[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed whether the relationships between insulin sensitivity and all-cause mortality as well as fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) events are independent of elevated blood glucose, high blood pressure, dyslipidaemia and body composition in individuals without diagnosed diabetes.
Between 1999 and 2000, baseline fasting insulin, glucose and lipids, 2 h plasma glucose, HbA(1c), anthropometrics, blood pressure, medication use, smoking and history of CVD were collected from 8,533 adults aged >35 years from the population-based Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle study. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by HOMA of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-%S). Deaths and fatal or non-fatal CVD events were ascertained through linkage to the National Death Index and medical records adjudication.
After a median of 5.0 years there were 277 deaths and 225 CVD events. HOMA-%S was not associated with all-cause mortality. Compared with the most insulin-sensitive quintile, the combined fatal or non-fatal CVD HR (95% CI) for quintiles of decreasing HOMA-%S were 1.1 (0.6-1.9), 1.4 (0.9-2.3), 1.6 (1.0-2.5) and 2.0 (1.3-3.1), adjusting for age and sex. Smoking, CVD history, hypertension, lipid-lowering medication, total cholesterol and waist-to-hip ratio moderately attenuated this relationship. However, the association was rendered non-significant by adding HDL. Fasting plasma glucose, but not HOMA-%S significantly improved the prediction of CVD, beyond that seen with other risk factors.
In this cohort, HOMA-%S showed no association with all-cause mortality and only a modest association with CVD events, largely explained by its association with HDL. Fasting plasma glucose was a better predictor of CVD than HOMA-%S.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To provide an estimate of the morbidity and mortality resulting from abdominal overweight and obesity in the Australian population.
Prospective, national, population-based study (the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle [AusDiab] study).
6072 men and women aged>or=25 years at study entry between May 1999 and December 2000, and aged<or=75 years, not pregnant and for whom there were waist circumference data at the follow-up survey between June 2004 and December 2005.
Incident health outcomes (type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases) at 5 years and mortality at 8 years. Comparison of outcome measures between those classified as abdominally overweight or obese and those with a normal waist circumference at baseline, and across quintiles of waist circumference, and (for mortality only) waist-to-hip ratio.
Abdominal obesity was associated with odds ratios of between 2 and 5 for incident type 2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and the metabolic syndrome. The risk of myocardial infarction among obese participants was similarly increased in men (hazard ratio [HR], 2.75; 95% CI, 1.08-7.03), but not women (HR, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.37-5.50). Abdominal obesity-related population attributable fractions for these outcomes ranged from 13% to 47%, and were highest for type 2 diabetes. No significant associations were observed between all-cause mortality and increasing quintiles of abdominal obesity.
Our findings confirm that abdominal obesity confers a considerably heightened risk for type 2 diabetes, the metabolic syndrome (as well as its components) and cardiovascular disease, and they provide important information that enables a more precise estimate of the burden of disease attributable to obesity in Australia.
The Medical journal of Australia 09/2009; 191(4):202-8. · 2.85 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies often rely on self-reported cardiovascular disease (CVD) information, but this may be inaccurate. We investigated the accuracy of self-reported CVD (myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary artery bypass surgery and coronary artery angioplasty) during the follow up of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab) study. Self-reported CVD events, including the date of the event and hospital admission details, were collected with an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Of the 276 self-reported CVD events, 188 (68.1%) were verified by adjudication of medical records. Furthermore, linkage to the statewide Western Australian Hospital Morbidity Database (WAHMD) showed that CVD events were unlikely to be missed, with only 0.2% of those denying any CVD event being recorded as having had an event on the WAHMD. The adjudication of medical records was as accurate as record linkage to the WAHMD for validation of self-reported CVD, but combining the results from both methods of ascertainment improved CVD event identification.
Internal Medicine Journal 02/2009; 39(1):49-53. · 1.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the extent of gender-related differences in the prevalence of glucose intolerance for the Australian population and whether body size may explain such differences.
Cross-sectional data were collected from a national cohort of 11 247 Australians aged > or = 25 years. Glucose tolerance status was assessed according to both fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG) levels following a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Anthropometric and glycated haemoglobin measurements were also made.
Undiagnosed diabetes and non-diabetic glucose abnormalities were more prevalent among men than women when based only on the FPG results (diabetes: men 2.2%, women 1.6%, P = 0.02; impaired fasting glycaemia: men 12.3%, women 6.6%, P < 0.001). In contrast 16.0% of women and 13.0% of men had a 2hPG abnormality (either diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance, P = 0.14). Women had a mean FPG 0.3 mmol/l lower than men (P < 0.001), but 2hPG 0.3 mmol/l higher (P = 0.002) and FPG-2hPG increment 0.5 mmol/l greater (P < 0.001). The gender difference in mean 2hPG and FPG-2hPG increment disappeared following adjustment for height. For both genders, those in the shortest height quartile had 2hPG levels 0.5 mmol/l higher than the tallest quartile, but height showed almost no relationship with the FPG.
Men and women had different glycaemic profiles; women had higher mean 2hPG levels, despite lower fasting levels. It appeared that the higher 2hPG levels for women related to lesser height and may be a consequence of using a fixed glucose load in the OGTT, irrespective of body size.
Diabetic Medicine 03/2008; 25(3):296-302. · 3.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the ability of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a diabetes prediction model (DPM), a noninvasive risk questionnaire and individual glucose measurements to predict future diabetes.
Five-year longitudinal cohort study. Tools tested included MetS definitions [World Health Organization, International Diabetes Federation, ATPIII and European Group for the study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR)], the FINnish Diabetes RIsk SCore risk questionnaire, the DPM, fasting and 2-h post load plasma glucose.
Adult Australian population.
A total of 5842 men and women without diabetes > or =25 years. Response 58%. A total of 224 incident cases of diabetes.
In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the MetS was not a better predictor of incident diabetes than the DPM or measurement of glucose. The risk for diabetes among those with prediabetes but not MetS was almost triple that of those with MetS but not prediabetes (9.0% vs. 3.4%). Adjusted for component parts, the MetS was not a significant predictor of incident diabetes, except for EGIR in men [OR 2.1 (95% CI 1.2-3.7)].
A single fasting glucose measurement may be more effective and efficient than published definitions of the MetS or other risk constructs in predicting incident diabetes. Diagnosis of the MetS did not confer increased risk for incident diabetes independent of its individual components, with an exception for EGIR in men. Given these results, debate surrounding the public health utility of a MetS diagnosis, at least for identification of incident diabetes, is required.
Journal of Internal Medicine 02/2008; 264(2):177-86. · 6.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Framingham risk functions are widely used for prediction of future cardiovascular disease events. They do not, however, include anthropometric measures of overweight or obesity, now considered a major cardiovascular disease risk factor. We aimed to establish the most appropriate anthropometric index and its optimal cutoff point for use as an ancillary measure in clinical practice when identifying people with increased absolute cardiovascular risk estimates.
Analysis of a population-based, cross-sectional survey was carried out.
The 1991 Framingham prediction equations were used to compute 5 and 10-year risks of cardiovascular or coronary heart disease in 7191 participants from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (1999-2000). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to compare measures of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio in identifying participants estimated to be at 'high', or at 'intermediate or high' absolute risk.
After adjustment for BMI and age, waist-to-hip ratio showed stronger correlation with absolute risk estimates than waist circumference. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for waist-to-hip ratio (0.67-0.70 in men, 0.64-0.74 in women) were greater than those for waist circumference (0.60-0.65, 0.59-0.71) or BMI (0.52-0.59, 0.53-0.66). The optimal cutoff points of BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio to predict people at 'high', or at 'intermediate or high' absolute risk estimates were 26 kg/m2, 95 cm and 0.90 in men, and 25-26 kg/m2, 80-85 cm and 0.80 in women, respectively.
Measurement of waist-to-hip ratio is more useful than BMI or waist circumference in the identification of individuals estimated to be at increased risk for future primary cardiovascular events.
European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation 01/2008; 14(6):740-5. · 2.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. The relationship between milder elevations of blood glucose and mortality is less clear. This study investigated whether impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance, as well as diabetes mellitus, increase the risk of all-cause and CVD mortality.
In 1999 to 2000, glucose tolerance status was determined in 10,428 participants of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab). After a median follow-up of 5.2 years, 298 deaths occurred (88 CVD deaths). Compared with those with normal glucose tolerance, the adjusted all-cause mortality hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for known diabetes mellitus and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus were 2.3 (1.6 to 3.2) and 1.3 (0.9 to 2.0), respectively. The risk of death was also increased in those with impaired fasting glucose (HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.4) and impaired glucose tolerance (HR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.0). Sixty-five percent of all those who died of CVD had known diabetes mellitus, newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose, or impaired glucose tolerance at baseline. Known diabetes mellitus (HR 2.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.7) and impaired fasting glucose (HR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 5.1) were independent predictors for CVD mortality after adjustment for age, sex, and other traditional CVD risk factors, but impaired glucose tolerance was not (HR 1.2, 95% CI 0.7 to 2.2).
This study emphasizes the strong association between abnormal glucose metabolism and mortality, and it suggests that this condition contributes to a large number of CVD deaths in the general population. CVD prevention may be warranted in people with all categories of abnormal glucose metabolism.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin resistance is considered a core component in the pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome. Some clinicians measure serum insulin concentrations in the mistaken belief that they can be used to diagnose insulin resistance. Serum insulin levels are poor measures of insulin resistance. Furthermore, there is no clinical benefit in measuring insulin resistance in clinical practice. Measurements of fasting serum insulin levels should be reserved for large population-based epidemiological studies, where they can provide valuable data on the relationship of insulin sensitivity to risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Clinicians should shift from identifying "insulin resistance" to identifying risk factors, such as fasting glucose and lipid levels, hypertension and central obesity. These proven risk factors converge within the metabolic syndrome. Individuals "at risk" of diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiac disease can be identified simply and inexpensively, using classic clinical techniques, such as history-taking, physical examination, and very basic investigations.
The Medical journal of Australia 09/2006; 185(3):159-61. · 2.85 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the association of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG) and HbA1c with retinopathy and microalbuminuria using both deciles of glycaemia and change point models, to validate current diagnostic criteria for diabetes and to identify therapeutic thresholds for glycaemic control.
The Australian Diabetes Obesity and Lifestyle study (AusDiab), conducted in 1999-2000, included adults aged > or =25 years from 42 randomly selected areas of Australia. Retinopathy and albuminuria were assessed in participants identified as having diabetes (based on self report and oral glucose tolerance test), impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and in a random sample with normal glucose tolerance. Data were available for 2,182 participants with retinal photographs and 2,389 with urinary albumin/creatinine results.
The prevalence of retinopathy in the first 8 deciles of FPG and HbA1c and the first 9 deciles of 2hPG were 7.2, 6.6, and 6.3%, respectively and showed no variation with increasing glucose or HbA1c. Above these levels, the prevalence rose markedly to 18.6% in the top 2 deciles of FPG, 21.3% in the top 2 deciles of HbA1c and 10.9% in the top decile of 2hPG. The thresholds for increasing prevalence of retinopathy were 7.1 mmol/l for FPG, 6.1% for HbA1c and 13.1 mmol/l for 2hPG. The prevalence of microalbuminuria rose gradually across deciles of each glycaemic measure. Thresholds were less clear than for retinopathy, but were seen at a FPG of 7.2 mmol/l and HbA1c of 6.1%, with no evidence of a threshold effect for 2hPG.
The prevalence of retinopathy rose dramatically in the highest deciles of each glycaemic measure, while for microalbuminuria the increase of prevalence was more gradual. The FPG values corresponded well with the WHO diagnostic cut-point for diabetes, however the 2hPG value did not. HbA1c thresholds were similar for both retinopathy and microalbuminuria and compared well to values shown in other studies. These results support current targets for FPG and HbA1c in preventing microvascular complications.
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 09/2006; 73(3):315-21. · 2.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analysed a sample of Australian adults to determine the strength of associations of TV viewing and participation in physical activity with the metabolic syndrome.
This population-based cross-sectional study included 6,241 adults aged > or =35 years who were free from diagnosed diabetes mellitus and self-reported ischaemic disease and were not taking lipid-lowering or antihypertensive drugs. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the 1999 World Health Organization criteria. Participants self-reported TV viewing time and physical activity time for the previous week.
The adjusted odds ratio of having the metabolic syndrome was 2.07 (95% CI 1.49-2.88) in women and 1.48 (95% CI 0.95-2.31) in men who watched TV for >14 h per week compared with those who watched < or =7.0 h per week. Compared with those who were less active (<2.5 h per week), the odds ratio for the metabolic syndrome was 0.72 (95% CI 0.58-0.90) in men and 0.53 (95% CI 0.38-0.74) in women who were active (> or =2.5 h per week). Longer TV viewing (>14 h per week) was associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance, obesity and dyslipidaemia in both men and women. A total physical activity time of > or =2.5 h per week was associated with a reduced prevalence of both insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia in both sexes and reduced prevalence of both obesity and hypertension in women.
Increased TV viewing time was associated with an increased prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, while physical activity was associated with a reduced prevalence. Population strategies addressing the metabolic syndrome should focus on reducing sedentary behaviours such as TV viewing, as well as increasing physical activity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to assess the associations of physical activity time and television (TV) time with risk of "undiagnosed" abnormal glucose metabolism in Australian adults.
This population-based cross-sectional study using a stratified cluster design involving 42 randomly selected Census Collector Districts across Australia included 8,299 adults aged 25 years or older who were free from new type 2 diabetes and self-reported ischemic disease and did not take lipid-lowering or antihypertensive drugs. Abnormal glucose metabolism (impaired fasting glycemia [IFG], impaired glucose tolerance [IGT], or new type 2 diabetes) was based on an oral glucose tolerance test. Self-reported physical activity time and TV time (previous week) were assessed using interviewer-administered questionnaires.
After adjustment for known confounders and TV time, the odds ratio (OR) of having abnormal glucose metabolism was 0.62 (95% CI 0.41-0.96) in men and 0.71 (0.50-1.00) in women for those engaged in physical activity >or=2.5 h/week compared with those who were sedentary (0 h/week). The ORs of having abnormal glucose metabolism were 1.16 (0.79-1.70) in men and 1.49 (1.12-1.99) in women who watched TV >14 h/week compared with those who watched <or=7.0 h/week. Higher TV viewing (>14 h/week) was also associated with an increased risk of new type 2 diabetes in men and women and IGT in women compared with those watching <14 h/week. Total physical activity of >or=2.5 h/week was associated with a reduced risk of IFG, IGT, and new type 2 diabetes in both sexes; however, only the association with IGT in women was statistically significant.
These findings suggest a protective effect of physical activity and a deleterious effect of TV time on the risk of abnormal glucose metabolism in adults. Population strategies to reduce risk of abnormal glucose metabolism should focus on reducing sedentary behaviors such as TV time, as well as increasing physical activity.
Diabetes Care 12/2004; 27(11):2603-9. · 7.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Albuminuria is a common complication of diabetes and a leading cause of end-stage renal disease. We determined the prevalence of and factors associated with albuminuria in an Australian population and examined the association of albuminuria with glucose tolerance.
The Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle Study included 11,247 adults aged 25 years and older from 42 randomly selected areas of Australia. Microalbuminuria is defined as an albumin-creatinine ratio of 22 to 220 mg/g (2.5 to 25 mg/mmol) in men and 31 to 220 mg/g (3.5 to 25 mg/mmol) in women, and macroalbuminuria is defined as an albumin-creatinine ratio of 220 mg/g or greater (> or =25.0 mg/mmol).
Overall, 25.3% of patients with diabetes mellitus (known [KDM] and newly diagnosed [NDM], type 1 and type 2) had evidence of albuminuria (21.0%, microalbuminuria; 4.3%, macroalbuminuria). Prevalence increased with increasing glycemia (normal glucose tolerance [NGT], 5.1%; impaired fasting glucose [IFG], 9.3%; impaired glucose tolerance, 11.0%; NDM, 17.8%; and KDM, 32.6% [type 2 only]). Patients with diabetes (KDM and NDM) and IFG had an increased risk for albuminuria compared with those with NGT independent of age, sex, and other known risk factors for albuminuria. Logistic regression modeling identified age, duration of diabetes, systolic blood pressure, current smoking, body mass index, and glycated hemoglobin level as independent risk factors for albuminuria.
This Australian population-based study shows that albuminuria is common among patients with established diabetes, is present before the onset of diabetes, and becomes more prevalent with worsening glucose tolerance.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases 12/2004; 44(5):792-8. · 5.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to study the frequency of examining for diabetic eye and foot complications in an Australian population and to study factors associated with regular screening.
The Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab) was a population-based study of 11,247 people from randomly selected areas of Australia. Participants identified as having previously diagnosed diabetes (n=475) were invited to participate in the complications study. Measures included foot examination, retinopathy photography, and self-report use of health care services.
Seventy-seven percent of participants reported having an eye examination within the previous 2 years, and 50% reported having their feet examined by a health professional in the previous year. Type of diabetes treatment (odds ratio 1.46, 95% CI 0.85-2.50 for tablets versus diet alone and 4.17, 1.71-10.17 for insulin or insulin and tablets versus diet alone) and visiting a diabetes nurse educator in the previous 12 months (2.14, 1.18-3.87) were independent predictors of having had an eye examination. Duration of diabetes (1.33, 1.06-1.67 per year) and visiting a diabetes nurse educator in the previous 12 months (1.89, 1.20-2.95) were independent predictors of a foot examination.
This study has shown that retinopathy screening is performed more frequently than foot screening in Australia. This may be due to the implementation of eye screening programs and awareness campaigns. Foot screening appears to be poor, with less than one-half of the population reporting a regular examination for foot complications. In Australia, diabetes nurse educators play a key role in promoting screening for diabetes complications.
Diabetes Care 04/2004; 27(3):688-93. · 7.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and waist-hip ratio (WHR) as indices of obesity and assess the respective associations with type 2 diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidaemia.
A national sample of 11 247 Australians aged > or =25 years was examined in 2000 in a cross-sectional survey.
The examination included a fasting blood sample, standard 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, blood pressure measurements and questionnaires to assess treatment for dyslipidaemia and hypertension. BMI, waist circumference and WHR were measured to assess overweight and obesity.
The prevalence of obesity amongst Australian adults defined by BMI, waist circumference and WHR was 20.8, 30.5 and 15.8% respectively. The unadjusted odds ratio for the fourth vs. first quartile of each obesity measurement showed that WHR had the strongest relationship with type 2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia (women only) and hypertension. Following adjustment for age, however, there was little difference between the three measures of obesity, with the possible exceptions of hypertension in women, where BMI had a stronger association, and dyslipidaemia in women and type 2 diabetes in men, where WHR was marginally superior.
Waist circumference, BMI and WHR identified different proportions of the population, as measured by both prevalence of obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Whilst WHR had the strongest correlations with CVD risk factors before adjustment for age, the three obesity measures performed similarly after adjustment for age. Given the difficulty of using age-adjusted associations in the clinical setting, these results suggest that given appropriate cut-off points, WHR is the most useful measure of obesity to use to identify individuals with CVD risk factors.
Journal of Internal Medicine 12/2003; 254(6):555-63. · 6.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives. To compare body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and waist–hip ratio (WHR) as indices of obesity and assess the respective associations with type 2 diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidaemia.Design and setting. A national sample of 11 247 Australians aged ≥25 years was examined in 2000 in a cross-sectional survey.Main outcome measures. The examination included a fasting blood sample, standard 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, blood pressure measurements and questionnaires to assess treatment for dyslipidaemia and hypertension. BMI, waist circumference and WHR were measured to assess overweight and obesity.Results. The prevalence of obesity amongst Australian adults defined by BMI, waist circumference and WHR was 20.8, 30.5 and 15.8% respectively. The unadjusted odds ratio for the fourth vs. first quartile of each obesity measurement showed that WHR had the strongest relationship with type 2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia (women only) and hypertension. Following adjustment for age, however, there was little difference between the three measures of obesity, with the possible exceptions of hypertension in women, where BMI had a stronger association, and dyslipidaemia in women and type 2 diabetes in men, where WHR was marginally superior.Conclusions. Waist circumference, BMI and WHR identified different proportions of the population, as measured by both prevalence of obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Whilst WHR had the strongest correlations with CVD risk factors before adjustment for age, the three obesity measures performed similarly after adjustment for age. Given the difficulty of using age-adjusted associations in the clinical setting, these results suggest that given appropriate cut-off points, WHR is the most useful measure of obesity to use to identify individuals with CVD risk factors.
Journal of Internal Medicine 11/2003; 254(6):555 - 563. · 6.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To measure the prevalence of untreated hypertension in Australian adults, and examine the associations with clinical and lifestyle factors.
AusDiab, a cross-sectional survey conducted between May 1999 and December 2000, involved participants from 42 randomly selected census districts throughout Australia.
Of 20 347 eligible people aged >or= 25 years who completed a household interview, 11 247 attended a physical examination (response rate, 55%).
The prevalence of hypertension (blood pressure >or= 140/90 mmHg or self-reported use of antihypertensive drugs) and its treatment; associations of clinical and lifestyle factors with the treatment of hypertension; and adequacy of treatment for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.
The prevalence of hypertension was 28.6 per 100 (95% CI, 25.0-32.3), and the prevalence of untreated hypertension was 15.2 per 100 (95% CI, 13.2-17.2). Of those with untreated hypertension, 80.8% (95% CI, 74.7%-85.0%) had had a blood pressure check within the preceding 12 months. At least one modifiable lifestyle factor was present in 71.7% (95% CI, 68.5%-74.8%) of participants with untreated hypertension. Although lower risk clinical characteristics of younger age and lack of hyperlipidaemia were independently associated with untreated hypertension, 53.5% warranted treatment based on current cardiovascular disease prevention guidelines and multivariable absolute risk assessment.
Considerable scope remains for reducing the burden of cardiovascular disease through lifestyle modification and rational treatment of hypertension.
The Medical journal of Australia 08/2003; 179(3):135-9. · 2.85 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of ESRD is increasing dramatically. Progression to end-stage may be halted or slowed when kidney damage is detected at an early stage. Kidney damage is frequently asymptomatic but is indicated by the presence of proteinuria, hematuria, or reduced GFR. Population-based studies relating to the prevalence of kidney damage in the community are limited, particularly outside of the United States. Therefore, the prevalence of proteinuria, hematuria, and reduced GFR in the Australian adult population was determined using a cross-sectional study of 11,247 noninstitutionalized Australians aged 25 yr or over, randomly selected using a stratified, cluster method. Subjects were interviewed and tested for proteinuria-spot urine protein to creatinine ratio (abnormal: >/=0.20 mg/mg); hematuria-spot urine dipstick (abnormal: 1+ or greater) confirmed by urine microscopy (abnormal: >10,000 red blood cells per milliliter) or dipstick (abnormal: 1+ or greater) on midstream urine sample; and reduced GFR-Cockcroft-Gault estimated GFR (abnormal: <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)). The associations between age, gender, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension, and indicators of kidney damage were examined. Proteinuria was detected in 2.4% of cases (95% CI: 1.6%, 3.1%), hematuria in 4.6% (95% CI: 3.8%, 5.4%), and reduced GFR in 11.2% (95% CI: 8.6%, 13.8%). Approximately 16% had at least one indicator of kidney damage. Age, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension were independently associated with proteinuria; age, gender, and hypertension with hematuria; and age, gender, and hypertension with reduced GFR. Approximately 16% of the Australian adult population has either proteinuria, hematuria, and/or reduced GFR, indicating the presence of kidney damage. Identifying and targeting this section of the population may provide a means to reduce the burden of ESRD.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 07/2003; 14(7 Suppl 2):S131-8. · 8.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To measure the prevalence of obesity in Australian adults and to examine the associations of obesity with socioeconomic and lifestyle factors.
AusDiab, a cross-sectional study conducted between May 1999 and December 2000, involved participants from 42 randomly selected districts throughout Australia.
Of 20,347 eligible people aged > or = 25 years who completed a household interview, 11,247 attended the physical examination at local survey sites (response rate, 55%).
Overweight and obesity defined by body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) and waist circumference (cm); sociodemographic factors (including smoking, physical activity and television viewing time).
The prevalence of overweight and obesity (BMI > or = 25.0 kg/m(2); waist circumference > 80.0 cm [women] or > or = 94.0 cm [men]) in both sexes was almost 60%, defined by either BMI or waist circumference. The prevalence of obesity was 2.5 times higher than in 1980. Using waist circumference, the prevalence of obesity was higher in women than men (34.1% v 26.8%; P < 0.01). Lower educational status, higher television viewing time and lower physical activity time were each strongly associated with obesity, with television viewing time showing a stronger relationship than physical activity time.
The prevalence of obesity in Australia has more than doubled in the past 20 years. Strong positive associations between obesity and each of television viewing time and lower physical activity time confirm the influence of sedentary lifestyles on obesity, and underline the potential benefits of reducing sedentary behaviour, as well as increasing physical activity, to curb the obesity epidemic.
The Medical journal of Australia 06/2003; 178(9):427-32. · 2.85 Impact Factor