[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most patients do well after epilepsy surgery for mesial temporal lobe sclerosis, and in only 8 to 12% of all operations, the outcome is classified as not improved.
To analyze the outcome of reoperation in cases of incomplete resection of mesial temporal lobe structures in patients with mesial temporal lobe sclerosis in temporal lobe epilepsy.
We analyzed 22 consecutive patients who underwent reoperation for mesial temporal lobe sclerosis (follow-up, 23-112 months; mean, 43.18 months) by evaluating noninvasive electroencephalographic/video monitoring before the first and second surgeries (semiology, interictal epileptiform discharges, ictal electroencephalography with special attention to the secondary contralateral evolution of the electroencephalographic seizure pattern after the initial regionalization), and magnetic resonance imaging (resection indices after the first and second surgeries on the amygdala, hippocampus, lateral temporal lobe). In 18 of 22 patients T2 relaxometry of the contralateral hippocampus was performed.
Nine of 22 patients became seizure free; another 4 patients had a decrease in seizures and eventually became seizure free (range, 16-51 months; mean, 30.3). Recurrence of seizures is associated with (1) ictal electroencephalography with later evolution of an independent pattern over the contralateral temporal lobe (0 of 5 patients seizure free vs 5 of 7 patients non-seizure free; P = .046) and (2) a smaller amount of lateral temporal lobe resection in the second surgery (1.06 ± 0.59 cm vs 2.18 ± 1.37 cm; P = .019). No significant correlation with outcome was found for lateralization of interictal epileptiform discharges, change in semiology, other resection indices, T2 relaxometry, onset and duration of epilepsy, duration of follow-up, and side of surgery.
Patients have a less favorable outcome with a reoperation if they show ictal scalp electroencephalography with secondary contralateral propagation and if only a small second resection of the lateral temporal lobe is performed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The etiological misinterpretation of paroxysmal neurological symptoms frequently causes a delayed treatment or an inappropriate utilization of ICU-capacities.
In this study, the data of 208 patients admitted to a neurological ICU because of acute transient neurological deficits, loss of consciousness or unclear motor phenomena were retrospectively analyzed. The initial emergency room diagnosis was compared to the final diagnosis and the rate of misdiagnosis was related to the patients' history and diagnostic data.
In 13.9%, the emergency room diagnosis of epileptic seizures turned out to be incorrect, whereas in 15.6%, the final diagnosis of epileptic seizures was missed in the emergency room. Factors that were significantly correlated to missing the seizure diagnosis were (i) no prior history of epilepsy, (ii) old age, (iii) multi-morbidity, (iv) pathologic CT-scans demonstrating cerebrovascular lesions, (v) seizure description by non-professionals, (vi) predominantly negative seizure phenomena (aphasia, loss of consciousness, paresis), (vii) lack of tongue-bite lesions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are established drugs for the treatment of status epilepticus (SE) but their potentially hazardous side-effects are well known. Levetiracetam (LEV) is a novel anticonvulsant available for intravenous (i.v.) application. It could be an alternative when standard drugs fail or should be avoided. We retrospectively identified patients from two German teaching hospitals who were treated with LEV i.v. for SE. Their charts were reviewed regarding sociodemographic data, type, etiology, onset and duration of SE, dose of LEV, concurrent antiepileptic drugs (AED) treatment, tolerability, and outcome. Thirty-two patients (15 female) were found who were treated with i.v. LEV for SE (median age 71 years). Two patients were exclusively treated with LEV. Eight received a low and further 20 patients a high dose of benzodiazepines before LEV. Two patients were treated with LEV to enable discontinuation of narcosis. SE was generalized convulsive in five, nonconvulsive in 20, and simple focal in seven patients. Etiology was acute 13 times and remote symptomatic 16 times; three SE were of unknown etiology. Therapy was initiated within a median time of 3 h and LEV i.v. was applied within a median time of 6 h. Median LEV bolus was 2,000 mg; median total dose on day 1 was 3,500 mg. Benzodiazepines plus i.v. LEV terminated SE in 23 patients without application of additional anticonvulsants, 10 within 30 min. LEV could not terminate SE in seven patients. We documented nausea and emesis in one and elevation of liver enzymes in another patient that were likely to be attributed to LEV. LEV i.v. seems to be safe with relevant efficiency for the treatment of SE in elderly and multimorbid patients when comorbidity and respiratory insufficiency precludes high doses of benzodiazepines or phenytoin.
Journal of Neurology 06/2009; 256(10):1634-42. · 3.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Twenty-six Austrian, Dutch, German, and Swiss epilepsy centers were asked to report on use of the Wada test (intracarotid amobarbital procedure, IAP) from 2000 to 2005 and to give their opinion regarding its role in the presurgical diagnosis of epilepsy. Sixteen of the 23 centers providing information had performed 1421 Wada tests, predominantly the classic bilateral procedure (73%). A slight nonsignificant decrease over time in Wada test frequency, despite slightly increasing numbers of resective procedures, could be observed. Complication rates were relatively low (1.09%; 0.36% with permanent deficit). Test protocols were similar even though no universal standard protocol exists. Clinicians rated the Wada test as having good reliability and validity for language determination, whereas they questioned its reliability and validity for memory lateralization. Several noninvasive functional imaging techniques are already in use. However, clinicians currently do not want to rely solely on noninvasive functional imaging in all patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated both with infections of the central nervous system and with neurological deficits due to direct effects of the neurotropic virus. Seizures and epilepsy are not rare among HIV-infected patients. We investigated the frequency of acute seizures and epilepsy of patients in different stages of HIV infection. In addition, we compared the characteristics of patients who experienced provoked seizures only with those of patients who developed epilepsy.
The database of the Department of Neurology, University of Münster, was searched for patients with HIV infection admitted between 1992 and 2004. Their charts were reviewed regarding all available sociodemographic, clinical, neurophysiological, imaging and laboratory data, therapy and outcome. Stage of infection according to the CDC classification and the epileptogenic zone were determined.
Of 831 HIV-infected patients treated in our department, 51 (6.1%) had seizures or epilepsy. Three of the 51 patients (6%) were diagnosed with epilepsy before the onset of the HIV infection. Fourteen patients (27%) only had single or few provoked seizures in the setting of acute cerebral disorders (eight patients), drug withdrawal or sleep withdrawal (two patients), or of unknown cause (four patients). Thirty-four patients (67%) developed epilepsy in the course of their HIV infection. Toxoplasmosis (seven patients), progressive multifocal leukencephalopathy (seven patients) and other acute or subacute cerebral infections (five patients) were the most frequent causes of seizures. EEG data of 38 patients were available. EEG showed generalized and diffuse slowing only in 9 patients, regional slowing in 14 patients and regional slowing and epileptiform discharges in 1 patient. Only 14 of the patients had normal EEG. At the last contact, the majority of the patients (46 patients=90%) were on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Twenty-seven patients (53%) were on anticonvulsant therapy (gabapentin: 14 patients, carbamazepine: 9 patients, valproate: 2 patients, phenytoin: 1 patient, lamotrigine: 1 patient). Patients with only provoked seizures had no epilepsy risk factors except HIV infection, and were less likely to be infected via intravenous drug abuse.
Seizures are a relevant neurological symptom during the course of HIV infection. Although in some patients seizures only occur provoked by acute disease processes, the majority of patients with new onset seizures eventually develops epilepsy and require anticonvulsant therapy. Intravenous drug abuse and the presence of non-HIV-associated risk factors for epilepsy seem to be associated with the development of chronic seizures in this patient group.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the predictive value of demographic data for the seizure outcome after extratemporal epilepsy surgery.
Eightyone patients who underwent resective extratemporal epilepsy surgery were retrospectively studied concerning (a) age at surgery, (b) onset of epilepsy, (c) duration of epilepsy, (d) number of seizures at the time of presurgical evaluation, (d) number of presurgically tested antiepileptic substances and (f) number of seizure types. The data were correlated to the postoperative seizure outcome after two years.
33 patients (40.7%) were seizure free two years after surgery. Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that both tumor etiology and low presurgical seizure frequency were independently associated with seizure freedom after epilepsy surgery. The recurrence rate in patients with one or more seizures per day was more than two-fold if compared with patients with fewer seizures. The remaining demographic factors did not show a significant association with seizure outcome in our 81 patients.
Fewer than daily seizures prior to surgery and a tumoral etiology independently increase the likelihood of remaining seizure free two years after extratemporal epilepsy surgery.
Journal of Neurology 09/2007; 254(8):996-9. · 3.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Status epilepticus (SE) is a frequent neurological emergency with an annual incidence of 10-20/100,000 individuals. The overall mortality is about 10-20%. Patients present with long-lasting fits or series of epileptic seizures or extended stupor and coma. Furthermore, patients with SE can suffer from a number of systemic complications possibly also due to side effects of the medical treatment. In the beginning, standardized treatment algorithms can successfully stop most SE. A minority of SE cases prove however to be refractory against the initial treatment and require intensified pharmacologic intervention with nonsedating anticonvulsive drugs or anesthetics. In some partial SE, nonpharmacological approaches (e.g., epilepsy surgery) have been used successfully. This paper reviews scientific evidence of the diagnostic approach, therapeutic options, and course of refractory SE, including nonpharmacological treatment.
Der Nervenarzt 11/2006; 77(10):1159-60, 1162-4, 1166-75. · 0.80 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recent proposal by the ILAE Task Force for Epilepsy Classification is a multiaxial, syndrome-oriented approach. Epilepsy syndromes--at least as defined by the ILAE Task Force--group patients according to multiple, usually poorly defined parameters. As a result, these syndromes frequently show significant overlap and may change with patient age. We propose a five-dimensional and patient-oriented approach to epilepsy classification. This approach shifts away from syndrome orientation, using independent criteria in each of the five dimensions similarly to the diagnostic process in general neurology. The main dimensions of this new classification consist of (1) localizing the epileptogenic zone, (2) semiology of the seizure, (3) etiology, (4) seizure frequency, and (5) related medical conditions. These dimensions characterize all information necessary for patient management, are independent parameters, and include information more pertinent than the ILAE axes with regard to patient management. All cases can be classified according to this five-dimensional system, even at initial encounter when no detailed test results are available. Information from clinical tests such as MRI and EEG are translated into the best possible working hypothesis at the time of classification, allowing increased precision of the classification as additional information becomes available.
Der Nervenarzt 09/2006; 77(8):961-9. · 0.80 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Der krzlich erschienene Vorschlag der ILAE-Taskforce zur Epilepsieklassifikation ist ein multiaxialer, syndromorientierter Ansatz. Hierbei werden die Patienten unterschiedlichen und oftmals unzureichend definierten Kriterien zugeordnet. Die resultierenden Syndrome haben hufig keine tiologische oder pathophysiologische Relevanz, berlappen und wechseln je nach Alter des Patienten. Wir schlagen einen 5-dimensionalen, patientenorientierten Ansatz zur Klassifikation der Epilepsien vor. Dieser Ansatz wendet sich von der Orientierung an Syndromen ab und basiert stattdessen auf dem methodologischen Ansatz der allgemeinen Neurologie, in dem einerseits das klinische Bild des einzelnen Patienten im Mittelpunkt steht und andererseits in jeder Dimension voneinander unabhngige und mglichst operationalisierbare Kriterien angewandt und schlielich zusammengefhrt werden. Die Dimension dieser Klassifikation sind: (1) Lokalisation der epileptogenen Zone, (2) Semiologie der epileptischen Anflle, (3) tiologie, (4) Anfallshufigkeit und (5) sonstige relevante medizinische Faktoren. Diese Dimensionen enthalten alle fr das Management eines Patienten notwendige Information und sind voneinander unabhngige Parameter. Alle Patienten knnen selbst beim initialen Patientenkontakt sinnvoll in das System eingeordnet werden, auch wenn noch keine apparativen Untersuchungen durchgefhrt wurden. Die Information aller Untersuchungen (z. B. MRT, EEG) fliet zum jeweiligen Zeitpunkt der Klassifikation in die Zuordnung des Patienten ein und erlaubt mit jeder neu verfgbaren Information eine Zunahme der Przision und Validitt der Klassifikation.The recent proposal by the ILAE Task Force for Epilepsy Classification is a multiaxial, syndrome-oriented approach. Epilepsy syndromes – at least as defined by the ILAE Task Force – group patients according to multiple, usually poorly defined parameters. As a result, these syndromes frequently show significant overlap and may change with patient age. We propose a five-dimensional and patient-oriented approach to epilepsy classification. This approach shifts away from syndrome orientation, using independent criteria in each of the five dimensions similarly to the diagnostic process in general neurology. The main dimensions of this new classification consist of (1) localizing the epileptogenic zone, (2) semiology of the seizure, (3) etiology, (4) seizure frequency, and (5) related medical conditions. These dimensions characterize all information necessary for patient management, are independent parameters, and include information more pertinent than the ILAE axes with regard to patient management. All cases can be classified according to this five-dimensional system, even at initial encounter when no detailed test results are available. Information from clinical tests such as MRI and EEG are translated into the best possible working hypothesis at the time of classification, allowing increased precision of the classification as additional information becomes available.
Der Nervenarzt 07/2006; 77(8):961-969. · 0.80 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pregabalin is a novel anticonvulsive and analgesic drug that has been marketed in Europe for more than a year. The typical side effects are dizziness, somnolence and weight gain. We present a patient who, after unintended rapid up-titration of pregabalin, experienced psychotic symptoms associated with rhythmic EEG-changes resolving completely after discontinuation of pregabalin and benzodiazepine administration.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alien limb phenomena (ALPs) are characterized by limb movements, which are subjectively experienced as involuntary or alien induced. ALPs regularly remain unchanged and occur as a consequence of frontal, callosal, or posterior cerebral lesions. The authors present two patients with paroxysmal ALP proved to be focal seizures by using video-EEG monitoring. In another two patients, ALP could experimentally be induced by electrical cortical stimulation. Based on the stimulation results, the authors suspect a functional disconnection of 1) sensory cortical areas providing information about the extrapersonal space; and 2) areas of the frontal and/or limbic cortex that are regularly involved in the processing and executing of intentional motor activity as a pathophysiologic substrate for ictal ALP.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relationship between the posterior cortex and cognitive functions is still a relatively open field. There are no studies on populations in which functions of posterior structures were examined by a standardised neuropsychological examination before and after posterior resections. Changes in cognitive performance are regularly observed after epilepsy surgery in the temporal lobe. However, information about neuropsychological impairments after resections in the posterior cortex is poor, owing to the relatively low proportion of cortical resections in this area.
We retrospectively studied changes in cognition in the neuropsychological data of 28 patients prior to and 6 months after posterior cortical resections.
Cognition significantly showed differences in performance intelligence quotient compared with verbal intelligence quotient. Post-operative verbal intelligence consistently increased, whereas performance intelligence decreased. There was no effect regarding the lesion side, continuation of seizures, or reduction of visual field after surgery. Epilepsy surgery in this area did not lead to significant differences in general intelligence after surgery.
Functions of posterior areas could be described by standardised neuropsychological measures. Posterior regions contribute to explicit attentional and visuoconstructional abilities. Epilepsy surgery in the posterior cortex bears no risk for substantial decline in general cognition although some discrete impairment in performance intelligence may occur.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze the semiology of seizure onset and evolution in young children with posterior cortex epilepsy (PCE), compare this with adult reports, and assess age-related differences.
We videotaped and analyzed 110 seizures from 18 patients with PCE, aged 3-81 months. All had a good prognosis after posterior epileptogenic zone removal. Ictal events were categorized by behavioral, consciousness, autonomic, and sensory features, as well as motor patterns, which included myoclonic, tonic, clonic, unclassified motor seizures, and epileptic spasm. A time-scaled data sheet was developed to record each epileptic event as onset, very early, early, or late manifestation.
Patients had a high seizure frequency with < or =100 attacks/day; one third of them showed a cluster tendency. The mean duration of seizures was 67 s. The most common seizure components were motor manifestations (with myoclonic and tonic seizures), but psychomotor (automotor), hypomotor attacks, and isolated auras also were frequently observed. Clinical seizure spread was frequent; auras and visual sensory signs were difficult to record in this age. Typical phenomena during seizures included behavioral changes, ictal vocalization, smile, flush, head nod, oculomotor features, and late-appearing oral automatisms, whereas hypermotor and secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures were not seen.
Our results suggest that PCE in infants and young children is very heterogeneous but shows important age-related features. Compared with adults, children with PCE have shorter but more frequent seizures; they rarely report aura or visual sensory signs, only sporadically develop hypermotor and secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures, whereas ictal smile, flush, head nod, and behavioral change are typical features at this age. Because of frequent subtle ictal phenomena, long-term video-EEG monitoring is a useful diagnostic tool with infants and young children with PCE.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Compared with temporal or frontal resections, epilepsy surgery in the posterior cortex is rarely performed, and the literature concerning clinical predictors for the postoperative seizure outcome in this particular subgroup is sparse. The data of 42 patients with lesional focal epilepsies of the parieto-occipital lobe and the occipital border of the temporal lobe were evaluated retrospectively and related to the seizure outcome 2 years after epilepsy surgery. The investigated parameters included ictal semiology, pre- and postoperative EEG and neuroimaging, histological findings and demographic data. Postoperatively, seizure-free outcome was seen in: (i) 69% of patients with lateralizing auras, but only in 28% of patients without lateralizing auras (P = 0.01); and (ii) 57% of the patients with lateralizing seizures, but only in 17% of patients without lateralizing ictal semiology (P = 0.02). None of the patients with neither lateralizing auras nor lateralizing seizures achieved freedom from seizures (P < 0.01). The proportion of lateralizing seizures (P < 0.01) and auras (P = 0.02) in the total number of recorded seizures and auras was significantly related to the probability of a favourable surgical outcome. No patient with clinical lateralizing signs to the non-lesional hemisphere but 58% without such "false" lateralization achieved freedom from seizures (P = 0.02). The following parameters also proved to be predictive for a favourable seizure outcome: (i) tumoural aetiology; and (ii) absence of epileptiform discharges in the postoperative EEG. The presence and frequency of ictal semiology lateralizing to the lesional hemisphere and the absence of lateralizing signs to the non-lesional hemisphere are highly predictive of a favourable outcome after surgical treatment of epilepsy in the posterior cortex.