Elena Donadio

Università di Pisa, Pisa, Tuscany, Italy

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Publications (30)72.25 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing studyConvincing evidence shows that persistent or excessive expression of osteopontin (OPN) is linked to fibroproliferation of various organs in laboratory animals and in man, such that its downregulation is a logical therapeutic objective.Objectives To investigate OPN expression in an equine wound healing model and in clinical specimens of equine exuberant granulation tissue (EGT) and human keloids in an effort to better understand the contribution of this protein to inflammation-associated skin fibrosis.Study designDescription of gene expression in an experimental wound healing model and clinical specimens.Methods Osteopontin gene expression was evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) while protein expression was investigated by means of immunohistochemical staining.ResultsQuantitative PCR showed that the OPN gene is expressed in normal intact skin of horses and continues to be expressed during the wound healing process. An increase in gene expression was observed throughout the phases of wound healing with a final decrease at wound closure. Osteopontin was not detected in normal skin. Keratinocytes of wound edge samples did not express the protein while dermal immunoreactivity was confined to inflammatory cells. Healed wounds were devoid of staining. Equine EGT samples showed immunoreactivity of the surrounding epidermis, infiltrating neutrophils, mononuclear cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Human keloids showed OPN immunoreactivity throughout the epidermis as well as in mononuclear cells and scattered fibroblasts.Conclusion Immunohistochemical data show a different pattern of expression between experimental and fibrotic wounds (EGT and keloids) thus suggesting a role in fibroproliferation in horses and humans.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 10/2014; · 2.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The parathyroid glands play an overall regulatory role in the systemic calcium (Ca(2+) ) homeostasis. The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate the presence of the Ca(2+) channels transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) 5 and TRPV6 in human parathyroid glands. Semi-quantitative and quantitative PCR was carried out to evaluate the presence of TRPV5 and TRPV6 mRNAs in sporadic parathyroid adenomas and normal parathyroid glands. Western blot and immunocytochemical assays were used to assess protein expression, cellular localization and time expression in primary cultures from human parathyroid adenoma. TRPV5 and TRPV6 transcripts were then identified both in normal and pathological tissues. Predominant immunoreactive bands were detected at 75-80 kD for both vanilloid channels. These channels co-localized with the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) on the membrane surface, but immunoreactivity was also detected in the cytosol and around the nuclei. Our data showed that western blotting recorded an increase of protein expression of both channels in adenoma samples compared with normal glands suggesting a potential relation with the cell calcium signalling pathway and the pathological processes of these glands.
    Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 08/2014; · 4.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Data on neurobiological mechanisms underlying mood disorders are elusive; the aetiology of such states is multifactorial, including genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Diagnosis is currently being made only on an interview-based methodology. Biological markers, which could improve the current classification, and in perspective, stratify patients on a biological basis into more homogeneous clinically distinct subgroups, are highly needed. We describe here a comparative proteomic analysis of peripheral lymphocytes from patients affected by acute psychotic bipolar disorder (PBD) (n = 15), major depressive episode (MDE) with no personal or family history of psychosis (n = 11), and a group of demographically matched healthy controls (HC) (n = 15). All patients were evaluated by means of Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-Patient version (SCID-I-P), Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D-17) questionnaires. Blood lymphocytes were obtained by gradient separation, and 2-DE was carried out on protein extracts. Significant differences in protein patterns among the three groups were observed. Thirty-six protein spots were found to be differentially expressed in patients compared to controls, which collapsed into 25 different proteins after mass spectrometry identification. Twenty-one of these proteins failed to discriminate between PBD and MDE, suggesting common signatures for these disorders. Nevertheless, after the western blot validation only two of the remaining proteins, namely LIM and SH3 domain protein1, and short-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase mitochondrial protein, resulted in being significantly upregulated in PBD samples suggesting additional mechanisms that could be associated with the psychotic features of bipolar disorder.
    Molecular BioSystems 02/2014; · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Malignant mesothelioma is a neoplastic disease linked to asbestos exposure whose diagnosis is limited, so detection methods for an early diagnosis and treatment result essential. Here, we compared proteomic profiles of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and benign biopsies to search potential biomarkers useful in differential diagnosis. Tissue biopsies were obtained from 53 patients who were subjected to a diagnostic thoracoscopy. Two-dimensional electrophoresis/mass spectrometry based approach was used for proteomic analysis and protein validation was carried out by western blot analysis versus benign and lung carcinoma samples RESULTS: Among the proteins identified we confirmed known MPM biomarkers such as calretinin and suggested the new ones as pre-lamin A/C, desmin, vimentin, calretinin, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A, myosin regulatory light chain 2, ventricular/cardiac muscle isoform, myosin light chain 3 and myosin light chain 6B. Ingenuity software was used to identify the biological processes to which these proteins belong and to construct a potential network. Overall, our results suggest potential biomarkers that can be useful in occupational medicine for the early identification of the onset of disease in health surveillance of past asbestos-exposed workers, for monitoring the progress of disease and for assessing the response to treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    PROTEOMICS - CLINICAL APPLICATIONS 01/2014; · 1.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is a severe, systemic illness characterized by persistent, debilitating and medically unexplained fatigue. The etiology and pathophysiology of CFS remains obscure, and diagnosis is formulated through the patient's history and exclusion of other medical causes. Thereby, the availability of biomarkers for CFS could be useful for clinical research. In the present study, we used a proteomic approach to evaluate the global changes in the salivary profile in a couple of monozygotic twins who were discordant for CFS. The aim was to evaluate differences of salivary protein expression in the CFS patient in respect to his healthy twin. Saliva samples were submitted to two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). The gels were stained with Sypro, and a comparison between CFS subject and the healthy one was performed by the software Progenesis Same Spot including the Analysis of variance (ANOVA test). The proteins spot found with a >=2-fold spot quantity change and p<0.05 were identified by Nano-liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. To validate the expression changes found with 2DE of 5 proteins (14-3-3 protein zeta/delta, cyclophilin A, Cystatin-C, Protein S100-A7, and zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein), we used the western blot analysis. Moreover, proteins differentially expressed were functionally analyzed using the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis software with the aim to determine the predominant canonical pathways and the interaction network involved. The analysis of the protein profiles allowed us to find 13 proteins with a different expression in CFS in respect to control. Nine spots were up-regulated in CFS and 4 down-regulated. These proteins belong to different functional classes, such as inflammatory response, immune system and metabolism. In particular, as shown by the pathway analysis, the network built with our proteins highlights the involvement of inflammatory response in CFS pathogenesis. This study shows the presence of differentially expressed proteins in the saliva of the couple of monozygotic twins discordant for CFS, probably related to the disease. Consequently, we believe the proteomic approach could be useful both to define a panel of potential diagnostic biomarkers and to shed new light on the comprehension of the pathogenetic pathways of CFS.
    Journal of Translational Medicine 10/2013; 11(1):243. · 3.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Major salivary gland tumours are uncommon neoplasms of the head and neck. The increase of precise pre-operative diagnosis is crucial for their correct management and the identification of molecular markers would surely improve the required accuracy. In this study we performed a comparative proteomic analysis of fine needle aspiration fluids of the most frequent benign neoplasms of major salivary glands, namely pleomorphic adenoma and Warthin's tumour, in order to draw their proteomic profiles and to point out their significant features. Thirty-five patients submitted to parotidectomy were included in the study, 22 were identified to have pleomorphic adenoma and 14 Warthin's tumour. Fine needle aspiration samples were processed using a two-dimensional electrophoresis/mass spectrometry-based approach. A total of 26 differentially expressed proteins were identified. Ingenuity software was used to search the biological processes to which these proteins belong and to construct potential networks. Intriguingly, all Warthin's tumour up-regulated proteins such as Ig gamma-1 chain C region, Ig kappa chain C region and Ig alpha-1 chain C region and S100A9 were correlated to immunological and inflammatory diseases, while pleomorphic adenomas such as annexin A1, annexin A4, macrophage-capping protein, apolipoprotein E and alpha crystalline B chain were associated with cell death, apoptosis and tumorigenesis, showing different features of two benign tumours. Overall, our results shed new light on the potential usefulness of a proteomic approach to study parotid tumours and in particular up regulated proteins are able to discriminate two types of benign parotid lesions.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(8):e71874. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Washing fluid (WF) from the colon rectal tract after surgical resection might represent a first step in obtaining a mixture of proteins derived from the secretion of tumoral epithelial cells potentially involved in the pathological progression of tissue. In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of colorectal WF to search for potential biomarkers of colon cancer. The outcome of this approach might open the possibility of using WF to screen for the precancerous and early stages of colorectal cancer (CRC). Samples of WFs were obtained during surgery from 35 patients submitted to colon resection for suspicious adenocarcinoma or carcinoma, while the respective controls were obtained by washing the healthy sections. WFs were immediately centrifuged, concentrated and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) was added to obtain protein pellets. After two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), the protein patterns of malignant samples were compared with respective normal samples. Forty-one protein spots were found to be differentially expressed exhibiting ≥2 fold-change of mean value spot intensities. After mass spectrometry, these protein spots collapsed into 38 different proteins. Interestingly, 19 of the differentially expressed proteins identified in the study corresponded to those suggested as being potential biomarkers of CRC. In accordance with the literature, these proteins showed the same direction of change (up or down for all proteins). Our results suggest that WF has the potential of being a method for the exploration of clinical samples for biomarker and drug target discovery.
    Molecular BioSystems 04/2012; 8(4):1088-99. · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare two methods used to measure serum cystatin C (Cys) and their accuracy to predict glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Three hundred and sixty-seven adult chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with different functional impairments participated in this study. GFR was determined as the renal clearance of 99mTc-DTPA. Serum concentrations of cystatin C (SCys) were determined with an immunonephelometric method and with an immunoturbidimetric method. A very high linear correlation was found between the two measurements of SCys (r=0.929). The mean difference of SCysTurb-SCysNeph was 0.02±0.43 mg/L (not significant). A high logarithmic correlation was also found between SCys and GFR (r was 0.919 for SCysNeph and 0.937 for SCysTurb). By means of multiple regression analysis, we developed formulae to predict GFR from SCysNeph, SCysTurb and SCr. For comparison, GFR was predicted using published formulae. A good agreement was found between predicted GFR and measured GFR. The results showed that the accuracy of SCysNeph, SCysTurb and SCr and of the different prediction formulae were quite similar. The immunoturbidimetric method seems adequate to measure SCys and to predict GFR and its impairment in CKD, at least similar to the immunonephelometric method. The accuracy of SCys and of derived formulae was not higher than that of SCr and SCr-based formulae.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 03/2012; 27(7):2826-38. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A growing interest has arisen in salivary proteomics as a tool for the identification of biomarkers for primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Nonetheless, only a limited number of preclinical validation studies have been performed, limiting the possibility of translating proteomic results into clinical practice. The primary aim of this study was to refine the diagnostic power of a panel of candidate salivary biomarkers described in pSS with respect to both healthy volunteers and pathological controls. We also explored the pathogenetic function of the detected putative biomarkers both in the local exocrinopathy and in the systemic inflammatory processes of SS. One hundred and eighty patients were included in the study overall. In the first "exploratory phase", we enrolled 40 females with pSS, 40 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers, 10 patients with sicca non-SS and 15 secondary SS (sSS) patients. The testing cohort of the second "challenge phase" of the study was represented by 75 unselected, consecutive subjects: 19 pSS, 21 healthy volunteers, 10 sicca non-SS and 25 sSS patients. Salivary proteomic analysis was performed combining two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Western blot (WB) analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were employed to validate 2DE results. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) Knowledge base was adopted to associate candidate biomarkers in a signalling pathogenetic network. A total of 28, 6, 7 and 12 protein spots were found to be significantly different in pSS samples with respect to healthy volunteers, non-SS sicca syndrome, SSc-sSS and rheumatoid arthritis-sSS, leading to the identification of 15 differently expressed proteins. Among them, α-amylases precursor, carbonic anhydrase VI, β-2 microglobulin, glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), epidermal fatty acid binding protein (E-FABP) and immunoglobulin k light chain (IGK-light chain) apparently showed the most significant differences in pSS when compared to healthy volunteers and non-SS pathological controls. On the other hand, as expected, pSS and sSS salivary profiles shared a great number of similarities. This study demonstrated that salivary fluid might represent a novel ideal milieu for the detection of a diagnostic panel of candidate biomarkers for pSS, and to gain an insight into the pathogenetic processes underlying glandular and systemic autoimmune disorders.
    Arthritis research & therapy 11/2011; 13(6):R194. · 4.27 Impact Factor
  • Carlo Donadio, Danika Tognotti, Elena Donadio
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    ABSTRACT: Albumin is the most important antioxidant substance in plasma and performs many physiological functions. Furthermore, albumin is the major carrier of endogenous molecules and exogenous ligands. This paper reviews the importance of post-translational modifications of albumin and fragments thereof in patients with renal disease. First, current views and controversies on renal handling of proteins, mainly albumin, will be discussed. Post-translational modifications, namely the fragmentation of albumin found with proteomic techniques in nephrotic patients, diabetics, and ESRD patients will be presented and discussed. It is reasonable to hypothesize that proteolytic fragmentation of serum albumin is due to a higher susceptibility to proteases, induced by oxidative stress. The clinical relevance of the fragmentation of albumin has not yet been established. These modifications could affect some physiological functions of albumin and have a patho-physiological role in uremic syndrome. Proteomic analysis of serum allows the identification of over-expressed proteins and can detect post-translational modifications of serum proteins, hitherto hidden, using standard laboratory techniques.
    Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 11/2011; 413(3-4):391-5. · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the last years human proteomic has represented a promising tool to promote the communication between basic and clinical science. To explore the correspondence between salivary proteomic profile and clinical response, herein, we used a proteomic approach to analyse the whole saliva of a patient with primary Sjögren's Syndrome (pSS) and non-Hodgkin's-MALT type parotid lymphoma before, during and after a standard treatment with cyclophosphamide (CTX) and rituximab (RTX). To identify any discriminatory therapeutic salivary biomarker patient's whole saliva was collected at the baseline, after the fourth infusion of rituximab, and on remission and analysed combining two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Proteomic results obtained from the comparison of salivary samples indicated several qualitative and quantitative modifications in the salivary expression of putative albumin, immunoglobulin J chain, Ig kappa chain C region, alpha-1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin and Ig alpha-1 chain C region. This study suggests that clinical and functional changes of the salivary glands driven by autoimmune and lymphoproliferative processes might be reflected in patients' whole saliva proteins, shedding new light on the potential usefulness of salivary proteomic analysis in the identification of prognostic and therapeutic biomarkers for patients with pSS and non Hodgkin's lymphomas.
    Journal of Translational Medicine 11/2011; 9:188. · 3.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Parathyroid tumours are heterogeneous and in some cases the diagnosis may be difficult using histological features. In this study we used a two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D)/mass spectrometry (MS)-based approach to examine the global changes of parathyroid adenoma tissues protein profile compared to the parathyroid normal tissues. Validation of protein expression was performed by immunoblotting using specific antibodies. Ingenuity software was used to identify the biological processes to which these proteins belong and to construct a potential network. A total of 30 proteins were found to be differentially expressed, of which 22 resulted in being over-expressed. Proteins identified by 2D/MS/MS proteomics were classified into functional categories and a major change (≥ 2-fold) in terms of expression was found in proteins involved in response to biotic stimuli, cell organization and signal transduction. After Ingenuity analysis, 14-3-3 ζ/δ appears to be a key protein in the network of parathyroid adenoma, where it is linked to other proteins such as annexin A2, B box and SPRY domain-containing protein (BSPRY), p53 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Our results suggest that the proteomic approach was able to differentiate the protein profiles of normal parathyroid and parathyroid adenoma and identify a panel of proteins which are differentially expressed. The functional role of these proteins in the network of intracellular pathways is discussed.
    Molecular BioSystems 03/2011; 7(3):687-99. · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Proteomic research in the field of parathyroid tissues is limited by the very small dimension of the glands and by the low incidence of cancer lesions (1%). Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens are a potentially valuable resource for discovering protein cancer biomarkers. In this study we have verified the applicability of a heat induced protein extraction from FFPE parathyroid adenoma tissues followed by a gel-based or gel-free proteomic approach in order to achieve protein separation and identification. The best results for high quality MS spectra and parameters, were obtained by using a gel-free approach, and up to 163 unique proteins were identified. Similar results were obtained by applying both SDS-out and SDS-out + TCA/Acetone techniques during the gel-free method. Western blot analysis carried out with specific antibodies suggested that the antigenicity was not always preserved, while specific immunoreactions were detected for calmodulin, B box and SPRY domain-containing protein (BSPRY), peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX 6) and parvalbumin. In spite of some limitations mainly due to the extensive formalin-induced covalent cross-linking, our results essentially suggest the applicability of a proteomic approach to FFPE parathyroid specimens. From our point of view, FFPE extracts might be an alternative source, especially in the validation phase of protein biomarkers when a large cohort of samples is required and the low availability of frozen tissues might be constraining.
    Proteome Science 01/2011; 9(1):29. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to detect modification in the expression of plasma proteins and/or post-translational modifications of their structure in patients with end stage renal disease. Serum samples from 19 adult patients treated by maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) were analyzed in comparison to sera from six healthy controls using sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). Spots of interest were identified by mass spectrometry analysis. In addition, the 2DE maps were incubated with a human anti-albumin polyclonal antibody. SDS-PAGE gels, 2DE maps and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight analysis indicated over-expression of low-molecular weight proteins (LMWP) in sera from patients. Unexpectedly, another 15 spots with estimated M(r) of 12.5-29 kDa from the 2DE maps of six patients were identified as fragments of albumin. 2D immunoblotting of sera from 12 other patients detected numerous albumin fragments. These results indicate that in addition to increased expression of LMWP, a relevant amount of albumin fragments are detectable in the serum of patients undergoing MHD. Uremia appears to facilitate the fragmentation of albumin and/or the retention of albumin fragments in blood.
    Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 09/2009; 47(11):1373-9. · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Protein therapeutics are playing an expanding role in modern medicinal chemistry. Among them, native or engineered molecules exploiting the binding and catalytic potential of the immune repertoire form an extremely exciting and emerging business area. They represent by far the single largest category of biopharmaceutical substances under investigation. The fast increase of this pharmaceutical category paralleled the scientific and technical progress from murine to chimeric, humanized and, finally, human engineered antibodies. Indeed, the development of the phage display technology, allowing libraries of shuffled murine or human antibody binding domains to be screened for affinity against a selected target antigen or activity against a specific reaction substrate, open new perspectives, disclosing the opportunity to circumvent restrictions inherent to the in vivo immunisation. Transgenic technology represents another powerful method for generating fully human monoclonal antibodies against a wide variety of drug targets, while recombinant technology continues to evolve, improving the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of antibody therapeutics, with the production of different antibody constructs or formats, such as bispecific antibodies, diabodies and others, and different functional activities, such as catalysis, cellular internalisation and antigen-mimicking. The aim of the present review is to overview native or recombinant antibodies while discussing the underlying antibody technology, with the aim to favour understanding of the antibody therapeutics that are in use or will enter market in the near future.
    Current Medicinal Chemistry 02/2009; 16(6):753-79. · 3.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, some in vitro trials were carried out to evaluate the association between Scopulariopsis spp. fungi with Psoroptes cuniculi (Acari: Psoroptidae) and their potential pathogenicity to this mite species. After cultivation on Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloroamphenicol at 26 degrees C for 20 days and macro- and microscopical examinations, from P. cuniculi mites taken from some infested rabbits fungi belonging to the genus Scopulariopsis were isolated. Investigations were carried out to evaluate in vitro the potential pathogenic role of Scopulariopsis to P. cuniculi; to this aim, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis isolated from a cat was tested. In several culture media, the dose-dependent P. cuniculi mortality with different concentrations of S. brevicaulis and the ability of S. brevicaulis to penetrate inside the body of infected mites were evaluated. Results obtained demonstrated that, in the rabbit, Scopulariopsis fungi can be associated with P. cuniculi, and that S. brevicaulis can be an entomopathogen for P. cuniculi in a dose-dependent manner. A more rapid mortality of the mites and a quicker S. brevicaulis growth in plates containing rabbit serum with respect to all other media used were also found. S. brevicaulis demonstrated the ability to invade the body of P. cuniculi.
    Parasitology Research 05/2008; 102(5):957-62. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immunocytochemistry was used to identify possible target antigens in the digestive system of Psoroptes cuniculi. Sera from three recently acutely infested rabbits, from rabbits with a mild long lasting infestation, and from a rabbit with repeated mite infestations and no longer able to maintain a population of P. cuniculi were used to determine any antibody specificity to the mite digestive system. The reactivity of these sera was compared with sera from three un-infested animals. The different pool of sera targeted different mite antigens; in particular, sera from the resistant rabbit and the chronically infested rabbits reacted with gut cells, faecal material and cuticle, while sera from the recently infested rabbits reacted with gut contents, faecal material and cuticle of the parasites but not with gut cells. Finally, sera from un-infested rabbits did not demonstrate any specificity to P. cuniculi antigens reacting only with mite gut contents in a weak manner. These preliminary data suggest the presence of antibodies induced in the host blood by infection, which act against the parasite by binding to antigen at the surface of its gut.
    Parasitology Research 06/2007; 100(6):1281-5. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An expressed sequence tag database of the freshwater fish parasite, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora) was analyzed to seek for proteases potentially involved in the invasion and degradation of host tissues during infection. The translation of the database revealed two cathepsin L cysteine proteases (Icp1 and Icp2) of the C1A peptidase subfamily. The analysis of Icp1 and Icp2 sequences suggested that both proteases would be synthesized as preproproteins, with a mature domain of 27.9 and 22.8 kDa, respectively. Their expression level was determined in the trophont parasitic stage, in the tomont reproductive stage, and in the theront infective stage by real-time RT-PCR. ICP1 and ICP2 were significantly upregulated in trophont and theront stages in comparison with the tomont stage. Mature peptides of Icp1 and Icp2 were identified in crude extracts of I. multifiliis trophonts by LC-MS/MS. Zymograms showed three to seven activity bands at the optimum pH of cathepsin L cysteine proteases. Two bands displaying cysteine protease activity were identified by inhibition with E-64. They represented the major proteolytic activity of the trophont stage at pH 5-7, suggesting that cysteine proteases play an important role in the infection process.
    FEMS Microbiology Letters 05/2007; 269(1):77-84. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) serum value has been the non-invasive biomarker of choice for the early diagnosis of renal bone disease in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) patient population. It has now been known that the intact PTH assay value is the sum of 1-84 PTH (true hypercalcemic PTH) and large C-terminal PTH fragments, mainly 7-84 PTH, a fragment with hypocalcemic hormone actions. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences among the different functional stages of CKD in the following PTH parameters: intact PTH, 1-84 PTH, 7-84 PTH, and the ratio 1-84 PTH/7-84 PTH. GFR (clearance of 99mTc-DTPA) was measured in 164 (85 males and 79 females) adult CKD patients with different degrees of renal function impairment (serum creatinine 0.50 12.1 mg/dl, mean 2.00). Plasma concentrations of calcium, phosphate, 1-84 PTH and intact PTH were also measured. The value of 7-84 PTH was calculated as the difference between intact PTH and 1-84 PTH. The reduction of, GFR was accompanied by an increase of intact PTH, with a prevalent increase of 7-84 PTH over 1-84 PTH, resulting in a decrease of the ratio 1-84 PTH/7-84 PTH. The values of 7-84 PTH showed a discrimination between Stages 1 and 2 (GFR > 60 ml/min ) and Stage 3 (GFR 30 60 ml/ min) CKD patient populations. In fact, 7-84 PTH was already significantly increased in patients at CKD Stage 3. The analysis of individual patients indicated that a low value (< 1.4) of the ratio 1-84 PTH/7-84 PTH, suggestive for low bone turnover, was already found in more than 20% of CKD Stage 3 patients. The results of the present study demonstrate that the reduction in GFR is accompanied by a higher increase in 7-84 PTH with respect to 1-84 PTH, which suggests the possibility that bone metabolism and calcemic status are already reduced in patients with moderate renal failure (CKD Stage 3).
    Clinical nephrology 04/2007; 67(3):131-9. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    Equine Veterinary Journal 10/2006; 38(5):485-7. · 2.29 Impact Factor