[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gene therapy is a promising treatment option for monogenic diseases, but success has been seen in only a handful of studies thus far. We now document successful reconstitution of immune function in a child with the adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient form of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) following hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy. An ADA-SCID child who showed a poor response to PEG-ADA enzyme replacement was enrolled into the clinical study. Following cessation of enzyme replacement therapy, autologous CD34(+) HSCs were transduced with an ADA-expressing gammaretroviral vector. Gene-modified cells were reinfused following one dose of preconditioning chemotherapy. Two years after the procedure, immunological and biochemical correction has been maintained with progressive increase in lymphocyte numbers, reinitiation of thymopoiesis, and systemic detoxification of ADA metabolites. Sustained vector marking with detection of polyclonal vector integration sites in multiple cell lineages and detection of ADA activity in red blood cells suggests transduction of early hematopoietic progenitors. No serious side effects were seen either as a result of the conditioning procedure or due to retroviral insertion. Gene therapy is an effective treatment option for the treatment of ADA-SCID.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molecular Therapy (2005) 11, S13|[ndash]|S13; doi: 10.1016/j.ymthe.2005.06.041
31. Somatic Gene Therapy for ADA-SCID Following Cessation of PEG-ADA and Use of a Mild Conditioning Regime
Hubert B. Gaspar1,2, Emma Bjorkegren1, Katherine Parsley1,2, Kimberly C. Gilmour1,2, Jo Sinclair1, Fang Zhang1, Lynette D. Fairbanks3, Doug King1, Graham Davies2, Paul A. Veys2, Christine Kinnon1 and Adrian J. Thrasher1,21Molecular Immunology Unit, Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom2Department. of Clinical Immunology and BMT, Great Ormond Street Hospital NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom3Purine Research Laboratory, Guys Hospital, London, United Kingdom
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The optimal approach to stem cell transplantation in children with immunodeficiency who lack a matched family donor is controversial. Unrelated donor stem cell transplantation gives equivalent outcome to mismatched family donor stem cell transplantation in severe combined immunodeficiency, whereas unrelated donors may be preferable in non-severe combined immunodeficiency children. However, unrelated donor stem cell transplantation with conventional conditioning regimens has been associated with significant treatment-related toxicity, particularly in non-severe combined immunodeficiency patients with preexisting organ dysfunction. We report the outcome of a series of 33 consecutive unrelated donor transplantations performed at our center in children with primary immunodeficiency using a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen between 1998 and 2001. We have compared these outcomes with a retrospective control cohort of 19 patients who underwent transplantation with myeloablative conditioning between 1994 and 1998. All children in both groups had primary engraftment. There was no statistical difference in the speed of immune reconstitution or incidence of graft-versus-host disease between the 2 groups. Overall survival was significantly better in the reduced-intensity conditioning group: 31 (94%) of 33 patients survived, compared with 10 (53%) of 19 in the myeloablative conditioning group (P = .014). We conclude that the reduced-intensity conditioning regimen results in improved survival and reduced transplantation-related mortality compared with myeloablative conditioning in high-risk patients undergoing unrelated donor transplantation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) is caused by mutations in the common cytokine-receptor gamma chain (gamma(c)), resulting in disruption of development of T lymphocytes and natural-killer cells. B-lymphocyte function is also intrinsically compromised. Allogeneic bone-marrow transplantation is successful if HLA-matched family donors are available, but HLA-mismatched procedures are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. We investigated the application of somatic gene therapy by use of a gibbon-ape-leukaemia-virus pseudotyped gammaretroviral vector.
Four children with SCID-X1 were enrolled. Autologous CD34-positive haemopoietic bone-marrow stem cells were transduced ex vivo and returned to the patients without preceding cytoreductive chemotherapy. The patients were monitored for integration and expression of the gamma(c) vector and for functional immunological recovery.
All patients have shown substantial improvements in clinical and immunological features, and prophylactic medication could be withdrawn in two. No serious adverse events have been recorded. T cells responded normally to mitogenic and antigenic stimuli, and the T-cell-receptor (TCR) repertoire was highly diverse. Where assessable, humoral immunity, in terms of antibody production, was also restored and associated with increasing rates of somatic mutation in immunoglobulin genes.
Gene therapy for SCID-X1 is a highly effective strategy for restoration of functional cellular and humoral immunity.
The Lancet 01/2004; 364(9452):2181-7. · 39.06 Impact Factor