P Marmiroli

Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano, Lombardy, Italy

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Publications (74)272.41 Total impact

  • Paola Marmiroli · Guido Cavaletti ·
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Peripheral neuropathies are frequent in association with systemic diseases as well as isolated disorders. Recent advances in the therapy of specific neuropathies led to the approval of new drugs/treatments. This review selected those peripheral neuropathies where the most recent approvals were provided and revised the potential future developments in diabetic and toxic-induced neuropathies although they have not a currently available causal therapy in view of their epidemiological and social relevance Areas covered Data have been extracted from the most important published trials and from clinical experience. In addition, data from the Food and Drug Administration and European Medicine Agency indications on the treatment of the selected peripheral neuropathies and from recently updated international guidelines have also been included. The website of the U.S. National Institutes of Health www.clinicaltrials.gov registry has been used as the reference database for phase III clinical trials not yet published or ongoing. Expert Opinion This review gives a general overview of the most recent advances in the treatment of amyloid, inflammatory and paraproteinemic peripheral neuropathies. Moreover, it briefly describes the unmet medical need in disabling and frequent conditions such as diabetic and chemotherapy-induced neuropathy, highlighting the most promising therapeutic approaches to their treatment.
    Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy 11/2015; DOI:10.1517/14656566.2016.1120719 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxaliplatin is one of the most widely used anticancer drugs representing the cornerstone of the treatment of colorectal cancer. Yet a number of side effects, including oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neurotoxicity (OIPN) which represents a dose-limiting side effect in the clinical use of oxaliplatin limit its use and a better understanding of its pathogenesis would offer a great opportunity to improve the "quality of survival" of cancer patients. So far, no treatment able to prevent or limit OIPN has been approved, and one of the reasons for this unmet clinical need is the incomplete knowledge of its pathogenesis preventing the development of rationale-based pharmacological interventions. Preclinical and clinical evidence raised the hypothesis that intracellular calcium-related events might play an important role in the onset of OIPN. Yet, the results of mechanistic pre-clinical studies appear inconsistent and, therefore, their relevance in neuroprotective drugs design is still uncertain. Indeed, it is at present unclear whether aberrant calcium signalling is the key pathogenetic moment or whether it just constitutes the mediator of the clinical phenotype. This review will summarize the preclinical results involving calcium-related events and OIPN with the aim to provide an updated overview of the available evidence and highlight the most promising strategies to design effective neuroprotective drugs. In particular, we will focus on the pre-clinical evidence suggesting that TRPV1, TRPM8 or TRPA1 might be involved, as these appear particularly amenable to pharmacological modulation.
    Current Medicinal Chemistry 10/2015; 22(999). DOI:10.2174/0929867322666151001121302 · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    Alessia Chiorazzi · Sara Semperboni · Paola Marmiroli ·

    08/2015; 3(3):304-321. DOI:10.3390/toxics3030304
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    Giuseppe de Vito · Annalisa Canta · Paola Marmiroli · Vincenzo Piazza ·
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    ABSTRACT: Laser-scanning imaging techniques are frequently used to probe the molecule spatial orientation in a sample of interest by exploiting selection rules depending on the polarisation of the excitation light. For the successful implementation of these techniques the precise control of the polarisation at the sample level is of fundamental importance. Polarisation distortions induced by the optical elements are often the main limitation factor for the maximum size of the field-of-view in polarisation-resolved (PR) laser-scanning microscopy, since for large scanning angles the polarisation distortions may mask the real sample structure. Here we shall demonstrate the implementation of large-field-of-view PR microscopy and show PR CARS imaging of mouse spinal cord thanks to a careful design of the laser-beam optical path. We shall show that this design leads to strongly suppressed distortions and quantify their effects on the final images. Although the focus of this work is on CARS imaging, we stress that the approaches described here can be successfully applied to a wide range of PR laser-scanning techniques. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.
    Journal of Microscopy 07/2015; 260(2). DOI:10.1111/jmi.12282 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: Cortical reorganization occurring in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is thought to play a key role in limiting the effect of structural tissue damage. Conversely, its exhaustion may contribute to the irreversible disability that accumulates with disease progression. Several aspects of MS-related cortical reorganization, including the overall functional effect and likely modulation by therapies, still remain to be elucidated. The aim of this work was to assess the extent of functional cortical reorganization and its brain structural/pathological correlates in Dark Agouti rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a widely accepted preclinical model of chronic MS. Morphological and functional MRI (fMRI) were performed before disease induction and during the relapsing and chronic phases of EAE. During somatosensory stimulation of the right forepaw, fMRI demonstrated that cortical reorganization occurs in both relapsing and chronic phases of EAE with increased activated volume and decreased laterality index versus baseline values. Voxel-based morphometry demonstrated gray matter (GM) atrophy in the cerebral cortex, and both GM and white matter atrophy were assessed by ex vivo pathology of the sensorimotor cortex and corpus callosum. Neuroinflammation persisted in the relapsing and chronic phases, with dendritic spine density in the layer IV sensory neurons inversely correlating with the number of cluster of differentiation 45-positive inflammatory lesions. Our work provides an innovative experimental platform that may be pivotal for the comprehension of key mechanisms responsible for the accumulation of irreversible brain damage and for the development of innovative therapies to reduce disability in EAE/MS. Significance statement: Since the early 2000s, functional MRI (fMRI) has demonstrated profound modifications in the recruitment of cortical areas during motor, cognitive, and sensory tasks in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) represents a reliable model of the chronic-progressive variant of MS. fMRI studies in EAE have not been performed extensively up to now. This paper reports fMRI studies in a rat model of MS with somatosensory stimulation of the forepaw. We demonstrated modifications in the recruitment of cortical areas consistent with data from MS patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of cortical remodeling in a preclinical in vivo model of MS.
    The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 07/2015; 35(27):10088-100. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0540-15.2015 · 6.34 Impact Factor
  • Guido Cavaletti · Paola Alberti · Paola Marmiroli ·
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    ABSTRACT: Systemic chemotherapy is a cornerstone of the modern medical management of cancer, although its use is limited by toxicity on normal tissues and organs, including the nervous system. Long-surviving or cured people strongly require a high level of wellness in addition to prolongation of life (the concept of the quality of survival), but neurologic dysfunction can severely affect daily life activities. Chemotherapy-related peripheral neurotoxicity is becoming one of the most worrisome long-term side effects in patients affected by a neoplasm. The central nervous system has a limited capacity to recover from injuries, and it is not surprising that severe damage can determine long-term or permanent neurologic dysfunction. However, the peripheral nervous system also can be permanently damaged by anticancer treatments despite its better regeneration capacities, and the effect on patients' daily life activities might be extremely severe. However, only recently, the paradigms of peripheral neurotoxicity reversibility have been scientifically challenged, and studies have been performed to capture the patients' perspectives on this issue and to measure the effect of peripheral neurotoxicity on their daily life activities. Despite these efforts, knowledge about this problem is still largely incomplete, and further studies are necessary to clarify the several still-unsettled aspects of long-term peripheral neurotoxicity of conventional and targeted anticancer chemotherapy.
    05/2015; 35:e553-60. DOI:10.14694/EdBook_AM.2015.35.e553
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    ABSTRACT: The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib is an antineoplastic drug mainly used for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). Despite its effectiveness, bortezomib clinical use is often limited by the onset of peripheral neuropathy (BiPN). To better understand the mechanisms of BiPN several rat and mice models have been proposed, but no studies in MM-bearing animals allowing to test the antitumor activity of the selected schedules and the role of MM by itself in peripheral nervous system damage have been reported to date. Here, we carried out a study using immunodeficient C.B-17/Prkdcscid (SCID) mice injected with RPMI8266 human MM cells and treated with bortezomib 1 mg/kg once a week for five weeks. Animals were assessed with neurophysiological, behavioral and pathological methods and tumor volume measurement was performed along the study. At the end of the study BiPN was evident in bortezomib-treated animals, and this neurotoxic effect was evident using a schedule able to effectively prevent tumor growth. However, neurophysiological and pathological evidence of MMinduced peripheral nervous system damage was also reported. This model based on MM-bearing animals is more reliable in the reproduction of the clinical setting and it is, therefore, more suitable than the previously reported models of BiPN to study its pathogenesis. Moreover, it represents an optimal model to test the efficacy of neuroprotective agents and at the same time their non-interference with bortezomib antineoplastic activity.
    Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents 04/2015; 29(1):115-24. · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cisplatin, paclitaxel and bortezomib are effective chemotherapy drugs in cancer treatment. However, they share severe peripheral neurotoxicity (PN) as one of their major dose-limiting side effects, often impairing cancer patients' quality of life and sometimes being permanent. Even if preclinical oncology is largely based on the use of immune-deficient mice, rodent models used to study the chemotherapy-induced PN are available only in immune-competent animals. In this study we characterized for the first time the PN induced by this chemotherapy through neurophysiological, behavioral, morphological and morphometric studies in athymic nude mice, a commonly employed strain in the preclinical oncology. The animals, divided into four groups, were chronically treated with cisplatin, paclitaxel or bortezomib once or twice a week for 4 or 6weeks or were left untreated. These schedules were tolerated, neurotoxic and in the range of antineoplastic effectiveness. Despite similarities, differences in the features of PN were evident if compared with immune-competent models under comparable regimens of treatment. The results of this study may provide a basis for future combined analysis of antineoplastic and neurotoxic effects of chemotherapy in the same animals. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Neurology 11/2014; 264. DOI:10.1016/j.expneurol.2014.11.002 · 4.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate neurochemical changes associated with bortezomib-induced painful peripheral neuropathy (PN), we examined the effects of a single-dose intravenous administration of bortezomib and a well-established "chronic" schedule in a rat model of bortezomib-induced PN. The TRPV1 channel and sensory neuropeptides CGRP and substance P (SP) were studied in L4-L5 dorsal root ganglia (DRGs), spinal cord, and sciatic nerve. Behavioral measures, performed at the end of the chronic bortezomib treatment, confirmed a reduction of mechanical nociceptive threshold, whereas no difference occurred in thermal withdrawal latency. Western blot analysis showed a relative increase of TRPV1 in DRG and spinal cord after both acute and chronic bortezomib administration. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed a decrease of TRPV1 and CGRP mRNA relative levels after chronic treatment. Immunohistochemistry showed that in the DRGs, TRPV1-, CGRP-, and SP-immunoreactive neurons were mostly small- and medium-sized and the proportion of TRPV1- and CGRP-labeled neurons increased after treatment. A bortezomib-induced increase in density of TRPV1- and CGRP-immunoreactive innervation in the dorsal horn was also observed. Our findings show that bortezomib-treatment selectively affects subsets of DRG neurons likely involved in the processing of nociceptive stimuli and that neurochemical changes may contribute to development and persistence of pain in bortezomib-induced PN.
    BioMed Research International 04/2014; 2014(5):180428. DOI:10.1155/2014/180428 · 1.58 Impact Factor
  • Guido Cavaletti · Cecilia Ceresa · Gabriella Nicolini · Paola Marmiroli ·
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    ABSTRACT: To gain a better insight into the neurotoxicity of platinum drugs, it is important to increase our knowledge over the phenomena allowing their entry into dorsal root ganglia neurons. A deeper understanding of platinum-drug transport mechanisms in neurons would represent not only a step forward in the pathogenetic interpretation of their neurotoxicity, but would also disclose possible treatment options to prevent this severe side-effect achievable through modulation of transporter activity. Copper transporters and organic cation transporters have been identified as putative targets for the pharmacological modulation of neuronal cell accumulation of platinum drugs and damage, and this possibility has been demonstrated by animal studies. The modulation of drug transporter activity is a promising strategy to limit the neurotoxicity of platinum drugs, provided that a) complete characterization of drug transporters is obtained and b) selective neuronal activity is targeted without reducing anticancer drug efficacy.
    Anticancer research 01/2014; 34(1):483-486. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bortezomib (BTZ) is the first proteasome inhibitor entered in clinical practice. Peripheral neuropathy is likely to be a class side effect of these drugs, although its severity is largely variable, and it deserves to be further investigated, since the mechanisms of BTZ-induced peripheral neurotoxicity (BiPN) are still unknown. In our study, we investigated in vivo and in vitro possible pathogenic events relevant to BiPN using a well-established rat model, with particular reference to the extent of proteasome inhibition and the effects on α-tubulin polymerization in sciatic nerves and dorsal root ganglia specimens obtained from animals treated with chronic regimens at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg intravenously. The same assessments were also performed after a single injection. Moreover, these studies were replicated in vitro using embryonic DRG neurons exposed to 100 nM BTZ and adult DRG neurons exposed to 10-50 nM BTZ for 24 h and 48 h. A significant increase in the polymerized fraction of a-tubulin and prolonged proteasome inhibition were observed after the chronic BTZ treatment in vivo. Recovery to physiological levels was observed after a 4-week follow-up post-treatment period. Proteasome inhibition and increased a-tubulin polymerization were also observed following BTZ treatment of both embryonic and adult DRG neurons in vitro. Our in vivo results suggest that proteasome inhibition and alteration of tubulin dynamics contribute to BiPN. The in vitro systems here described reliably replicate the in vivo results, and might therefore be used for further mechanistic studies on the effects of proteasome inhibitors on neurons.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 12/2013; 13(4). DOI:10.4161/cc.27476 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPSII or Hunter Syndrome) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficit of iduronate 2-sulfatase (IDS) activity and characterized by progressive systemic and neurological impairment. As the early mechanisms leading to neuronal degeneration remain elusive, we chose to examine the properties of neural stem cells (NSCs) isolated from an animal model of the disease in order to evaluate whether their neurogenic potential could be used to recapitulate the early phases of neurogenesis in the brain of Hunter disease patients. Experiments here reported show that NSCs derived from the subventricular zone (SVZ) of early symptomatic IDS-knockout (IDS-ko) mouse retained self-renewal capacity in vitro, but differentiated earlier than wild-type (wt) cells, displaying an evident lysosomal aggregation in oligodendroglial and astroglial cells. Consistently, the SVZ of IDS-ko mice appeared similar to the wt SVZ, whereas the cortex and striatum presented a disorganized neuronal pattern together with a significant increase of glial apoptotic cells, suggesting that glial degeneration likely precedes neuronal demise. Interestingly, a very similar pattern was observed in the brain cortex of a Hunter patient. These observations both in vitro, in our model, and in vivo suggest that IDS deficit seems to affect the late phases of neurogenesis and/or the survival of mature cells rather than NSC self-renewal. In particular, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α-positive (PDGFR-α+) glial progenitors appeared reduced in both the IDS-ko NSCs and in the IDS-ko mouse and human Hunter brains, compared with the respective healthy controls. Treatment of mutant NSCs with IDS or PDGF throughout differentiation was able to increase the number of PDGFR-α+ cells and to reduce that of apoptotic cells to levels comparable to wt. This evidence supports IDS-ko NSCs as a reliable in vitro model of the disease, and suggests the rescue of PDGFR-α+ glial cells as a therapeutic strategy to prevent neuronal degeneration.
    Cell Death & Disease 11/2013; 4(11):e906. DOI:10.1038/cddis.2013.430 · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Islet transplantation is a poorly investigated long-term strategy for insulin replacement and for treatment of complications in patients with diabetes. We investigated whether islet transplantation and insulin treatment can relieve diabetic neuropathy and rescue the residual endogenous pancreatic β cells. We used a multimodal approach, with five groups of Sprague-Dawley rats studied for 8 months: control rats, diabetic rats, insulin-treated diabetic rats with moderate or mild hyperglycemia, and diabetic rats transplanted with microencapsulated islets. Islet transplantation normalized glycemia and increased body and muscle weight; it was also effective in reducing proteinuria and altered liver function. Transplantation significantly improved tail nerve conduction velocity, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, and morphological alterations in the sciatic nerve as evidenced by decrease in g-ratio; it also restored thermal and ameliorated mechanical nociceptive thresholds. Morphometric analysis of pancreas indicated a significant β-cell volume increase in transplanted rats, compared with mildly and moderately hyperglycemic rats. Thus, allogeneic islet transplantation had a positive systemic effect in diabetic rats and induced regression of the established neuropathy and restitution of the typical characteristics of the islets. These findings strongly reinforce the need for improving glycemic control, not only to reverse established diabetic complications but also to improve β-cell status in diabetic pancreas.
    American Journal Of Pathology 11/2013; 183(5):1527-38. DOI:10.1016/j.ajpath.2013.07.032 · 4.59 Impact Factor
  • G Cavaletti · P Marmiroli ·
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    ABSTRACT: The peripheral nervous system may be involved in several pathological events in patients with cancer and, in some cases, the evaluation and monitoring of nerve damage can be difficult. The target of drug-induced neurotoxicity is mostly dependent on the type and distribution of each substance that can act predominantly on the nerve fibers (axon or myelin) or on the neuronal body (dorsal root ganglia, primary sensory neurons, or, very occasionally, motor neurons). Accordingly, the clinical features of drug-induced neuropathies are also dependent on the type of agent involved, inducing exclusively sensory or sensorimotor neuropathies, with or without autonomic impairment and pain. Neurotoxic antineoplastic agents represent a major clinical problem given their widespread use, the potential severity of their toxicity, and the obvious reluctance of oncologists to change effective schedules of treatment despite the occurrence of side-effects. In view of the above, it is clear that chemotherapy-induced peripheral neurotoxicity should be assessed carefully and reliably. The most suitable tool for assessing and monitoring the neurotoxic effect of antineoplastic agents should be clinically relevant, fast and easy to use, reliable and reproducible, specific and sensitive to severity changes, formally validated, and universally accepted, and patients should be highly compliant with its items. The major advantages and limitations of the different methods used to evaluate and monitor peripheral nerve function in patients with cancer are discussed, with particular reference to the features of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neurotoxicity.
    Handbook of Clinical Neurology 12/2012; 104:163-71. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-444-52138-5.00013-X
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    ABSTRACT: Although bortezomib (BTZ) is the frontline treatment for multiple myeloma, its clinical use is limited by the occurrence of painful peripheral neuropathy, whose treatment is still an unmet clinical need. Previous studies have shown chronic BTZ administration (0.20 mg/kg intravenously three times a week for 8 weeks) to female Wistar rats induced a peripheral neuropathy similar to that observed in humans. In this animal model of BTZ-induced neurotoxicity, the present authors evaluated the efficacy of CR4056, a novel I2 ligand endowed with a remarkable efficacy in several animal pain models. CR4056 was administered in a wide range of doses (0.6-60 mg/kg by gavage every day for 2-3 weeks) in comparison with buprenorphine (Bupre) (28.8 μg/kg subcutaneously every day for 2 weeks) and gabapentin (Gaba) (100 mg/kg by gavage every day for 3 weeks). Chronic administration of BTZ reduced nerve conduction velocity and induced allodynia. CR4056, Bupre, or Gaba did not affect the impaired nerve conduction velocity. Conversely, CR4056 dose-dependently reversed BTZ-induced allodynia (minimum effective dose 0.6 mg/kg). The optimal dose found, 6 mg/kg, provided a constant pain relief throughout the treatment period and without rebound after suspension, being effective when coadministered with BTZ, starting before or after allodynia was established, or when administered alone after BTZ cessation. A certain degree of tolerance was seen after 7 days of administration, but only at the highest doses (20 and 60 mg/kg). Bupre was effective only acutely, since tolerance was evident from the fourth day onwards. Gaba showed a significant activity only at the fourth day of treatment. CR4056, over the range of concentrations of 3-30 μM, was unable to hinder BTZ cytotoxicity on several tumor cell lines, which could indicate that this substance does not directly interfere with BTZ antitumor activity. Therefore, CR4056 could represent a new treatment option for BTZ-induced neuropathic pain.
    Journal of Pain Research 06/2012; 5:151-67. DOI:10.2147/JPR.S32122

  • Cancer Research 06/2012; 72(8 Supplement):934-934. DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2012-934 · 9.33 Impact Factor
  • P Marmiroli · G Cavaletti ·
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    ABSTRACT: Glutamate is one of the major neurotrasmitters in mammalian brain and changes in its concentration have been associated with a number of neurological disorders, including neurodegenerative, cerebrovascular diseases and epilepsy. Moreover, recently a possible role for glutamatergic system dysfunction has been suggested also in the peripheral nervous system. This chapter will revise the current knowledge in the distribution of glutamate and of its receptors and transporters in the central nervous system.
    Current Medicinal Chemistry 02/2012; 19(9):1269-76. DOI:10.2174/092986712799462711 · 3.85 Impact Factor
  • P Marmiroli · B Slusher · G Cavaletti ·
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    ABSTRACT: Glutamate carboxypeptidase II, also known as prostate specific membrane antigen or folate hydrolase I, is a type II transmembrane 750 amino acid membrane-bound glycoprotein, with a molecular weight in the human form of approximately 100 kDa and a demonstrated metallopeptidase activity. At the synaptic level it hydrolyzes N-acetylaspartylglutamate to N-acetyl-aspartate and glutamate. Its localization in the animal and human nervous system has only recently been clearly established, since many of the older studies gave conflicting results, likely due to the use of poorly characterized antibodies lacking epitope mapping and proper controls (i.e. immunohistochemistry complemented by western blot analysis and enzyme activity determination). In this chapter, we will review the available literature describing the animal and human distribution of glutamate carboxypeptidase in the central and peripheral nervous system.
    Current Medicinal Chemistry 02/2012; 19(9):1277-81. DOI:10.2174/092986712799462568 · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The peripheral nervous system is a frequent target of toxic agents. The accurate identification of the sites of neurotoxic action through the morphological characterization of reliable in vivo models or in vitro systems can give fundamental clues when investigating the pathogenesis and interpreting the clinical features of drug-induced neuropathy. The morphological approach has been used to investigate almost all the anticancer drugs able to induce chemotherapy-induced peripheral neurotoxicity, i.e. platinum drugs, antitubulins and proteasome inhibitors. No models have ever been described for thalidomide. This review demonstrates that any pathogenetic study on chemotherapy-induced peripheral neurotoxicity must be based on solid morphological observations obtained in reliable animal and in vitro models. This is particularly true in this setting, since the availability of tissues of human origin is extremely limited. In fact, peripheral (generally sural) nerve biopsies are never required for diagnostic purposes in chemotherapy-treated cancer patients, and their use for a purely scientific aim, although potentially very informative, is not ethical. Moreover, several neurotoxic drugs target the dorsal root ganglia neurons, and it is very difficult to obtain high-quality specimens even from early autopsies. It is, therefore, our opinion that an extensive morphological assessment of the in vitro and in vivo effect of any potentially neurotoxic antineoplastic drugs, as well as of neuroprotectant agents, should be taken into consideration right from the earliest stages of their development.
    Italian journal of anatomy and embryology = Archivio italiano di anatomia ed embriologia 01/2012; 117(2):75-97.
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    Andreas A Argyriou · Jordi Bruna · Paola Marmiroli · Guido Cavaletti ·
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    ABSTRACT: The peripheral nervous system can be vulnerable to the toxic action of several drugs since it is not protected as effectively as the central nervous system from noxious exogenous agents. Drug-induced neurotoxicity can affect the nerve fibers or the neuronal bodies (generally the dorsal root ganglia of the primary sensory neurons). Among the neurotoxic drugs antineoplastic agents represent a major clinical problem, given their widespread use and the potential severity of their toxicity. In fact, the peripheral neurotoxicity of antineoplastic agents frequently represents one of their dose-limiting side effects. Moreover, even when antineoplastic agents' peripheral neurotoxicity is not dose-limiting, its onset may severely affect the quality of life of cancer patients and cause chronic discomfort. Among the anticancer chemotherapy drugs, platinum derivates, antitubulins, thalidomide and bortezomib can induce the most severe effects on the peripheral nervous system of the treated patients. Therefore, we will review the features of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neurotoxicity (CIPN) resulting from the administration of these drugs with a focus on new classes of promising antineoplastic agents, such as epothilones and proteasome inhibitors.
    Critical reviews in oncology/hematology 09/2011; 82(1):51-77. DOI:10.1016/j.critrevonc.2011.04.012 · 4.03 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
272.41 Total Impact Points


  • 2001-2015
    • Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca
      • • Department of Surgery and Interdisciplinary Medicine
      • • Department of Biotechnology and Biosciences
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2013
    • University of Bergamo
      Bérgamo, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1987-2000
    • University of Milan
      • • Institute of Human Physiology II
      • • Department of Neurological Sciences
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1999
    • Università degli Studi di Genova
      Genova, Liguria, Italy