Harumi Yamagata

National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan

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Publications (15)203.5 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Soybeans exhibit a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with soil bacteria of the genera Bradyrhizobium and Ensifer/Sinorhizobium in a unique organ, the root nodule. It has been well known that nodulation of soybean is controlled by several host genes referred to as Rj (rj) genes. Among these genes, a dominant allele, Rj4, restricts nodulation with specific bacterial strains such as B. elkanii USDA61 and B. japonicum Is-34. These incompatible strains fail to invade the host epidermal cells as revealed by observations using DsRed-labelled bacteria. Here, we describe the molecular identification of the Rj4 gene by using map-based cloning with several mapping populations. The Rj4 gene encoded a thaumatin-like protein (TLP) that belongs to pathogenesis-related (PR) protein family 5. In rj4/rj4-genotype soybeans and wild-soybeans, we found six missense mutations and two consecutive amino acid deletions in the rj4 gene as compared with the Rj4 allele. We also found that the rj4/rj4-genotype soybeans were fully complemented by the expression of the Rj4 gene by using hairy root transformation. Whereas the expression of many TLPs and other PR proteins is induced by biotic/abiotic stress, the Rj4 gene expression appears to be constitutive in roots including root nodules.
    Plant and Cell Physiology 07/2014; · 4.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and AimsThe timing of flowering has a direct impact on successful seed production in plants. Flowering of soybean (Glycine max) is controlled by several E loci, and previous studies identified the genes responsible for the flowering loci E1, E2, E3 and E4. However, natural variation in these genes has not been fully elucidated. The aims of this study were the identification of new alleles, establishment of allele diagnoses, examination of allelic combinations for adaptability, and analysis of the integrated effect of these loci on flowering.Methods The sequences of these genes and their flanking regions were determined for 39 accessions by primer walking. Systematic discrimination among alleles was performed using DNA markers. Genotypes at the E1-E4 loci were determined for 63 accessions covering several ecological types using DNA markers and sequencing, and flowering times of these accessions at three sowing times were recorded.Key ResultsA new allele with an insertion of a long interspersed nuclear element (LINE) at the promoter of the E1 locus (e1-re) was identified. Insertion and deletion of 36 bases in the eighth intron (E2-in and E2-dl) were observed at the E2 locus. Systematic discrimination among the alleles at the E1-E3 loci was achieved using PCR-based markers. Allelic combinations at the E1-E4 loci were found to be associated with ecological types, and about 62-66 % of variation of flowering time could be attributed to these loci.Conclusions The study advances understanding of the combined roles of the E1-E4 loci in flowering and geographic adaptation, and suggests the existence of unidentified genes for flowering in soybean.
    Annals of Botany 11/2013; · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rice has developed several morphological and physiological strategies to adapt to phosphate starvation in the soil. In order to elucidate the molecular basis of response to phosphate starvation, we performed mRNA sequencing of 4 rice cultivars with variation in growth response to Pi starvation as indicated by the shoot/root dry weight ratio. Approximately 254 million sequence reads were mapped onto the IRGSP-1.0 reference rice genome sequence and an average of about 5,000 transcripts from each cultivar were found to be responsive under phosphate starvation. Comparative analysis of the RNA-Seq profiles of the 4 cultivars revealed similarities as well as distinct differences in expression of these responsive transcripts. We elucidated a set of core responsive transcripts including annotated and unannotated transcripts commonly expressed in the 4 cultivars but with different levels of expression. De novo assembly of unmapped reads to the Nipponbare genome generated a set of sequence contigs representing potential new transcripts that may be involved in tolerance to phosphate starvation. This study can be used for identification of genes and gene networks associated with environmental stress and the development of novel strategies for improving tolerance to phosphate starvation in rice and other cereal crops.
    Plant Molecular Biology 07/2013; · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Somaclonal variation is a phenomenon that results in the phenotypic variation of plants regenerated from cell culture. One of the causes of somaclonal variation in rice is the transposition of retrotransposons. However, many aspects of the mechanisms that result in somaclonal variation remain undefined. To detect genome-wide changes in regenerated rice, we analyzed the whole-genome sequences of three plants independently regenerated from cultured cells originating from a single seed stock. Many single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions and deletions (indels) were detected in the genomes of the regenerated plants. The transposition of only Tos17 among 43 transposons examined was detected in the regenerated plants. Therefore, the SNPs and indels contribute to the somaclonal variation in regenerated rice in addition to the transposition of Tos17. The observed molecular spectrum was similar to that of the spontaneous mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the base change ratio was estimated to be 1.74 × 10(-6) base substitutions per site per regeneration, which is 248-fold greater than the spontaneous mutation rate of A. thaliana.
    Plant and Cell Physiology 12/2011; 53(1):256-64. · 4.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plants have developed several morphological and physiological strategies to adapt to phosphate stress. We analyzed the inducible transcripts associated with phosphate starvation and over-abundant phosphate supply to characterize the transcriptome in rice seedlings using the mRNA-Seq strategy. Fifty-three million reads obtained from 16 libraries under various phosphate stress and recovery treatments were uniquely mapped to the rice genome. Transcripts identified specifically tagged to 40,574 (root) and 39,748 (shoot) Rice Annotation Project (RAP) transcripts. Additionally, we detected uniquely 10,388 transcripts with no match to any RAP transcript. These transcripts that showed specific response to Pi stress include those without ORFs that may act as non-protein coding transcripts. With an accompanying browser of the transcriptome under Pi stress, a deeper understanding of the structural and functional features of both annotated and unannotated Pi stress-responsive transcripts can provide useful information in improving Pi acquisition and utilization in rice and other cereal crops.
    Rice 06/2011; 4(2). · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microarray technology is limited to monitoring the expression of previously annotated genes that have corresponding probes on the array. Computationally annotated genes have not fully been validated, because ESTs and full-length cDNAs cannot cover entire transcribed regions. Here, mRNA-Seq (an Illumina cDNA sequencing application) was used to monitor whole mRNAs of salinity stress-treated rice tissues. Thirty-six-base-pair reads from whole mRNAs were mapped to the rice genomic sequence: 72.0% to 75.2% were mapped uniquely to the genome, and 5.0% to 5.7% bridged exons. From the piling up of short reads mapped on the genome, a series of programs (Bowtie, TopHat, and Cufflinks) comprehensively predicted 51,301 (shoot) and 54,491 (root) transcripts, including 2,795 (shoot) and 3,082 (root) currently unannotated in the Rice Annotation Project database. Of these unannotated transcripts, 995 (shoot) and 1,052 (root) had ORFs similar to those encoding the amino acid sequences of functional proteins in a BLASTX search against UniProt and RefSeq databases. Among the unannotated genes, 213 (shoot) and 436 (root) were differentially expressed in response to salinity stress. Sequence-based and array-based measurements of the expression ratios of previously annotated genes were highly correlated. Unannotated transcripts were identified on the basis of the piling up of mapped reads derived from mRNAs in rice. Some of these unannotated transcripts encoding putative functional proteins were expressed differentially in response to salinity stress.
    BMC Genomics 01/2010; 11:683. · 4.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Centromeres are sites for assembly of the chromosomal structures that mediate faithful segregation at mitosis and meiosis. This function is conserved across species, but the DNA components that are involved in kinetochore formation differ greatly, even between closely related species. To shed light on the nature, evolutionary timing and evolutionary dynamics of rice centromeres, we decoded a 2.25-Mb DNA sequence covering the centromeric region of chromosome 8 of an indica rice variety, 'Kasalath' (Kas-Cen8). Analysis of repetitive sequences in Kas-Cen8 led to the identification of 222 long terminal repeat (LTR)-retrotransposon elements and 584 CentO satellite monomers, which account for 59.2% of the region. A comparison of the Kas-Cen8 sequence with that of japonica rice 'Nipponbare' (Nip-Cen8) revealed that about 66.8% of the Kas-Cen8 sequence was collinear with that of Nip-Cen8. Although the 27 putative genes are conserved between the two subspecies, only 55.4% of the total LTR-retrotransposon elements in 'Kasalath' had orthologs in 'Nipponbare', thus reflecting recent proliferation of a considerable number of LTR-retrotransposons since the divergence of two rice subspecies of indica and japonica within Oryza sativa. Comparative analysis of the subfamilies, time of insertion, and organization patterns of inserted LTR-retrotransposons between the two Cen8 regions revealed variations between 'Kasalath' and 'Nipponbare' in the preferential accumulation of CRR elements, and the expansion of CentO satellite repeats within the core domain of Cen8. Together, the results provide insights into the recent proliferation of LTR-retrotransposons, and the rapid expansion of CentO satellite repeats, underlying the dynamic variation and plasticity of plant centromeres.
    The Plant Journal 09/2009; 60(5):805-19. · 6.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a model organism for the functional genomics of monocotyledonous plants since the genome size is considerably smaller than those of other monocotyledonous plants. Although highly accurate genome sequences of indica and japonica rice are available, additional resources such as full-length complementary DNA (FL-cDNA) sequences are also indispensable for comprehensive analyses of gene structure and function. We cross-referenced 28.5K individual loci in the rice genome defined by mapping of 578K FL-cDNA clones with the 56K loci predicted in the TIGR genome assembly. Based on the annotation status and the presence of corresponding cDNA clones, genes were classified into 23K annotated expressed (AE) genes, 33K annotated non-expressed (ANE) genes, and 5.5K non-annotated expressed (NAE) genes. We developed a 60mer oligo-array for analysis of gene expression from each locus. Analysis of gene structures and expression levels revealed that the general features of gene structure and expression of NAE and ANE genes were considerably different from those of AE genes. The results also suggested that the cloning efficiency of rice FL-cDNA is associated with the transcription activity of the corresponding genetic locus, although other factors may also have an effect. Comparison of the coverage of FL-cDNA among gene families suggested that FL-cDNA from genes encoding rice- or eukaryote-specific domains, and those involved in regulatory functions were difficult to produce in bacterial cells. Collectively, these results indicate that rice genes can be divided into distinct groups based on transcription activity and gene structure, and that the coverage bias of FL-cDNA clones exists due to the incompatibility of certain eukaryotic genes in bacteria.
    PLoS ONE 02/2007; 2(11):e1235. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rice (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare) harbors a ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) cluster in the nucleolar-organizing region at the telomeric end of the short arm of chromosome 9. We isolated and sequenced two genomic clones carrying rice rDNA fragments from this region. The rice rDNA repeat units could be classified into three types based on length, which ranged from 7,928 to 8,934 bp. This variation was due to polymorphism in the number of 254-bp subrepeats in the intergenic spacer (IGS). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis suggested that the rDNA units in rice vary widely in length and that the copy number of the subrepeats in the IGS ranges from 1 to 12 in the rice genome. PCR and Southern blot analyses showed that most rDNA units have three intact and one truncated copies of the subrepeats in the IGS, and distal (telomere-side) rDNA units have more subrepeats than do proximal (centromere-side) ones. Both genomic clones we studied contained rDNA-flanking DNA sequences of either telomeric repeats (5'-TTTAGGG-3') or a chromosome-specific region, suggesting that they were derived from the distal or proximal end, respectively, of the rDNA cluster. A similarity search indicated that retrotransposons appeared more frequently in a 500-kb portion of the proximal rDNA-flanking region than in other subtelomeric regions or sequenced regions of the genome. This study reveals the repetitive nature of the telomeric end of the short arm of chromosome 9, which consists of telomeric repeats, an rDNA array, and a retrotransposon-rich chromosomal region.
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 09/2006; 113(3):419-28. · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rice, one of the world's most important food plants, has important syntenic relationships with the other cereal species and is a model plant for the grasses. Here we present a map-based, finished quality sequence that covers 95% of the 389 Mb genome, including virtually all of the euchromatin and two complete centromeres. A total of 37,544 non-transposable-element-related protein-coding genes were identified, of which 71% had a putative homologue in Arabidopsis. In a reciprocal analysis, 90% of the Arabidopsis proteins had a putative homologue in the predicted rice proteome. Twenty-nine per cent of the 37,544 predicted genes appear in clustered gene families. The number and classes of transposable elements found in the rice genome are consistent with the expansion of syntenic regions in the maize and sorghum genomes. We find evidence for widespread and recurrent gene transfer from the organelles to the nuclear chromosomes. The map-based sequence has proven useful for the identification of genes underlying agronomic traits. The additional single-nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeats identified in our study should accelerate improvements in rice production.
    Nature 01/2005; 436:793-800. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rice, one of the world's most important food plants, has important syntenic relationships with the other cereal species and is a model plant for the grasses. Here we present a map-based, finished quality sequence that covers 95% of the 389 Mb genome, including virtually all of the euchromatin and two complete centromeres. A total of 37,544 non-transposable-element-related protein-coding genes were identified, of which 71% had a putative homologue in Arabidopsis. In a reciprocal analysis, 90% of the Arabidopsis proteins had a putative homologue in the predicted rice proteome. Twenty-nine per cent of the 37,544 predicted genes appear in clustered gene families. The number and classes of transposable elements found in the rice genome are consistent with the expansion of syntenic regions in the maize and sorghum genomes. We find evidence for widespread and recurrent gene transfer from the organelles to the nuclear chromosomes. The map-based sequence has proven useful for the identification of genes underlying agronomic traits. The additional single-nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeats identified in our study should accelerate improvements in rice production.
    Nature 01/2005; 436(7052):793-800. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rice, one of the world's most important food plants, has important syntenic relationships with the other cereal species and is a model plant for the grasses. Here we present a map-based, finished quality sequence that covers 95% of the 389 Mb genome, including virtually all of the euchromatin and two complete centromeres. A total of 37,544 non-transposable-element-related protein-coding genes were identified, of which 71% had a putative homologue in Arabidopsis. In a reciprocal analysis, 90% of the Arabidopsis proteins had a putative homologue in the predicted rice proteome. Twenty-nine per cent of the 37,544 predicted genes appear in clustered gene families. The number and classes of transposable elements found in the rice genome are consistent with the expansion of syntenic regions in the maize and sorghum genomes. We find evidence for widespread and recurrent gene transfer from the organelles to the nuclear chromosomes. The map-based sequence has proven useful for the identification of genes underlying agronomic traits. The additional single-nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeats identified in our study should accelerate improvements in rice production.
    Nature 01/2005; 436(7052):793-800. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding the organization of eukaryotic centromeres has both fundamental and applied importance because of their roles in chromosome segregation, karyotypic stability, and artificial chromosome-based cloning and expression vectors. Using clone-by-clone sequencing methodology, we obtained the complete genomic sequence of the centromeric region of rice (Oryza sativa) chromosome 8. Analysis of 1.97 Mb of contiguous nucleotide sequence revealed three large clusters of CentO satellite repeats (68.5 kb of 155-bp repeats) and >220 transposable element (TE)-related sequences; together, these account for approximately 60% of this centromeric region. The 155-bp repeats were tandemly arrayed head to tail within the clusters, which had different orientations and were interrupted by TE-related sequences. The individual 155-bp CentO satellite repeats showed frequent transitions and transversions at eight nucleotide positions. The 40 TE elements with highly conserved sequences were mostly gypsy-type retrotransposons. Furthermore, 48 genes, showing high BLAST homology to known proteins or to rice full-length cDNAs, were predicted within the region; some were close to the CentO clusters. We then performed a genome-wide survey of the sequences and organization of CentO and RIRE7 families. Our study provides the complete sequence of a centromeric region from either plants or animals and likely will provide insight into the evolutionary and functional analysis of plant centromeres.
    The Plant Cell 04/2004; 16(4):967-76. · 9.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The rice species
    Nature 11/2002; 420(6913):312-316. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heading date determines rice’s adaptation to its area and cropping season. We analyzed the molecular evolution of the Hd6 quantitative trait locus for photoperiod sensitivity in a total of 20 cultivated varieties and wild rice species and found 74 polymorphic sites within its coding region (1,002bp), of which five were nonsynonymous substitutions. Thus, natural mutations and modifications of the coding region of Hd6 within the genus Oryza have been suppressed during its evolution; this is supported by low Ka (≤0.003) and Ka/Ks (≤0.576) values between species, indicating purifying selection for a protein-coding gene. A nonsynonymous substitution detected in the japonica variety “Nipponbare” (a premature stop codon and nonfunctional allele) was found within only some local Japanese japonica varieties, which suggests that this point mutation happened recently, probably after the introduction of Chinese rice to Japan, and is likely involved in rice adaptation to high latitudes. Phylogenetic analysis and genome divergence using the entire Hd6 genomic region confirmed the current taxonomic sections of Oryza and supported the hypothesis of independent domestication of indica and japonica rice. Keywords Oryza -Cultivated rice-Wild rice-Comparative genomics-Heading date-Molecular evolution-Adaptation-Orthologous region-Nucleotide variation-Phylogenetic tree
    Rice 2(1):56-66. · 2.38 Impact Factor