[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) are glycoproteins secreted by prostate epithelial cells, and have a long clinical history of use as serum biomarkers of prostate cancers. These two proteins are present at significantly higher concentrations in seminal plasma, making this proximal fluid of the prostate a good source for purifying enough protein for characterization of prostate disease associated changes in glycan structures. With the use of seminal fluid samples representative of normal control, benign prostatic disease and prostate cancers, PAP and PSA were enriched by thiophilic absorption chromatography. Released N-linked glycan constituents from both proteins were analyzed by a combination of normal phase HPLC and MALDI-TOF spectrometry. For PSA, 40 putative glycoforms were determined, and 21 glycoforms were determined for PAP. PAP glycans were further analyzed with a hybrid triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometer to assign specific glycoform classes to each of the three N-linked sites. The glycans identified in these studies will allow for more defined targeting of prostate disease-specific changes for PAP, PSA and other secreted prostatic glycoproteins.
Journal of Proteome Research 02/2009; 8(2):620-30. · 5.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Changes in N-linked glycosylation are known to occur during the development of cancer. For example, we have previously reported changes in N-linked glycosylation that occur with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and, through the use of glycoproteomics, identified many of those proteins containing altered glycan structures. To advance these studies and further explore the glycoproteome, we performed N-linked glycan analysis from serum samples depleted of the major acute phase proteins, followed by targeted lectin extraction of those proteins containing changes in glycosylation. Using this method, changes in glycosylation, specifically increased amounts of core and outer arm fucosylation, were observed in the depleted samples. The identities of those proteins containing core and outer arm fucose were identified in the serum of patients with HCC. The usefulness of some of these proteins in the diagnosis of HCC was determined through the analysis of over 300 patient samples using a high-throughput plate based approach. Greatest performance was achieved with fucosylated hemopexin, which had an AUROC of 0.9515 with an optimal sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 92%.
Journal of Proteome Research 01/2009; 8(2):595-602. · 5.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The association between elevated circulating levels of GP73 (and fucosylated GP73 in particular) and hepatocellular carcinoma suggests that a thorough analysis of the extent of GP73 glycosylation is warranted. Detailed analysis of the glycosylation patterns of such low abundance proteins are hampered by technical difficulties. Using conventional lectin affinity chromatography, we have established that three quarters of the GP73 secreted from a cell line derived from HCC is fucosylated. Using mass spectrometry, we have established that at least two of three potential sites of N-linked glycosylation are occupied on most molecules of GP73 secreted from cultured hepatoma cells. Furthermore, the oligosaccharides added to recombinant GP73 resemble those present in the bulk of secreted protein, mostly bi-antennary with core fucose, with a smaller fraction of tri- and tetra-antennary structures. The frequency of fucosylation observed on the recombinant protein agrees well with the pattern of lectin binding of the endogenous secreted protein. Finally, we have developed a method to interrogate the glycans added to either the near full length protein or at a particular sequon, providing proof of concept that a small peptide embedded in a heterologous context can preserve both fucosylation and a high level of branching of oligosaccharides added.
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 06/2008; 104(1):136-49. · 3.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B and C viruses are major causative agents of liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. Using comparative glycoproteomics, we identified a glycoprotein that is altered both in amount and in glycosylation as a function of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Specifically, this altered glycoprotein is an immunoglobulin G (IgG) molecule reactive to the heterophilic alpha-Gal epitope [Galalpha-1-3Galbeta1-(3)4GlcNAc-R]. While similar changes in glycosylation have been observed in several autoimmune diseases, the specific immunoglobulins and their antigen recognition profiles were not determined. Thus, we provide the first report identifying the specific antigenic recognition profile of an immunoglobulin molecule containing altered glycosylation as a function of liver disease. This change in glycosylation allowed increased reactivity with several fucose binding lectins and permitted the development of a plate-based assay to measure this change. Increased lectin reactivity was observed in 100% of the more than 200 individuals with stage III or greater fibrosis and appeared to be correlated with the degree of fibrosis. The reason for the alteration in the glycosylation of anti-Gal IgG is currently unclear but may be related to the natural history of the disease and may be useful in the noninvasive detection of fibrosis and cirrhosis.
Journal of Virology 03/2008; 82(3):1259-70. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Iddm4 is a dominant non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) determinant of diabetes susceptibility in BBDR rats treated with poly I:C, plus depletion of regulatory T cells. In congenic MHC-identical normal WF rats, Iddm4(d) sensitively and specifically predicts induced diabetes. We report a new diabetes-susceptible subcongenic line that carries Iddm4 in a < 2.6 megabase interval. Candidate genes include the T cell receptor beta chain variable (TCRVbeta) family. We found that TCRVbeta4 in WF rats contains a stop codon, whereas 5/5 diabetes-susceptible rat strains express TCRVbeta4. We conclude that Iddm4-mediated diabetes resistance in rats may be due to a recessive protective mutation in TCRVbeta4.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 05/2007; 1103:128-31. · 4.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BBDR rats develop autoimmune diabetes only after challenge with environmental perturbants. These perturbants include polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C, a ligand of toll-like receptor 3), agents that deplete regulatory T-cell (Treg) populations, and a non-beta-cell cytopathic parvovirus (Kilham rat virus [KRV]). The dominant diabetes susceptibility locus Iddm4 is required for diabetes induced by treatment with poly I:C plus Treg depletion. Iddm4 is penetrant in congenic heterozygous rats on the resistant WF background and is 79% sensitive and 80% specific as a predictor of induced diabetes. Surprisingly, an analysis of 190 (BBDR x WF)F2 rats treated with KRV after brief exposure to poly I:C revealed that the BBDR-origin allele of Iddm4 is necessary but not entirely sufficient for diabetes expression. A genome scan identified a locus on chromosome 17, designated Iddm20, that is also required for susceptibility to diabetes after exposure to KRV and poly I:C (logarithm of odds score 3.7). These data suggest that the expression of autoimmune diabetes is a complex process that requires both major histocompatibility complex genes that confer susceptibility and additional genes such as Iddm4 and Iddm20 that operate only in the context of specific environmental perturbants, amplifying the immune response and the rate of disease progression.