[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accumulated research has suggested the importance of the adhesion molecules modulation as therapeutic approach for bronchial asthma. Adhesion molecules expression alteration contributes to the pathogenesis of asthma. In order to probe the roles of expression imbalance of adhesion molecules in asthma pathogenesis, expression profiling of adhesion molecules was performed using cDNA microarray assay. The results showed that the expression pattern of adhesion molecules was altered in peripheral blood leucocytes of asthma patients. In this study, we focused on one of the abnormally expressed molecule, integrin β4, which was down-regulated in all asthma patients, to analyze the relevance of asthma susceptibility with the alteration of integrin β4 expressions. Real time PCR was used to verify the down-regulation of integrin β4 in additional 38 asthma patients. Next, the 5'flanking region of integrin β4 DNA were amplified, sequenced and site-directed mutagenesis technology in correspondent variation sites were carried out. Among 4 variation sites found in 5' flanking region of integrin β4, 3 were related to asthma susceptibility: -nt1029 G/A, -nt 1051 G/A, and -nt 1164 G/C. A reduction of human integrin β4 promoter activity was observed at mutants of these sites. This study demonstrates that various adhesion molecules in asthma patients are abnormally expressed. Mutations in 5' flanking region result in reduced integrin β4 expression, which is related to increased risk of asthma.
PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e95533. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0095533 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the effect of antiflammin-1 (AF-1) on LPS-induced IL-10 secretion from RAW264.7 cells through uteroglobin-binding protein (UGBP). Cultured RAW264.7 cells, a murine monocyte-macrophage cell line, were divided as following: control group, LPS group (1 µg/mL LPS), AF-1 group (100 μmol/L AF-1), LPS+AF-1 group (2 h of 100 μmol/L AF-1 pretreatment before LPS addition), and LPS+AF-1+anti-UGBP group (30 min of anti-UGBP antibody pretreatment before successive treatments with AF-1 and LPS). IL-10 concentration in the supernatants was detected by ELISA assay, and the level of IL-10 mRNA expression in macrophage was detected by using RT-PCR method. The results showed that AF-1 significantly increased LPS-induced IL-10 secretion in RAW264.7 cells in a dose dependent way, and up-regulated its mRNA level. Anti-UGBP antibody pretreatment attenuated the augmented effect of AF-1 on LPS-induced IL-10 secretion and gene expression. These results suggest that AF-1 promotes LPS-induced IL-10 secretion from macrophages, and this effect is mediated by UGBP.
Sheng li xue bao: [Acta physiologica Sinica] 08/2013; 65(4):363-9.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To prepare anti-mouse uteroglobin binding protein (mUGBP) polyclonal antibody, two polypeptides were synthesized based on the bioinformatics analysis of mUGBP, and New Zealand white rabbits were immunized separately with each peptide coupled with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). The data indicate that a 13-amino acid polypeptide (positions 221st-233rd) was able to generate anti-peptide antibodies. The titer of the antisera detected with ELISA was 1:10(8). The antisera were then purified with immuno-affinity chromatography to obtain antibodies. Western blot analysis of mUGBP expressed as a fusion protein with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) was performed on the cell lysates of COS-1 cells with the purified antisera, suggesting that the antisera specifically recognized UGBP. By immunohistochemistry and indirect immunofluorescence analysis, we examined the expression of UGBP in the lung tissues from a patient undergoing surgical lung resection for a tumor and from normal mouse lung tissue, and found for the first time that UGBP protein was widely expressed in both mouse and human lung tissue with the most abundant expression in bronchial epithelial cells. These results suggest that the antigen epitopes of mUGBP are well predicted by using bioinformatics analysis. We have obtained anti-mUGBP polyclonal antibody, which will be useful for further investigation.
Sheng li xue bao: [Acta physiologica Sinica] 04/2013; 65(2):217-223.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adhesion molecules play important roles in airway hyperresponsiveness or airway inflammation. Our previous study indicated catenin alpha-like 1 (CTNNAL1), an alpha-catenin-related protein, was downregulated in asthma patients and animal model. In this study, we observed that the expression of CTNNAL1 was increased in lung tissue of the ozone-stressed Balb/c mice model and in acute ozone stressed human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC). In order to identify the possible DNA-binding proteins regulating the transcription of CTNNAL1 gene in HBEC, we designed 8 oligo- nucleotide probes corresponding to various regions of the CTNNAL1 promoter in electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA). We detected 5 putative transcription factors binding sites within CTNNAL1 promoter region that can recruit LEF-1, AP-2α and CREB respectively by EMSA and antibody supershift assay. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay verified that AP-2 α and LEF-1 could be recruited to the CTNNAL1 promoter. Therefore we further analyzed the functions of putative AP-2 and LEF-1 sites within CTNNAL1 promoter by site-directed mutagenesis of those sites within pGL3/FR/luc. We observed a reduction in human CTNNAL1 promoter activity of mutants of both AP-2α and LEF-1 sites. Pre-treatment with ASOs targeting LEF-1and AP-2α yielded significant reduction of ozone-stress-induced CTNNAL1 expression. The activation of AP-2α and LEF-1, followed by CTNNAL1 expression, showed a correlation during a 16-hour time course. Our data suggest that a robust transcriptional CTNNAL1 up-regulation occurs during acute ozone-induced stress and is mediated at least in part by ozone-induced recruitments of LEF-1 and AP-2α to the human CTNNAL1 promoter.
PLoS ONE 02/2012; 7(2):e31158. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0031158 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an apical membrane chloride channel critical to the regulation of fluid, chloride, and bicarbonate transport in epithelia and other cell types. The most common cause of cystic fibrosis (CF) is the abnormal trafficking of CFTR mutants. Therefore, understanding the cellular machineries that transit CFTR from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface is important. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) plays an important role in CFTR-dependent chloride transport. The present study was designed to observe the affection of VIP on the trafficking of CFTR, and channel gating in human bronchial epithelium cells (HBEC). Confocal microscopy revealed CFTR immunofluorescence extending from the apical membrane deeply into the cell cytoplasm. After VIP treatment, apical extension of CFTR immunofluorescence into the cell was reduced and the peak intensity of CFTR fluorescence shifted towards the apical membrane. Western blot showed VIP increased cell surface and total CFTR. Compared with the augmented level of total CFTR, the surface CFTR increased more markedly. Immunoprecipitation founded that the mature form of CFTR had a marked increase in HBEC treated with VIP. VIP led to a threefold increase in Cl(-) efflux in HBEC. Glibenclamide-sensitive and DIDS-insensitive CFTR Cl(-) currents were consistently observed after stimulation with VIP (10(-8) mol/L). The augmentation of CFTR Cl(-) currents enhanced by VIP (10(-8) mol/L) was reversed, at least in part, by the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, H-89 and the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, H-7, suggesting PKA and PKC participate in the VIP-promoted CFTR Cl(-) currents.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: L-glutamate (Glu) is an excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. Relatively much attention has been paid to functional expression of Glu signaling molecules in peripheral tissues very recently. The present study tested the hypothesis that the activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluRI) in neutrophils stimulated neutrophils adherence to endothelial cells by increasing the surface expression of certain adhesion molecules. Peripheral blood was obtained by venipuncture from healthy donors, and the neutrophils were isolated by Ficoll-Hypaque gradient centrifugation. Neutrophils floating into DMEM/F12 culture medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum were then used immediately. Immunocytochemistry and real-time quantitative RT-PCR were used to detect the expression of mGluRI (mGluR1 and mGluR5) in neutrophils. The adherence of neutrophils to cultured human normal umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVE-12) was measured by the colorimetric method. Cell surface expression of adhesion molecule CD11a in the neutrophils was determined by flow cytometry. Immunocytochemistry and real-time quantitative RT-PCR showed that mGluR1 and mGluR5 were constitutively expressed in neutrophils. Application of mGluRI agonist S-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (S-DHPG) (1x10(-8)-1x10(-6) mol/L) showed a dose-dependent stimulatory effect on the adherence of neutrophils to HUVE-12 (P<0.05 or P<0.01), with a maximum effect at 1x10(-6) mol/L (P<0.01). Incubations as short as 30 min were sufficient to induce increased adherence after the beginning of S-DHPG treatment. Following time extension (0.5-5 h), S-DHPG (1x10(-6) mol/L) increased the rate of neutrophils adhesion to HUVE-12 with a maximum effect at 0.5 h (P<0.01). However, a time-dependent effect of S-DHPG on the rate of neutrophils adhesion to HUVE-12 was not observed during the experimental period. 1x10(-6) mol/L of S-DHPG also induced an increased surface expression of adhesion molecule CD11a (P<0.01) when neutrophils were preincubated with 1x10(-6) mol/L of S-DHPG for 1 h. Furthermore, the specific mGluRI antagonist (RS)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine ((+/-)-MCPG, 0.5 mmol/L) significantly abolished the stimulatory effect of S-DHPG (1x10(-6) mol/L) on the adherence of neutrophils to HUVE-12 (P<0.01). These results suggest that the activation of mGluRI in neutrophils results in increased adhesion molecule CD11a expression and thereby promotes the adherence of neutrophils to endothelial cells.
Sheng li xue bao: [Acta physiologica Sinica] 06/2010; 62(3):219-24.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is known that ozone stress can induce airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). The underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. We constructed a successive ozone-stressed rat model and showed that AHR caused by ozone stress presented as increased lung resistance (RL) to inhaled histamine but not baseline RL. Meanwhile, structural disruption and decreased expression of integrin β4 on airway epithelia were observed. Further regression analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between increases in RL to histamine (at 0.32mg/ml) and mRNA expression of integrin β4. Moreover, when integrin β4 on human bronchial epithelial cells was knocked down, we found that reactive oxygen species was increased and apoptosis rates were higher. Overall, this study suggests that downregulation of integrin β4 is important for the development ozone stress-induced AHR, presumably because it causes increased oxidative damage and epithelial apoptosis.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 06/2010; 397(2):290-295. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.05.102 · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Integrin beta 4 (ITGB4) is a structural adhesion molecule which engages in maintaining the integrity of airway epithelial cells. Its specific cytomembrane structural feature strongly indicates that ITGB4 may engage in many signaling pathways and physiologic processes. However, in addition to adhesion, the specific biologic significance of ITGB4 in airway epithelial cells is almost unknown. In this article, we investigated the expression and functional properties of ITGB4 in airway epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro. Human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14O-cells) and primary rat tracheal epithelial cells (RTE cells) were used to determine ITGB4 expression under ozone tress or mechanical damage, respectively. An ovalbumin (OVA)-challenged asthma model was used to investigate ITGB4 expression after antigen exposure in vivo. In addition, an ITGB4 overexpression vector and ITGB4 silence virus vector were constructed and transfected into RTE cells. Then, wound repair ability and anti-oxidation capacity was evaluated. Our results demonstrated that, on the edge of mechanically wounded cell areas, ITGB4 expression was increased after mechanical injury. After ozone stress, upregulation expression of ITGB4 was also detected. In the OVA-challenged asthma model, ITGB4 expression was decreased on airway epithelial cells accompanying with structural disruption and damage of anti-oxidation capacity. Besides, our study revealed that upregulation of ITGB4 promotes wound repair ability and anti-oxidative ability, while such abilities were blocked when ITGB4 was silenced. Taken together, these results showed that ITGB4 was a new interesting molecule involved in the regulation of wound repair and anti-oxidation processes for airway epithelial cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is one of the most important sensory neuropeptides in respiratory system. We previously reported that VIP enhances wound healing and proliferation of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs), and these effects are mediated by intracellular signaling molecules such as protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C (PKC), Calmodulin (CaM), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). In the present study, we further investigated the role of cAMP Response Element Binding Protein (CREB) in VIP-promoted protective effects in mechanical-damaged HBECs. VIP-mediated wound healing and cell proliferation in HBECs was inhibited by CREB antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) in a time-dependent manner. VIP increased the CREB DNA binding activity and expression of the p-CREB that were inhibited by VIP receptor antagonist. Increased CREB DNA binding activity and expression of the p-CREB were also partially inhibited by PKA and ERK inhibitors. These results suggest that the VIP-mediated wound repair of HBECs is associated with activation of CREB via PKA and ERK dependent pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antigen presenting is the initial step of the immune responses. In order to verify that human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) can express antigen presentation molecules, which can be modulated by intrapulmonary regulatory peptides, the present study was designed to examine the expressions of human leukocyte antigen DR (HLA-DR), CD80 and CD86 in resting or ozone-stressed HBECs by using immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry analysis. The results showed that HBECs expressed HLA-DR, CD80 and the expressions of HLA-DR and CD80 molecules were down-regulated under ozone stress. While VIP, P3513 and CGRP upregulated the expression of HLA-DR in resting or ozone-stressed HBECs, they had different effects on CD80 expression. VIP did not influence the expression of CD80 under resting state, but increased the expression of CD80 under ozone stress. CGRP decreased CD80 expression in resting HBECs, but increased CD80 expression in ozone-stressed HBECs. P3513 increased CD80 expression in resting HBECs, but decreased CD80 expression in ozone-stressed HBECs. The expression of CD86 was absent in resting or ozone-stressed HBECs. The results obtained demonstrate that HBECs have the capability to act as antigen presenting cells and the expression of HLA-DR and costimulatory molecules can be modulated by intrapulmonary regulatory peptides.
Sheng li xue bao: [Acta physiologica Sinica] 01/2009; 60(6):723-9.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate abnormalities of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) expression in chronic inflammatory airway diseases and its regulation mechanisms, the present study was designed to observe the expression of CFTR, CFTR chloride current and the possible relevant signal pathways in in vitro and in vivo bronchial epithelium by using real-time PCR, immunofluorescence, Western blot and whole cell patch-clamp. The results demonstrated that CFTR staining was decreased in rat airway epithelium under ozone stress. Ozone stress also down-regulated CFTR protein and mRNA expression and CFTR chloride current in cultured human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC). STAT1 signal pathway was checked to investigate the signal mechanism. It was found that pretreatment with STAT1 inhibitor attenuated the down-regulated CFTR expression induced by ozone stress. We also observed that ozone stress accelerated the phosphorylation of STAT1 in HBEC, which could be influenced by some signaling molecules related to the early transduction of cellular stress. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species inhibitors N-acetylcysteine and nitric oxide synthase inhibitor aminoguanidine increased the expression of CFTR. Ozone stress could down-regulate the expression of CFTR and decrease CFTR chloride current in HBEC. The signal mechanism which referred to cascade events in cells included early oxidative stress signal transmission molecules, and subsequently transcription modulator STAT1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-density lipoprotein (HDL), an abundant plasma lipoprotein, has been thought to be anti-inflammatory in both health and infectious diseases. It binds lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and neutralizes its bioactivity. The present study aimed to investigate the potential role of HDL, which was separated from human plasma, in LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice. Kunming mice (18-22 g) were treated with either HDL (70 mg/kg body weight, via tail vein) or saline 30 min after LPS administration (10 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) and were decapitated 6 h after LPS challenge. The arterial blood was collected and analyzed for blood gas variables (PaO(2), pH, and PaCO(2)). The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples were analyzed for total protein concentrateion, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, and white blood cell (WBC) count. The lung samples were taken for histopathological evaluation and for determination of lung wet-to-dry weight ratio (W/D), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) content. Arterial blood gas analysis showed that after LPS challenge, HDL-treated mice exhibited a higher PaO(2), and pH, but a lower PaCO(2) than HDL-untreated ones (P<0.01). LPS-induced increases in total protein concentration, WBC number and LDH activity in BALF were significantly attenuated in HDL-treated mice (P<0.01). HDL treatment also resulted in a significant protection of lung tissues against LPS-induced acute lung injury via decreasing W/D ratio, MPO activity, MDA content, and the content of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α (P<0.05, P<0.01). Histological examination revealed that HDL treatment resulted in significantly lower scores of acute lung injury induced by LPS, with reduced hemorrhage, intra-alveolar edema and neutrophilic infiltration (P<0.01). It is suggested that HDL plays a protective role in attenuating LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice.
Sheng li xue bao: [Acta physiologica Sinica] 07/2008; 60(3):403-8.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adhesion molecules play vital roles in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) or airway inflammation. Our previous study indicated that adhesion molecule catenin alpha-like 1 (CTNNAL1) is relevant closely to asthma susceptibility, but its biological function or significance is still unclear. In the present study, we observed the temporal and spatial distribution of CTNNAL1 expression in mouse lung tissue with the OVA-sensitized asthma model and found that the level of CTNNAL1 mRNA showed a prominent negative correlation with pulmonary resistance (R(L)). To study the function of CTNNAL1 in airway, effects of CTNNAL1 on proliferation and wound repair activity of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) was investigated with antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) technique. The results showed that: (1) CTNNAL1 ASO could decelerate the repairing velocity and proliferation of HBEC; (2) CTNNAL1 expression was increased on the edge cells of mechanic wounded area in culture; (3) extracellular matrix component fibronectin (Fn) obviously promoted wound repair activity and proliferation of HBEC, which could be blocked by CTNNAL1 ASO; (4) Western blot showed that Fn could promote FAK phosphorylation, which also be inhibited by CTNNAL1 ASO. In conclusion, the level of CTNNAL1 mRNA expression is highly correlated to airway resistance; CTNNAL1 may contribute to the wound repair and proliferation of HBEC. Furthermore, it may serve to Fn mediated cell-extracellular adhesion and its signal transduction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection causes bronchiolitis in infants and children, which is an important risk factor for the development of chronic asthma. To probe the underlying mechanisms that RSV infection increases the susceptibility of asthma, this present study was designed to establish a RSV persistent infection animal model by cyclophosphamide (CYP) pretreatment that more closely mimic human RSV infection. CYP is an immunosuppressant, which induced deficiency in cellular and humoral immunity. Pulmonary RSV titers, airway function and peptidergic innervation were measured on 7d, 28 d, 42 d and 60 d postinfection. The results showed that during RSV persistent infection, the lungs of RSV-inoculated animals pretreated with CYP showed higher RSV titers and exhibited obvious chronic inflammation. The results also showed that protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5), substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-immunoreactive fibers increased and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-immunoreactive fibers decreased during RSV persistent infection. These results demonstrate that RSV persistent infection induces significant alterations in the peptidergic innervation in the airways, which may be associated with the development of altered airway function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in human bronchial epithelial cells treated with calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP).
RT-PCR and gelatin zymography were performed to examine the dynamic expression and activity of MMP-9 in human bronchial epithelial cells at different doses (10(-10), 10(-9), 10(-8), 10(-7), and 10(-6)mol/L) and different time points (6,12,18,24,36, and 48h) after the stimulation of CGRP.
The unstimulated human bronchial epithelial cells only secreted a small amount of MMP-9. After the CGRP stimulation, the expression of MMP-9 presented in a concentration-dependent (10(-10), 10(-9), 10(-8), 10(-7), and 10(-6) mol/L) and time-dependent (6,12,18,24,36, and 48 h) manners (P<0.01) in human bronchial epithelial cells. The effect of CGRP could be diminished by H-7 and W-7, an antagonist of protein kinase C (PKC) and calmodulin (CaM) (P<0.05).
CGRP can stimulate the secretion and expression of MMP-9 in human bronchial epithelial cells, and the signal transduction is partly via the PKC and CaM pathway.
Zhong nan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Central South University. Medical sciences 10/2007; 32(5):771-5.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously, we found that bombesin receptor subtype 3 (BRS-3) significantly increased in an ozone-stressed airway hyperresponsiveness animal model and resulted in induced wound repair and protection from acute lung injury. In the present study, we determined molecular mechanisms of BRS-3 regulation in human BECs (bronchial epithelial cells) in response to ozone stress. Ten oligonucleotide probes corresponding to various regions of the BRS-3 promoter were used in EMSA (electrophoretic mobilityshift assays). Four were found to have an enhanced mobility shift with extracts from ozone-stressed cells. On the basis of the assay of mutated probes binding with extracts and antibody supershift, they were verified as MTF-1 (metal-regulatory-element-binding transcription factor-1), PPARalpha (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor alpha), AP-2alpha (activator protein 2alpha) and HSF-1 (heat-shock factor 1). Next, ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation) assay, site-directed mutagenesis technology and antisense oligonucleotide technology were used to observe these transcription factors associated with the BRS-3 promoter. Only AP-2alpha and PPARalpha increased ozone-inducible DNA binding on the BRS-3 promoter and BRS-3 expression. The time courses of AP-2alpha and PPARalpha activation, followed by BRS-3 expression, were also examined. It was shown that ozone-inducible BRS-3 expression and AP-2alpha- and PPARalpha-binding activity correlated over a 48 h period. The translocation of PPARalpha was observed by immunofluorescence assay, which showed that PPARalpha nuclear translocation increased after ozone exposure. Our data suggest that AP-2alpha and PPARalpha may be especially involved in this ozone-inducible up-regulation mechanism of BRS-3 expression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) promoted synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in alveolar type II (ATII) cells. But the intracellular mechanism for this effect was unknown. In this work, we investigated the intracellular signal transduction pathway for VIP promoted synthesis of PC, the major lipid component of pulmonary surfactant (PS), by using an antagonist of VIP receptors, inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC) and antisense oligonucleotides (AS-ODN) for c-fos oncogene. Our results showed that: 1 in circle [D-P-Cl-Phe(6)-Leu(17)]-VIP (10(-6) mol/l), an antagonist of VIP receptors, could decrease the quantity of [(3)H] choline incorporation, microsomal choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase (CCT) mRNA expression and CCT activity induced by VIP (10(-8) mol/l) in cultured lung explants to the control levels; 2 in circle VIP (10(-8) mol/l) upregulated c-Fos protein expression in ATII cells. AS-ODN for c-fos oncogene (9x10(-6) mol/l) could block the elevation of [(3)H] choline incorporation, microsomal CCT mRNA expression and CCT activity induced by VIP in cultured lung explants and in ATII cells; 3 in circle H7 (10(-5) mol/l), a PKC inhibitor could also reduce VIP induced [(3)H] choline incorporation, microsomal CCT mRNA expression and CCT activity in cultured lung explants and in ATII cells. These results demonstrated that VIP receptors, PKC and c-Fos protein played important roles in the signaling pathway through which VIP promoted the synthesis of PC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the effects of calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) on LPS-induced MMP-9 secretion by alveolar macrophages (AM) in vitro.
The supernatant of LPS-induced Wistar rat AM from different intervention groups were collected to measure the activity by gelatin zymography.
(Only secreting a small amount of MMP-9 with unstimulated AM, LPS stimulated MMP-9 production in a concentration-dependent manner (p < 0.01). (2) The activity of MMP-9 in CGRP intervention groups at different levels were significantly lower than those in non-intervention group (p < 0.01). (3) The inhibiting effects of CGRP were diminished by H-7 and W-7, an antagonist of protein kinase C (PKC) and calmodulin (CaM) (p < 0.05).
These data suggested that CGRP involved in the MMP-9 secretion by AM, partly, via PKC and CaM pathway.
Zhongguo ying yong sheng li xue za zhi = Zhongguo yingyong shenglixue zazhi = Chinese journal of applied physiology 05/2007; 23(2):211-5.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the possible protective effect of ginsenoside Rg1, an active component of ginseng, on lung injury caused by glutamate in vivo.
The lungs of mice receiving glutamate (0.5 g/kg) and/or ginsenoside Rg1 (0.03 g/kg) via intraperitoneal administration were collected. The indexes of lung wet weight/ body weight ratios (LW/BW), lung wet/dry weight ratios (W/D), heart rate (HR), and breathing rate (BR) were determined. The activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), xanthine oxidase (XOD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), the content of NO, and malondialdehyde in the lung homogenate were measured.
Treatment with glutamate for 2 h increased LW/BW, W/D, HR, and BR. These changes were nearly abolished by pretreatment with ginsenoside Rg1 for 30 min before glutamate injection. An analysis of the lung homogenate demonstrated the protective effect as evidenced by the inhibition of NOS (12%) and XOD (50%) inactivity, the enhanced activity of SOD (20%) and CAT (25%).
Ginsenoside Rg1 has a potential protective role in lung diseases associated with glutamate toxicity.