[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is believed to be more often multicentric and bilateral compared with invasive ductal cancer (IDC), leading clinicians to pursue a more aggressive local and contralateral approach.
Retrospective review of a consecutive cohort of breast cancer patients operated at one institution from January 2000 to January 2010 was performed. Median follow-up was 4 years.
There were 171 ILC (14.5%) and 1,011 IDC patients in the study period. Median age (63 vs. 65 years) and tumor diameter (1.7 cm) were similar in the two groups. Diagnoses of ILC were more frequent in the second half of the study period (55/465 vs. 116/662, p<0.01). Multicentricity was reported in 108/1,011 (10.6%) IDC and in 31/171 (18.1%) ILC patients (p<0.01). A positive margin of resection at initial surgery was documented in 71/1,011 (7%) IDC and in 21/171 (12.3%) ILC patients (p<0.001). Although the rate of mastectomy decreased over time in both groups, this was more pronounced for ILC patients (p<0.001). Locoregional control, contralateral cancer, overall survival, disease-free survival, and survival according to diameter, nodal status, and type of surgical intervention did not differ between IDC and ILC. On multivariate analysis, stage of disease and hormone receptor status were associated with disease-free survival, but histology was not.
Although ILC is more often multicentric, bilateral, and associated with a positive margin of resection, local control and survival are similar to IDC. ILC can be treated similarly to IDC with good results.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone marrow (BM) biopsy has been suggested as an independent prognostic factor in patients with breast cancer.
Patients operated for breast cancer from June 2000 to April 2008 were enrolled in this protocol after signing an informed consent. After primary surgery, BM aspirate from the iliac crest was obtained and 5-10 cc of blood collected. Since 2002 a peripheral blood (PB) sample was also obtained. Both carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and Mammaglobin-specific nested reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to examine BM and PB samples. Physicians and patients were blinded to results.
Two hundred seventy-three patients underwent BM and/or PB test. The median age of the patients was 63 years (31-80 years), and the median tumor diameter was 1.5 cm (0.1-6 cm). BM aspirates were unsuccessful in nine patients, and RT-PCR was not technically feasible in 18 women, leaving 246 patients available for analysis of results and follow-up. Among them, 110 patients (45%) had either a BM or a PB test positive for CEA or Mammaglobin (Test+). At median follow-up of 60 months, 31 events (deaths or relapse) occurred (13%). Disease-free survival (DFS) was significantly lower in the Test+ group (BP and/or PB) (P<0.001). This effect was independent of nodal status. At 5 years, event-free survival for Node-/Test- patients was 46/49 (94%) and for Node+/Test+ patients was 21/33 (64%), while patients with only one status positive (Node-/Test+ or Node+/Test-) had an intermediate disease-free survival (35/43, 81%) (P=0.005). In a subgroup analysis, RT-PCR results for BM and Mammaglobin retained statistical significance on DFS (P<0.001), while those for PB and CEA did not.
This study confirms that RT-PCR of the BM is an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival of breast cancer patients, and may improve their staging, allowing better strategies for therapy and follow-up.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical management of breast cancer has improved tremendously in the last 2 decades. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) allows conservation of the axillary lymph nodes in most patients who have breast cancer. Furthermore, it allows identification of occult nodal disease after step sectioning and more detailed staging. Although large breast tumors, multicentric disease, recurrent cancers, and use of neoadjuvant therapy were previously considered contraindications to SNB, a large body of evidence is accumulating to support its use in these cases. The prognostic significance of micrometastases and isolated tumor cells needs clarification in prospective, randomized trials.
Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America 08/2008; 17(3):673-99, x. DOI:10.1016/j.soc.2008.03.001 · 1.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy allows enhanced pathology with serial sections and immunohistochemical analysis of the retrieved node. We present our experience with a simple, practical, pathology protocol.
We analysed 416 consecutive breast cancer patient who underwent SLN biopsy. These were studied with six couples of sections at three different levels, each stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H/E) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) (MNF 116).
With conventional analysis the SLN was positive in 106/416 cases (25%). The addition of serial sections, according to the protocol, allowed diagnoses of micrometastases (MICRO) (n = 22) or isolated tumor cells (ITC) (n = 38) or MICRO (n = 1) in 51/416 patients (14.6%). Specifically, the diagnosis was undertaken at level I (8.9%), level II (4%), or level III (1,6%). The incidence of MICRO or ITC was not different in T1 and T2 cases (13% vs. 15%, P = 0.7). The addition of the third level of analysis added very little both in T1 and T2 cancers (1.3% vs. 3.8%, P = 0.1).
Serial sectioning of the SLN allows diagnosis of MICRO and ITC in a significant percentage of cases. Adoption of our protocol seems practical, as the incidence of level III positivity is extremely low, particularly in T1 cancers, and additional sections would be, therefore, unlikely useful.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intraoperative identification of positive sentinel lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer may avoid a return to the operating room.
In a group of 402 consecutive patients with primary breast cancer who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy, an intraoperative examination (IE) was obtained in 236 cases either by frozen section (FS; n = 68) or by touch preparation cytology (TP; n = 168).
IE had an accuracy of 89% (209 of 236), but it identified only 52 of 77 positive cases (sensitivity, 68%). There were 25 false-negative cases (13.7%), of which 7 were macrometastases and 18 by micrometastases (P < .001). Six macrometastases were missed by TP and one by FS (P = .9). There were two false-positive cases (3.7%). Overall, 48 (20%) of 236 patients avoided a delayed return to the operating room for a completion lymphadenectomy because of IE findings. This occurred in 10% of patients with tumors <1 cm in diameter, in 20% of those with tumors between 1 and 2 cm, and in 34% of those with tumors >2 cm in diameter (P = .05). The cost savings for the Italian Health System amounted to 198,040 (US$223,794) in these patients.
IE has acceptable sensitivity for lymph node macrometastases, but it is a weak tool for diagnosing micrometastases. FS and TP are roughly equivalent. IE allows management changes, because approximately 20% of all patients are expected to undergo synchronous axillary dissection, and it is particularly helpful in T2 patients. This may allow substantial cost savings for the health-care system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to describe our experience with sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with breast cancer. 326 consecutive patients with breast cancer operated on from December 1998 to December 2002 were studied. All patients gave their informed consent. Patients were mapped with an intradermal injection of Tc-99 (median dose: 0.5 mCi) and/or Patent Blue. Sentinel lymph nodes were analyzed with serial sections. 333 procedures were performed in the 326 patients. A median of two sentinel lymph nodes were identified in 322 cases (97%). 3165 additional non-sentinel lymph nodes were removed and analyzed to assess the accuracy of the technique. The correlation between sentinel lymph nodes and final pathological status was 97% (314/322). In 66/133 cases with axillary metastases (50%) the sentinel lymph node was the only site of metastasis. Micrometastases were diagnosed in 35/66 cases (26%), while isolated tumour cells were found in 15 cases (11%). At a median follow-up of 21 months one patient presented an axillary relapse (0.3%). Our experience confirms that sentinel lymph node biopsy is accurate and reproducible. Routine axillary dissection is no longer the gold standard in patients with early breast cancer. Prospective studies are under way in an attempt to provide, definitive answers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our aim was to study the value of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy in patients with breast cancer seen at a community hospital.
Consecutive cases receiving primary treatment for unicentric breast cancer less than 3 cm in diameter were prospectively studied from January 1999 to July 2000. All patients signed a detailed informed consent. The majority of patients (89%) underwent a combined technique of intradermal injection of 0.3-1.2 mCi of (99)Tc and 1-3 cc of Patent Blue at the biopsy site. Intraoperative localization was performed with a hand-held gamma probe. The first 15 patients underwent routine back-up lymphadenectomy. Thereafter, only patients with positive SLN, suspicious findings, or personal preference underwent formal axillary dissection.
One hundred eight cases were included in the study with a median age of 61 years and a median diameter of the breast tumor of 1.5 cm. Success rate for identification of SLN was 94% (101/108 cases). A total of 917 additional lymph nodes were removed after SLN biopsy (median 6.5 lymph nodes/patient). Correlation between SLN and the final axillary status was 98%. In 20/36 patients (61%) with positive axillary status the sentinel lymph node was the only positive one. Ten patients had only microscopic foci of cancer found in the SLN. Sixty-seven patients (62%) could have avoided axillary dissection becouse the SLN was found, it was negative, and there were no other intraoperative suspicious findings.
SLN biopsy is accurate and easily reproduced. Our data confirms that the majority of breast cancer patients may no longer need routine axillary lymphadenectomy.