failures from 11%-71%, whereas twenty studies evaluating multistranded retainers - nine RCTs, two prospective and nine retrospective - reported failures ranging from 12%-50%. One comparison was performed, multistranded wires vs. polyehtylene woven ribbon (RR: 1.74; 95% CI: 0.45, 6.73; p=0.42). The quality of the available evidence is low. No conclusive evidence was found in order to guide orthodontists in the selection of the best protocol. Although fixed orthodontic retainers have been used for years in clinical practice, the selection of the best treatment protocol still remains a subjective issue. The available studies, and their synthesis, cannot provide reliable evidence in this field. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Journal of dentistry 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jdent.2015.05.002 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal 05/2015; DOI:10.1597/14-019 · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the maxillary second molar (M2) and third molar (M3) inclination following orthodontic treatment of Class II subdivision malocclusion with unilateral maxillary first molar (M1) extraction. Panoramic radiographs of 21 Class II subdivision adolescents (eight boys, 13 girls; mean age, 12.8 years; standard deviation, 1.7 years) before treatment, after treatment with extraction of one maxillary first molar and Begg appliances and after at least 1.8 years in retention were retrospectively collected from a private practice. M2 and M3 inclination angles (M2/ITP, M2/IOP, M3/ITP, M3/IOP), constructed by intertuberosity (ITP) and interorbital planes (IOP), were calculated for the extracted and nonextracted segments. Random effects regression analysis was performed to evaluate the effect on the molar angulation of extraction, time, and gender after adjusting for baseline measurements. Time and extraction status were significant predictors for M2 angulation. M2/ITP and M2/IOP decreased by 4.04 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -6.93, 1.16; P = .001) and 3.67 (95% CI: -6.76, -0.58; P = .020) in the extraction group compared to the nonextraction group after adjusting for time and gender. The adjusted analysis showed that extraction was the only predictor for M3 angulation that reached statistical significance. M3 mesial inclination increased by 7.38° (95% CI: -11.2, -3.54; P < .001) and 7.33° (95% CI: -11.48, -3.19; P = .001). M2 and M3 uprighting significantly improved in the extraction side after orthodontic treatment with unilateral maxillary M1 extraction. There was a significant increase in mesial tipping of maxillary second molar crowns over time.
    The Angle Orthodontist 03/2015; DOI:10.2319/100414-710.1 · 1.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To test the applicability, accuracy, precision, and reproducibility of various 3D superimposition techniques for radiographic data, transformed to triangulated surface data. Five superimposition techniques (3P: three-point registration; AC: anterior cranial base; AC + F: anterior cranial base + foramen magnum; BZ: both zygomatic arches; 1Z: one zygomatic arch) were tested using eight pairs of pre-existing CT data (pre- and post-treatment). These were obtained from non-growing orthodontic patients treated with rapid maxillary expansion. All datasets were superimposed by three operators independently, who repeated the whole procedure one month later. Accuracy was assessed by the distance (D) between superimposed datasets on three form-stable anatomical areas, located on the anterior cranial base and the foramen magnum. Precision and reproducibility were assessed using the distances between models at four specific landmarks. Non parametric multivariate models and Bland-Altman difference plots were used for analyses. There was no difference among operators or between time points on the accuracy of each superimposition technique (p>0.05). The AC + F technique was the most accurate (D<0.17 mm), as expected, followed by AC and BZ superimpositions that presented similar level of accuracy (D<0.5 mm). 3P and 1Z were the least accurate superimpositions (0.79<D<1.76 mm, p<0.005). Although there was no difference among operators or between time points on the precision of each superimposition technique (p>0.05), the detected structural changes differed significantly between different techniques (p<0.05). Bland-Altman difference plots showed that BZ superimposition was comparable to AC, though it presented slightly higher random error. Superimposition of 3D datasets using surface models created from voxel data can provide accurate, precise, and reproducible results, offering also high efficiency and increased post-processing capabilities. In the present study population, the BZ superimposition was comparable to AC, with the added advantage of being applicable to scans with a smaller field of view.
    PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2). DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0118810 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Summary INTRODUCTION : The cervical vertebrae maturation (CVM) method is used to determine the timing of treatment of Class II malocclusion. Because its performance has not been tested in patients with Class II, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the CVM method in predicting growth peak in Class II malocclusion. Twenty-nine untreated girls with Class II malocclusion were identified among participants of the Nijmegen Growth Study. Each girl had a series of cephalograms taken semi-annually from 9 to 14 years of age. The CVM status was established by five observers on a cephalogram taken at 9 years; mandibular and maxillary length and anterior face height were assessed on all available cephalograms. Method error was evaluated with kappa statistics and Bland-Altman (BA) plots. Regression analysis was used to determine if CVM grade can predict the phase of maximum facial growth. The mean kappa for intra-rater agreement during grading with CVM was 0.36 (fair agreement). BA plots demonstrated acceptable agreement for cephalometric measurements. The regression analysis demonstrated that the only chronologic age was associated with the facial growth. The largest effect of age was for condylion-gnathion (Cd-Gn) and articulare-gnathion (Ar-Gn)-for every additional 6 months the Cd-Gn increases by 1.8mm [95 per cent confidence interval (CI): 1.7, 1.9, P < 0.001] and Ar-Gn increases by 1.59mm (95 per cent CI: 1.52, 1.67, P < 0.001). The CVM grade could not predict the change of cephalometric variables. There is no evidence to support the hypothesis that the CVM method can predict the peak of craniofacial growth. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:
    The European Journal of Orthodontics 02/2015; DOI:10.1093/ejo/cju085 · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To examine the supporting evidence of advertisements published in six leading orthodontic journals. Materials and Methods: The 2012-2013 printed issues of American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Australian Orthodontic Journal, Journal of Orthodontics, European Journal of Orthodontics, Journal of Clinical Orthodontics, and Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics were screened for advertisements implying superior performance compared with competitor products. Advertisements were classified according to type of product, availability, and currency of supporting references. Results: A total of 99 unique advertisements claiming clinical benefit or superiority were identified. The overwhelming majority of the identified advertisements promoted appliance products (62.6%), orthodontic materials (14.1%), and dental operatory equipment, including imaging systems (12.1%). Advertisements were found to provide references or not regardless of the product type. Half of the advertisements referred to at least one peer-reviewed publication, whereas unpublished studies were cited by 25% of the advertisements. Most of the referenced articles were published within the past 5 years. Conclusions: The scientific background of advertisements in the orthodontic literature appears limited. While surveillance of journal advertising needs to be regulated, clinicians are urged to critically appraise the claims being made in orthodontic print advertisements by consulting the associated existing evidence.
    The Angle Orthodontist 12/2014; 85(2). DOI:10.2319/040814-258.1 · 1.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Summary INTRODUCTION : A prerequisite for development of gingival recession is the presence of alveolar bone dehiscence. Proclination of mandibular incisors can result in thinning of the alveolus and dehiscence formation. To assess an association between proclination of mandibular incisor and development of gingival recession. One hundred and seventeen subjects who met the following inclusion criteria were selected: 1. age 11-14 years at start of orthodontic treatment (TS), 2. bonded retainer placed immediately after treatment (T0), 3. dental casts and lateral cephalograms available pre-treatment (TS), post-treatment (T0), and 5 years post-treatment (T5), and 4. post-treatment (T0) lower incisor inclination (Inc_Incl) <95° or >100.5°. Two groups were formed: non-proclined (N = 57; mean Inc_Incl = 90.8°) and proclined (N = 60; mean Inc_Incl = 105.2°). Clinical crown heights of mandibular incisors and the presence of gingival recession sites in this region were assessed on plaster models. Fisher's exact tests, t-tests, and regression models were computed for analysis of inter-group differences. The mean increase of clinical crown heights (from T0 to T5) of mandibular incisors ranged from 0.75 to 0.83mm in the non-proclined and proclined groups, respectively (P = 0.273). At T5, gingival recession sites were present in 12.3% and 11.7% patients from the non-proclined and proclined groups, respectively. The difference was also not significant (P = 0.851). The proclination of mandibular incisors did not increase a risk of development of gingival recession during five-year observation in comparison non-proclined teeth. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:
    The European Journal of Orthodontics 12/2014; DOI:10.1093/ejo/cju073 · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: To evaluate the long-term effects of asymmetrical maxillary first molar (M1) extraction in Class II subdivision treatment. Materials and Methods: Records of 20 Class II subdivision whites (7 boys, 13 girls; mean age, 13.0 years; SD, 1.7 years) consecutively treated with the Begg technique and M1 extraction, and 15 untreated asymmetrical Class II adolescents (4 boys, 11 girls; mean age, 12.2 years; SD, 1.3 years) were examined in this study. Cephalometric analysis and PAR assessment were carried out before treatment (T1), after treatment (T2), and on average 2.5 years posttreatment (T3) for the treatment group, and at similar time points and average follow-up of 1.8 years for the controls. Results: The adjusted analysis indicated that the maxillary incisors were 2.3 mm more retracted in relation to A-Pog between T1 and T3 (β = 2.31; 95% CI; 0.76, 3.87), whereas the mandibular incisors were 1.3 mm more protracted (β = 1.34; 95% CI; 0.09, 2.59), and 5.9° more proclined to the mandibular plane (β = 5.92; 95% CI; 1.43, 10.41) compared with controls. The lower lip appeared 1.4 mm more protrusive relative to the subnasale-soft tissue-Pog line throughout the observation period in the treated adolescents (β = 1.43; 95% CI; 0.18, 2.67). There was a significant PAR score reduction over the entire follow-up period in the molar extraction group (β = -6.73; 95% CI; -10.7, -2.7). At T2, 65% of the subjects had maxillary midlines perfectly aligned with the face. Conclusions: Unilateral M1 extraction in asymmetrical Class II cases may lead to favorable occlusal outcomes in the long term without harming the midline esthetics and soft tissue profile.
    The Angle Orthodontist 11/2014; DOI:10.2319/071614-499.1 · 1.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a fraction of patients surgically treated for cleft lip/palate, excessive scarring disturbs maxillary growth and dento-alveolar development. Since certain genes are involved in craniofacial morphogenesis as well as tissue repair, a primary defect causing cleft lip/palate could lead to altered wound healing. We performed in vitro wound healing assays with primary lip fibroblasts from 16 cleft lip/palate patients. Nine foreskin fibroblast strains were included for comparison. Cells were grown to confluency and scratch wounds were applied; wound closure was monitored morphometrically over time. Wound closure rate showed highly significant differences between fibroblast strains. Statistically, fibroblast strains from the 25 individuals could be divided into three migratory groups, namely "fast", "intermediate", and "slow". Most cleft lip/palate fibroblasts were distributed between the "fast" (5 strains) and the "intermediate" group (10 strains). These phenotypes were stable over different cell passages from the same individual. Expression of genes involved in cleft lip/palate and wound repair was determined by quantitative PCR. Transforming growth factor-α mRNA was significantly up-regulated in the "fast" group. 5 ng/ml transforming growth factor-α added to the culture medium increased the wound closure rate of cleft lip/palate strains from the "intermediate" migratory group to the level of the "fast", but had no effect on the latter group. Conversely, antibody to transforming growth factor-α or a specific inhibitor of its receptor most effectively reduced the wound closure rate of "fast" cleft lip/palate strains. Thus, fibroblasts from a distinct subgroup of cleft lip/palate patients exhibit an increased migration rate into wounds in vitro, which is linked to higher transforming growth factor-α expression and attenuated by interfering with its signaling.
    PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e111752. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0111752 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To clinically evaluate the healing of mandibular Miller Class I and II isolated gingival recessions treated with the modified coronally advanced tunnel (MCAT) in conjunction with an enamel matrix derivative (EMD) and subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG). Method and Materials: Sixteen healthy patients (13 women and 3 men) exhibiting one isolated mandibular Miller Class I and II gingival recessions of a depth of ≥ 3 mm, were consecutively treated with the MCAT in conjunction with EMD and SCTG. Treatment outcomes were assessed at baseline and at 12 months postoperatively. The primary outcome variable was complete root coverage (CRC) (eg, 100% root coverage). Results: Postoperative pain and discomfort were low and no complications such as postoperative bleeding, allergic reactions, abscesses, or loss of SCTG were observed. At 12 months, statistically significant (P < .0001) root coverage was obtained in all 16 defects. CRC was measured in 12 out of the 16 cases (75%) while in the remaining 4 defects root coverage amounted to 90% (in two cases) and 80% (in two cases), respectively. Mean root coverage was 96.25%. Mean keratinized tissue width increased from 1.98 ± 0.8 mm at baseline to 2.5 ± 0.9 mm (P < .0001) at 12 months, while mean probing depth did not show any statistically significant changes (ie, 1.9 ± 0.3 mm at baseline vs 1.8 ± 0.2 mm at 12 months). Conclusion: Within their limits, the present results indicate that the described treatment approach may lead to predictable root coverage of isolated mandibular Miller Class I and II gingival recessions.
    Quintessence international (Berlin, Germany: 1985) 09/2014; 45(10). DOI:10.3290/j.qi.a32636 · 0.73 Impact Factor
  • Pawel Pazera, Piotr Fudalej, Christos Katsaros
    l Orthodontie Française 06/2014; 85(2):217-222. DOI:10.1051/orthodfr/2013060
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    ABSTRACT: Background The aim of the survey was to obtain information on the treatment plan preferences, mechanics and characteristics of temporary anchorage device (TAD) application using a single case presented to orthodontists in Switzerland. Methods A structured questionnaire to be completed by all study participants with case-specific (treatment plan including mechanics and TAD usage) and general questions (general fixed appliance and TAD usage as well as professional, educational and demographic questions) together with an orthodontic borderline case was utilised. The case was a female adult with dental Class II/2, deep bite and maxillary anterior crowing, who had been treated in childhood with extraction of four premolars and fixed appliance followed by wisdom tooth extraction. Results The response rate was 24.4% (108 out of 443). The majority (96.3%, 104) proposed comprehensive treatment, while 3.7% (4) planned only alignment of maxillary teeth. 8.3% (9) included a surgical approach in their treatment plan. An additional 0.9% (1) combined the surgical approach with Class II mechanics. 75.1% (81) decided on distalization on the maxilla using TADs, 7.4% (8) planned various types of Class II appliances and 3.7% (4) combined distalization using TADs or headgear with Class II appliances and surgery. Palatal implants were the most popular choice (70.6%, 60), followed by mini-screws (22.4%, 19) and mini-plates on the infrazygomatic crests (7.0%, 6). The preferred site of TAD insertion showed more variation in sagittal than in transversal dimension, and the median size of mini-screws used was 10.0-mm long (interquartile range (IQR) 2.3 mm) and 2.0-mm wide (IQR 0.3 mm). Conclusions Distalization against palatal implants and then distalization against mini-screws were the most popular treatment plans. Preferred site for TAD insertion varied depending on type and size but varied more widely in the sagittal than in the transversal dimension.
    04/2014; 15(1):29. DOI:10.1186/s40510-014-0029-x
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    ABSTRACT: Facial appearance is important for normal psychosocial development in children with cleft lip and palate (CLP). There is conflicting evidence on how deficient maxillary growth may affect nasolabial esthetics. We retrospectively investigated nasolabial appearance in two groups, the Langenback (35 children; mean age 11.1 years; range: 7.9-13.6) and Vomerplasty (58 children; mean age 10.8 years; range: 7.8-14), who received unilateral CLP surgery by the same surgeon. The hard palate repair technique differed between the two groups. In the Langenback group, palatal bone on the non-cleft side only was left denuded, inducing scar formation and inhibiting maxillary growth. In the Vomerplasty group, a vomerplasty with tight closure of the soft tissues on the palate was applied. Thirteen lay judges rated nasolabial esthetics on photographs using a modified Asher-McDade's index. Nasolabial esthetics in both groups was comparable (p > 0.1 for each nasolabial component). Inferior view was judged as the least esthetic component and demonstrated mean scores 3.18 (SD = 0.63) and 3.13 (SD = 0.47) in the Langenback and Vomerplasty groups, respectively. Mean scores for other components were from 2.52 (SD = 0.63) to 2.81 (SD = 0.62). Regression analysis showed that vomerplasty is related with slight improvement in the nasal profile only (coefficient B = -0.287; p = 0.043; R(2 ) = 0.096). This study demonstrates that the use of vomerplasty instead of the Langenbeck technique is weakly associated with the nasolabial appearance among pre-adolescent patients with UCLP.
    Orthodontics and Craniofacial Research 01/2014; 17(2). DOI:10.1111/ocr.12039 · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives:To evaluate the location and morphologic characteristics of supernumerary teeth and to assess the frequency and extent of root resorption of adjacent teeth using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).Materials and methods:CBCT scans of 82 patients with supernumerary teeth in the maxilla and mandible were evaluated by two orthodontists independently. Data regarding the type, shape, and three-dimensional (3D) location of the supernumeraries including the frequency and extent of root resorption of adjacent teeth were recorded and evaluated for possible associations.Results:The study comprised a total of 101 supernumerary teeth. Most of the patients (80.5 per cent) exhibited one single supernumerary tooth, while 15.8 per cent had two and 3.7 per cent had three supernumeraries. Males were affected more than females with a ratio of 1.65:1. Mesiodentes were the most frequently diagnosed type of supernumerary teeth (48.52 per cent), followed by supernumerary premolars (23.76 per cent) and lateral incisors (18.81 per cent). Supernumeraries were most commonly conical in shape (42.6 per cent) with a normal or inclined vertical position (61.4 per cent). Root resorption of adjacent teeth was detected for 22.8 per cent of the supernumerary teeth, most frequently for supernumerary premolars. There was a significant association between root resorption of adjacent teeth and type and shape of tooth. Interrater agreement for the measurements performed showed kappa values ranging from 0.55 to 1 with a kappa value of 1 for type and shape of the supernumerary teeth.Conclusions:CBCT provides 3D information about location and shape of supernumerary teeth as well as prevalence and degree of root resorption of neighbouring teeth with moderate to high interrater correlation.
    The European Journal of Orthodontics 01/2014; 36(6). DOI:10.1093/ejo/cjt101 · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Summary Objective: To survey retention procedures used in orthodontic practices in Switzerland. Material and methods: A questionnaire previously developed by Renkema et al. (2009) was sent to 223 Swiss orthodontists. The questionnaire com- prised six parts, mainly containing multiple-choice questions. Information as to background educa- tion of the individual orthodontist, retention in general, frequency of different types of removable or bonded retainers that were used, retention pro- tocol, and the type and size of the wire used for bonded retainers was assessed. Results: The overall response rate was 65 percent. Most orthodontists placed a bonded retainer in the upper and lower arch, except when the upper arch was expanded during treatment or when extractions were performed in the upper arch, in which case they placed a combination of fixed and removable retainers. Opinions varied with regard to how many hours the removable retainers should be worn and the duration of the retention phase. As far as bonded retainers were concerned, 87 percent of the orthodontists preferred life-long retention. Ninety-three percent of the orthodon- tists considered that the development of a guide- line on retention procedures would be useful. Conclusions: The choice of retention procedures is mostly based on orthodontist’s personal pref- erence. A further research into the long-term effectiveness of individual retention protocols is needed.
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    ABSTRACT: Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) has been introduced in 1998. This radiological imaging procedure has been provided for dentistry and is comparable to computed tomography (CT) in medicine. It is expected that CBCT will have the same success in dental diagnostic imaging as computed tomography had in medicine. Just as CT is responsible for a significant rise in radiation dose to the population from medical X-ray diagnostics, CBCT studies will be accompanied by a significant increase of the dose to our patients by dentistry. Because of the growing concern for an uncritical and consequently rapidly increasing use of CBCT the Swiss Society of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology convened a first consensus conference in 2011 to formulate indications for CBCT, which can be used as guidelines. In this meeting, oral and maxillofacial surgery, orthodontics and temporomandibular joint disorders and diseases were treated and the most important and most experienced users of DVT in these areas were asked to participate. In general, a highly restrictive use of CBCT is re- quired. Justifying main criterion for CBCT applica- tion is that additional, therapy-relevant informa- tion is expected that should lead to a significant benefit in patient care. All users of CBCT should have completed a structured, high-level training, just like that offered by the Swiss Society of Den- tomaxillofacial Radiology.
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    ABSTRACT: Histomorphometric evaluation of the buccal aspects of periodontal tissues in rodents requires reproducible alignment of maxillae and highly precise sections containing central sections of buccal roots; this is a cumbersome and technically sensitive process due to the small specimen size. The aim of the present report is to describe and analyze a method to transfer virtual sections of micro-computer tomographic (CT)-generated image stacks to the microtome for undecalcified histological processing and to describe the anatomy of the periodontium in rat molars. A total of 84 undecalcified sections of all buccal roots of seven untreated rats was analyzed. The accuracy of section coordinate transfer from virtual micro-CT slice to the histological slice, right-left side differences and the measurement error for linear and angular measurements on micro-CT and on histological micrographs were calculated using the Bland-Altman method, interclass correlation coefficient and the method of moments estimator. Also, manual alignment of the micro-CT-scanned rat maxilla was compared with multiplanar computer-reconstructed alignment. The supra alveolar rat anatomy is rather similar to human anatomy, whereas the alveolar bone is of compact type and the keratinized gingival epithelium bends apical to join the junctional epithelium. The high methodological standardization presented herein ensures retrieval of histological slices with excellent display of anatomical microstructures, in a reproducible manner, minimizes random errors, and thereby may contribute to the reduction of number of animals needed.
    Journal of Anatomy 11/2013; 224(2). DOI:10.1111/joa.12140 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives:To investigate the composition and the microstructural and mechanical characterization of three different types of lingual brackets.Materials and Methods:Incognito™ (3M Unitek), In-Ovation L (DENTSPLY GAC) and STb™ (Light Lingual System, ORMCO) lingual brackets were studied under the scanning electron microscope employing backscattered electron imaging and their elemental composition was analysed by energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Additionally, Vickers hardness was assessed using a universal hardness-testing machine, and the indentation modulus was measured according to instrumented indentation test. Two-way analysis of variance was conducted employing bracket type and location (base and wing) as discriminating variable. Significant differences among groups were allocated by post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparison analysis at 95% level of significance.Results:Three different phases were identified for Incognito and In-Ovation L bracket based on mean atomic number contrast. On the contrary, STb did not show mean atomic contrast areas and thus it is recognized as a single phase. Incognito is a one-piece bracket with the same structure in wing and base regions. Incognito consists mainly of noble metals while In-Ovation L and STb show similar formulations of ferrous alloys in wing and base regions. No significant differences were found between ferrous brackets in hardness and modulus values, but there were significant differences between wing and base regions. Incognito illustrated intermediate values with significant differences from base and wing values of ferrous brackets.Conclusions/Implications:Significant differences exist in microstructure, elemental composition, and mechanical properties of brackets tested, and thus differences in their clinical performance are anticipated.
    The European Journal of Orthodontics 11/2013; DOI:10.1093/ejo/cjt086 · 1.39 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
201.40 Total Impact Points


  • 2009–2015
    • Universität Bern
      Berna, Bern, Switzerland
  • 2006–2013
    • Queen Mary, University of London
      • • Institute of Dentistry
      • • Centre for Oral Growth and Development
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2012
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Pediatric Dentistry
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
    • University of Groningen
      • Department of Orthodontics
      Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands
  • 2010–2012
    • Institute of Mother and Child
      Warszawa, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland
  • 2003–2011
    • Radboud University Medical Centre (Radboudumc)
      • Department of Human Genetics
      Nymegen, Gelderland, Netherlands
    • University of Gothenburg
      • Department of Orthodontics
      Goeteborg, Västra Götaland, Sweden
  • 2007–2009
    • Radboud University Nijmegen
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Nymegen, Gelderland, Netherlands
    • University of Geneva
      Genève, Geneva, Switzerland
  • 2008
    • Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences
      • Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry
      Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam Region, Tanzania
  • 2005
    • University of Oslo
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo, Norway
  • 1993–2000
    • Universität des Saarlandes
      Saarbrücken, Saarland, Germany