Markus Graefen

Martini Ziekenhuis, Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands

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Publications (768)3819.1 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Gleason grading is the strongest prognostic parameter in prostate cancer. Gleason grading is categorized as Gleason ≤6, 3+4, 4+3, 8, and 9-10, but there is variability within these subgroups. For example, Gleason 4 components may range from 5-45% in a Gleason 3+4=7 cancer. Objective: To assess the clinical relevance of the fractions of Gleason patterns. Design, setting, and participants: Prostatectomy specimens from 12823 consecutive patients and of 2971 matched preoperative biopsies for which clinical data with an annual follow-up between 2005 and 2014 were available from the Martini-Klinik database. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: To evaluate the utility of quantitative grading, the fraction of Gleason 3, 4, and 5 patterns seen in biopsies and prostatectomies were recorded. Gleason grade fractions were compared with prostatectomy findings and prostate-specific antigen recurrence. Results and limitations: Our data suggest a striking utility of quantitative Gleason grading. In prostatectomy specimens, there was a continuous increase of the risk of prostate-specific antigen recurrence with increasing percentage of Gleason 4 fractions with remarkably small differences in outcome at clinically important thresholds (0% vs 5%; 40% vs 60% Gleason 4), distinguishing traditionally established prognostic groups. Also, in biopsies, the quantitative Gleason scoring identified various intermediate risk groups with respect to Gleason findings in corresponding prostatectomies. Quantitative grading may also reduce the clinical impact of interobserver variability because borderline findings such as tumors with 5%, 40%, or 60% Gleason 4 fractions and very small Gleason 5 fractions (with pivotal impact on the Gleason score) are disclaimed. Conclusions: Quantitative Gleason pattern data should routinely be provided in addition to Gleason score categories, both in biopsies and in prostatectomy specimens. Patient summary: Gleason score is the most important prognostic parameter in prostate cancer, but prone to interobserver variation. The results of our study show that morphological aspects that define the Gleason grade in prostate cancer represent a continuum. Quantitation of Gleason patterns provides clinically relevant information beyond the traditional Gleason grading categories ≤3+3, 3+4, 4+3, 8, 9-10. Quantitative Gleason scoring can help to minimize variations between different pathologists and substantially aid in optimized therapy decision-making.
    European Urology 11/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.eururo.2015.10.029 · 13.94 Impact Factor
  • B. Beyer · H. Huland · M. Graefen ·

    Der Urologe 11/2015; 54(11):1537-1545. DOI:10.1007/s00120-015-3836-x · 0.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To assess whether real-time elastography-targeted biopsy (RTE-bx) may help to correctly assign Gleason grade at radical prostatectomy (RP) and to compare discriminant properties of systematic biopsy alone (sbx) versus combination with RTE-bx (comb-bx) to distinguish between postoperatively favorable (Gleason 3 + 3, pT2, Nx/0) and postoperatively unfavorable (Gleason ≥4 + 4) prostate cancer (PCa) at RP. Patients and methods: Overall, 259 patients diagnosed with PCa at systematic biopsy in combination with RTE-bx underwent RP between 2008 and 2011. Gleason Score derived from sbx versus comb-bx was compared to the gold-standard RP, and discriminant properties were assessed. Specificity gains were examined for sbx versus comb-bx when the endpoint consisted of postoperatively favorable PCa at RP. Sensitivity gains were examined, when analyses focused on postoperatively unfavorable PCa. Results: Comb-bx resulted in higher correct overall Gleason assignment (68.3 vs. 56.7 %, p = 0.008) than sbx. Similarly, lower rates of undergrading (21.2 vs. 36.3 %, p < 0.001) were recorded. Specificity gains with comb-bx were 10 % (92 vs. 82 %, p = 0.004) for postoperatively favorable PCa. Comb-bx resulted in 31 % sensitivity gains relative to sbx (94 vs. 63 %, p = 0.03), when postoperatively unfavorable PCa was the endpoint. Conclusion: The agreement between biopsy and pathology Gleason Score was significantly higher for comb-bx than sbx. Additionally, comb-bx reduced the rate of false positives in the diagnosis of favorable PCa. Rates of correctly classified unfavorable PCa at RP were also higher for comb-bx. Those data indicate that comb-bx is useful in clinical practice.
    World Journal of Urology 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00345-015-1714-1 · 2.67 Impact Factor
  • Markus Graefen · Thorsten Schlomm · Guido Sauter · Hartwig Huland ·

    European Urology 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.eururo.2015.09.016 · 13.94 Impact Factor

  • The Prostate 10/2015; DOI:10.1002/pros.23120 · 3.57 Impact Factor

  • Human pathology 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.humpath.2015.09.026 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: High-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) with external-beam radiation therapy and radical prostatectomy (RP) are common treatment options for clinically localized prostate cancer. The aim was to describe risk factors for biochemical recurrence (BCR) and death, as well as BCR rates and overall survival (OS) rates in both treatment groups. Patients and methods: Overall, 5,619 patients with localized prostate cancer underwent either RP (n = 5,200) or HDR-BT (n = 419) between 1999 and 2009. Median follow-up time was 72.4 months. Kaplan-Meier analyses and multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed for the overall cohort and for a propensity score-matched cohort to predict BCR and OS rates. Within the matched cohort, stratified analyses were repeated for HDR-BT alone (n = 206) and HDR-BT plus androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) (n = 213). Sensitivity analyses were performed to adjust for prostate-specific antigen rebound. Results: The 5-year BCR-free survival rates were 82.1% vs. 80.3% (P<0.01) for RP and HDR-BT, respectively. Corresponding 5-year OS rates were 97.1% vs. 92.4% (P<0.01). In the propensity score-matched cohort, 5-year BCR-free survival rates were 80.3% vs. 77.1%; P = 0.06 and 5-year OS rates were 95.7% vs. 92.4%; P = 0.5. In multivariable models, the overall HDR-BT exerted no significant effect on BCR, and the same results were recorded in the matched cohort. In stratified analyses, HDR-BT alone vs. RP increased BCR risk (1.45; P<0.01); conversely, HDR-BT plus ADT vs. RP decreased BCR risk (hazard ratio = 0.66; P = 0.02). Conclusions: First, RP offers equivalent oncological control without the need for concurrent hormone therapy and its morbidity. Second, patients who have RP avoid ADT (2%) and the need for salvage and adjuvant external-beam radiation therapy is low at 11% and 3%, respectively.
    Urologic Oncology 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.urolonc.2015.09.012 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The impact of positive surgical margin (SM) on cancer control outcomes in prostate cancer (PCa) patients is a subject of continuous debate. We test the hypothesis that the impact of SM on clinical recurrence (CR) rate may vary based on the other clinical/pathological characteristics of the tumor. Methods: We focused on 5,290 patients treated with robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy and pelvic node dissection, between 2002 and 2013, at three tertiary care centers. Regression tree analysis stratified patients into risk-groups based on their tumor characteristics and the corresponding CR rate. Kaplan-Meier log-rank and multivariable Cox regression models tested the relationship between SM status and CR rate in each tree-generated risk group. Results: Mean (median) follow-up time was 47.7 (39.0) months. Regression tree analysis that considered all available covariates, except SM status, divided patients based on their CR risk into the following risk groups: 1) high-risk (any pT3b/pT4 disease); 2) intermediate-risk (≤pT3a disease and pGS 8-10); 3) low risk (≤pT3a, pGS≤7, and PSA >9 ng/ml); 4) very low-risk (≤pT3a, pGS≤7, and PSA ≤9 ng/ml). Positive SM had a significant detrimental impact on CR risk only in 2 groups: intermediate-risk (p<0.001) and high-risk (p=0.01). These observations were confirmed at the multivariable analyses. Conclusions Our findings show that positive SM had a detrimental impact on CR only in a minority of patients (15%), specifically in those with very advanced pathological stage, and/or pathologically poorly differentiated tumor. For all the remaining patients (85%), positive SM by itself did not increase the risk of CR.
    Journal of endourology / Endourological Society 09/2015; DOI:10.1089/end.2015.0465 · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) plays an important role in tumor development and progression by interacting with histone and nonhistone proteins. In the current study, we analyzed prevalence and prognostic impact of EZH2 in prostate cancer. EZH2 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray containing more than 12400 prostate cancer specimens. Results were compared to tumor phenotype, biochemical recurrence and molecular subtypes defined by ERG status as well as genomic deletions of 3p, 5q, 6q and PTEN. EZH2 immunostaining was detectable in 56.6% of 10168 interpretable cancers and considered strong in 1.1%, moderate in 12.2% and weak in 43.3% of cases. High EZH2 expression was strongly associated with high Gleason grade (P < 0.0001), advanced pathological tumor stage (P < 0.0001), positive nodal status (P < 0.0001), elevated preoperative PSA level (P = 0.0066), early PSA recurrence (P < 0.0001) and increased cell proliferation P < 0.0001). High-level EZH2 staining was also associated with TMPRSS2:ERG rearrangement and ERG expression in prostate cancers (P < 0.0001) and was linked to deletions of PTEN, 6q15, 5q21 and 3p13 (P < 0.0001 each) particularly in ERG-negative cancers. The prognostic impact of EZH2 was independent of established pre- and postoperatively assessed clinicopathological parameters. EZH2 has strong prognostic impact in prostate cancer and might contribute to the development of a fraction of genetically instable and particularly aggressive prostate cancers. EZH2 analysis might therefore be of clinical value for risk stratification of prostate cancer.
    Carcinogenesis 09/2015; DOI:10.1093/carcin/bgv137 · 5.33 Impact Factor
  • B Beyer · H Huland · G Feick · M Graefen ·
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    ABSTRACT: The standardized collation of the quality of treatment is a subject of discussion both nationally and internationally. This article presents the work of the International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM) and the validated German translation of the expanded prostate cancer index composite (EPIC-26). This questionnaire allows a standardized interdisciplinary collation of the quality of treatment for all therapy modalities of localized prostate cancer. Use of the ICHOM standard set and the EPIC-26 achieves a possibility for comparison of each form of therapy with respect to the curative success and the effect on health and quality of life of patients.
    Der Urologe 09/2015; 54(11). DOI:10.1007/s00120-015-3922-0 · 0.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The evidence on the association between anthropometric measures quantifying body fatness and prostate cancer (PCa) risk is not entirely consistent. Associations among waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio, body mass index (BMI), and PCa risk were assessed in a population-based case-control study. The study included 1933 incident PCa cases diagnosed between 2005 and 2009. Population controls were 1994 age-matched (±5y) Montreal residents selected from electoral lists. Information on sociodemographics, medical history including PCa screening, height, weight, and waist and hip circumferences was collected through interviews. Logistic regression was used to assess odds ratios (ORs) for the association between anthropometric measures, and overall and grade-specific PCa. After adjustment for BMI, an excess risk of high-grade PCa (Gleason≥7) was associated with a WC ≥102cm (OR = 1.47 [1.22-1.78]) and with a waist-hip ratio >1.0 (OR = 1.20 [1.01-1.43]). Men with a BMI≥30kg/m(2) had a lower risk of PCa, regardless of grade. Restricting to subjects recently screened for PCa did not alter findings. Elevated BMI was associated with a lower risk of PCa, regardless of grade. Contrastingly, abdominal obesity, when adjusted for BMI, yielded results in the opposite direction. Taken together, our observations suggest that the specific body fat distribution (abdominal), for a given BMI, is a predictor of PCa risk, whereas BMI alone is not. BMI and abdominal obesity, especially when measured by the WC, should be examined conjointly in future studies on this issue and may require consideration at patient counseling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Urologic Oncology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.urolonc.2015.07.006 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of preservation of neurovascular bundles (NVBs) during radical prostatectomy (RP) on continence remains controversial. To analyze if the differing surgical techniques of nerve-sparing (NS) versus non-nerve-sparing (NNS) RP and not the preservation of the NVB itself may be responsible for differences in continence rates. A total of 18 427 men who underwent RP from 2002 to 2014 in a single high-volume center were analyzed retrospectively. Patients with bilateral NS RP, with primary NNS RP, and with bilateral secondary resection of the NVBs for positive frozen-section results after an initial bilateral nerve sparing (secNNS) RP were studied. NS, NNS, or secNNS RP. Multivariable and propensity score matched analyses adjusting for age, prostate volume, and year of surgery were performed to assess differences in continence rates after RP. Continence was defined as the use of no or one safety pad per day. Post-RP urinary continence rates at 1 wk, 3 mo, and 12 mo were 59.8%, 76.2%, 85.4% in the NS group, 39.5%, 59.5%, and 87.0% in the secNNS group, and 29.1%, 52.8%, and 70.5% in the NNS group. Continence rates at 12 mo after surgery did not differ significantly between patients who had bilateral NS and patients who had resection of both NVBs after an initial nerve-sparing technique (secNNS). In contrast, when comparing the NNS study groups with initial NNS versus secNNS, the latter group had significantly higher continence rates after 12 mo. Our results indicate that the meticulous apical dissection associated with the NS RP technique rather than the preservation of the NVBs itself may have a positive impact on long-term urinary continence rates. We looked at continence rates after nerve-sparing (NS) versus non-NS radical prostatectomy (RP). NS surgery technique but not the preservation of the neurovascular bundles led to improved long-term continence rates after RP. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    European Urology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.eururo.2015.07.037 · 13.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Follow-up of patients after curative treatment of urological cancer is an important component of the treatment of patients. The aim of the follow-up is to monitor the success of treatment and to identify local or distant recurrences early to be able to initiate further treatment. Investigations used for the monitoring should follow the principle "as much as necessary, as little as possible". The interval and method of follow-up investigations should be based on the risk of recurrence for the individual patient. In recent years follow-up schemes have been improved and, for example in testicular cancer, have been adjusted to the individual risk group. In contrast, for other tumors, such as metastatic bladder carcinoma, recommendations for follow-up do not seem to be individualized. This article therefore gives an overview on current recommendations and evidence for the follow-up of the most important genitourinary tumor types.
    Der Urologe 08/2015; 54(9). DOI:10.1007/s00120-015-3936-7 · 0.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hook microtubule-tethering protein 3 (HOOK3) is an adaptor protein for microtubule-dependent intracellular vesicle and protein trafficking. In order to assess the role of HOOK3 in prostate cancer we analyzed HOOK3 expression by immunohistochemistry on a TMA containing more than 12,400 prostate cancers. Results were compared to tumor phenotype and PSA recurrence as well as aberrations possibly defining relevant molecular subtypes such as ERG status and deletions of 3p13, 5q21, 6q15 and PTEN. HOOK3 immunostaining was negative in normal luminal cells of prostate epithelium, whereas 53.3% of 10,572 interpretable cancers showed HOOK3 expression, which was considered low in 36.4% and high in 16.9% of cases. High-level HOOK3 expression was linked to advanced tumor stage, high Gleason score, high proliferation index, positive lymph node stage, and PSA recurrence (p<0.0001 each). The prognostic role of HOOK3 expression was independent of established clinico-pathological parameters both in preoperative and postoperative settings. Comparisons with molecular features were performed to draw conclusions on the potential function of HOOK3 in the prostate. A strong association with all examined deletions is consistent with a role of HOOK3 for maintaining genomic integrity by contributing to proper centrosome assembly. Finding HOOK3 expression in 74% of ERG positive but in only 38% of ERG negative cancers (p<0.0001) further suggests functional interactions between these genes. In conclusion, the results of our study identify HOOK3 as a strong candidate prognostic marker with a possible role in maintaining genomic integrity in prostate cancer, which may have potential for inclusion into clinical routine assays.
    PLoS ONE 08/2015; 10(7):e0134614. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0134614 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Prasanna Sooriakumaran · Markus Graefen · Peter Wiklund ·

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    ABSTRACT: The D'Amico risk stratification, Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (CAPRA) score, and Stephenson nomogram are widely used prediction tools for biochemical recurrence and survival after radical prostatectomy (RP). These models have not been compared with respect to cancer-specific mortality (CSM) prediction. To validate and compare the prediction tools for 10-yr CSM. Overall, 2485 prostate cancer patients underwent RP in a European tertiary care center. Three preoperative models (D'Amico, CAPRA, and Stephenson) were compared in terms of their ability to predict 10-yr CSM; therefore, accuracy tests (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC]), calibration plots, and decision curve analysis (DCA) were assessed for each model. CSM at 10 yr was 3.6%. The AUC was 0.76, 0.77, and 0.80 for the D'Amico, CAPRA, and Stephenson models, respectively. In calibration plots, predicted probabilities were close to the observed probabilities for the D'Amico model but showed underestimation of CSM for the Stephenson nomogram and overestimation of CSM for the CAPRA score. DCA identified a benefit for the CAPRA score. These results apply to patients treated at a European tertiary care center. Despite good discriminatory power, all tested models had some shortcomings in terms of prediction of 10-yr CSM. All three models showed good performance in North American cohorts, but our results suggested a lack of generalizability to European patients. To overcome this issue, local recalibration of the variable weights could be performed. Another possibility is the development of more universal markers that are independent of regional practice differences or, alternatively, the development of better tools to quantify clinical practice differences. Prediction tools can predict cancer survival prior surgery, relying on points for age, prostate-specific antigen levels, aggressiveness, and percentage of cancer at biopsy. These tools are reliable in North American patients but have shortcomings for identifying patients at high risk of prostate cancer death in Europe. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    European Urology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.eururo.2015.07.051 · 13.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To verify the reliability of HistoScanning™-based, true targeting (TT)-derived prostate biopsy. We relied on 40 patients suspicious for prostate cancer who underwent standard and TT-derived prostate biopsy. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and the area under the curve (AUC) were assessed for the prediction of biopsy results per octant by HistoScanning™, using different HistoScanning™ signal volume cutoffs (>0, >0.2 and >0.5 ml). Overall, 319 octants were analyzed. Of those, 64 (20.1 %) harbored prostate cancer. According to different HistoScanning™ signal volume cutoffs (>0, >0.2 and >0.5 ml), the AUCs for predicting biopsy results were: 0.51, 0.51 and 0.53, respectively. Similarly, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive values were: 20.7, 78.2, 17.4 and 81.6 %; 20.7, 82.0, 20.3 and 82.3 %; and 12.1, 94.6, 33.3 and 82.9 %, respectively. Prediction of biopsy results based on HistoScanning™ signals and TT-derived biopsies was unreliable. Moreover, the AUC of TT-derived biopsies was low and did not improve when additional signal volume cutoffs were applied (>0.2 and >0.5 ml). We cannot recommend a variation of well-established biopsy standards or reduction in biopsy cores based on HistoScanning™ signals.
    World Journal of Urology 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00345-015-1637-x · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Posttranscriptional protein modification by SUMOylation plays an important role in tumor development and progression. In the current study we analyzed prevalence and prognostic impact of the de-SUMOylation enzyme SENP1 in prostate cancer. Methods: SENP1 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray containing more than 12,400 prostate cancer specimens. Results were compared to tumor phenotype, ERG status, genomic deletions of 3p, 5q, 6q and PTEN, and biochemical recurrence. Results: SENP1 immunostaining was detectable in 34.5 % of 9,516 interpretable cancers and considered strong in 7.3 %, moderate in 14.9 % and weak in 12.3 % of cases. Strong SENP1 expression was linked to advanced pT stage (p < 0.0001), high Gleason grade (p < 0.0001), positive lymph node status (p = 0.0019), high pre-operative PSA levels (p = 0.0037), and PSA recurrence (p < 0.0001). SENP1 expression was strongly associated with positive ERG fusion status as determined by both in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry as well as with PTEN deletions. Detectable SENP1 immunostaining was found in 41 % of ERG positive and in 47 % of PTEN deleted cancers but in only 30 % of ERG negative and 30 % of PTEN non-deleted cancers (p < 0.0001 each). Deletions of 3p, 5q, and 6q were unrelated to SENP1 expression. Subset analyses revealed that the prognostic impact of SENP1 expression was solely driven by the subgroup of ERG positive, PTEN undeleted cancers. In this subgroup, the prognostic role of SENP1 expression was independent of the preoperative PSA level, tumor stage, Gleason grade, and the status of the resection margin. Conclusions: SENP1 expression has strong prognostic impact in a molecularly defined subset of cancers. This is per se not surprising as the biologic impact of each individual molecular event is likely to be dependent on its cellular environment. However, such findings challenge the concept of finding clinically relevant molecular signatures that are equally applicable to all prostate cancers.
    BMC Cancer 07/2015; 15(1):538. DOI:10.1186/s12885-015-1555-8 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Deletion of 12p is a recurrent alteration in prostate cancer, but the prevalence and clinical consequences of this alteration have not been studied in detail. Dual labeling fluorescence in situ hybridization using probes for 12p13 (CDKN1B; p27) and centromere 12 as a reference was used to successfully analyze more than 3700 prostate cancers with clinical follow-up data assembled in a tissue microarray format. CDKN1B was selected as a probe because it is located in the center of the deletion, which spans > 10 Mb and includes > 50 genes in 80% of cancers with 12p deletion. Deletion of 12p was found in 13.7% of cancers and included 13.5% heterozygous and 0.2% homozygous deletions. 12p deletion were linked to advanced tumor stage (p < 0.0001), high Gleason grade (p < 0.0001), rapid tumor cell proliferation (p < 0.0001), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.0004), and biochemical recurrence (p = 0.0027). Multivariate analysis including pT stage (p < 0.0001), Gleason grade (p < 0.0001), pN status (p = 0.0001), preoperative PSA levels (p = 0.0001), and resection margin status (p = 0.0001) revealed an independent prognostic value of 12p deletion (p = 0.0014). Deletion of 12p was unrelated to the ERG fusion status. Deletion of 12p was only marginally linked to reduced p27 expression, which by itself was unrelated to clinical outcome. This argues against p27 as the key target gene of 12p deletions. In summary, the results of our study demonstrate that 12p deletion is frequent in prostate cancer and provides independent prognostic information. 12p deletion analysis alone, or in combination with other prognostic parameters may thus have clinical utility.
    Oncotarget 07/2015; 6(29). DOI:10.18632/oncotarget.4626 · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PCa) represents a heterogeneous disease, where a non-negligible proportion of patients harbor favorable pathologic characteristics and are potentially eligible for active surveillance (AS). We aimed at developing a model for the identification of pathologically favorable PCa at radical prostatectomy (RP) among intermediate-risk patients. Overall, 3,821 intermediate-risk patients treated with RP at two centers between 2005 and 2013 were identified. Pathologically favorable PCa was defined as low-grade organ-confined disease. Age, biopsy Gleason, PSA density (PSAD), and the percentage of positive cores were included in multivariable logistic regression analyses predicting favorable PCa and formed the basis for a logistic regression-based risk calculator. The internally validated discrimination and calibration of the risk calculator were quantified using 200 bootstrap resamples. Decision curve analysis (DCA) provided an estimate of the net benefit obtained using this model versus treating no one and treating everyone. Overall, 10.0% of all intermediate risk patients had favorable disease. In multivariable analyses, patients with biopsy Gleason score ≤6 had higher probability of favorable disease compared to those with higher-grade disease (P < 0.001). Similarly, age, PSAD, and percentage of positive cores were associated with the probability of favorable disease (all P ≤ 0.01). The risk calculator achieved a validated accuracy of 82.5%. The DCA showed that our prediction model is better than both treating no one and treating everyone. One out of ten intermediate-risk patients harbors favorable disease at RP. Our novel, pre-operative, validated risk calculator may help clinicians identifying patients who could be considered for conservative therapy approaches such as AS. Prostate 9999: XX-XX, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    The Prostate 07/2015; 75(13). DOI:10.1002/pros.23040 · 3.57 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

13k Citations
3,819.10 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • Martini Ziekenhuis
      Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands
  • 1997-2015
    • University Medical Center Hamburg - Eppendorf
      • Department of Urology
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • 2006-2014
    • Prostate Cancer Research Institute
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
  • 2013
    • Ruhr-Universität Bochum
      Bochum, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1997-2013
    • University of Hamburg
      • Department of Urology
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • 2012
    • Mater Misericordiae University Hospital
      • Department of Surgery
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
    • Cornell University
      Итак, New York, United States
  • 2011
    • Institut Paoli Calmettes
      Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
  • 2007-2011
    • Université de Montréal
      • Department of Surgery
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    • University of Milan
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2010
    • Krankenhaus Düren gem. GmbH
      Düren, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2009-2010
    • Schön Klinik Hamburg
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
    • Universitätsklinikum Freiburg
      Freiburg an der Elbe, Lower Saxony, Germany
    • University Hospital Essen
      • Klinik für Urologie
      Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2007-2008
    • Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2003-2007
    • Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
      New York, New York, United States
    • Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz
      Gratz, Styria, Austria
  • 2002
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2000
    • University of Miami
      • Department of Urology
      كورال غيبلز، فلوريدا, Florida, United States
    • Lund University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Lund, Skåne, Sweden