Judith L Campbell

California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, United States

Are you Judith L Campbell?

Claim your profile

Publications (57)345.29 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pyrrole-imidazole polyamides targeted to the androgen response element were cytotoxic in multiple cell lines, independent of intact androgen receptor signaling. Polyamide treatment induced accumulation of S-phase cells and of PCNA replication/repair foci. Activation of a cell cycle checkpoint response was evidenced by autophosphorylation of ATR, the S-phase checkpoint kinase, and by recruitment of ATR and the ATR activators RPA, 9-1-1, and Rad17 to chromatin. Surprisingly, ATR activation was accompanied by only a slight increase in single-stranded DNA, and the ATR targets RPA2 and Chk1, a cell cycle checkpoint kinase, were not phosphorylated. However, ATR activation resulted in phosphorylation of the replicative helicase subunit MCM2, an ATR effector. Polyamide treatment also induced accumulation of monoubiquitinated FANCD2, which is recruited to stalled replication forks and interacts transiently with phospho-MCM2. This suggests that polyamides induce replication stress that ATR can counteract independently of Chk1 and that the FA/BRCA pathway may also be involved in the response to polyamides. In biochemical assays, polyamides inhibit DNA helicases, providing a plausible mechanism for S-phase inhibition.
    Nucleic Acids Research 09/2014; · 8.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) at DNA ends is an important regulator of the DNA damage response. Resection, the generation of ssDNA, affects DNA damage checkpoint activation, DNA repair pathway choice, ssDNA-associated mutation and replication fork stability. In eukaryotes, extensive DNA resection requires the nuclease Exo1 and nuclease/helicase pair: Dna2 and Sgs1(BLM). How Exo1 and Dna2-Sgs1(BLM) coordinate during resection remains poorly understood. The DNA damage checkpoint clamp (the 9-1-1 complex) has been reported to play an important role in stimulating resection but the exact mechanism remains unclear. Here we show that the human 9-1-1 complex enhances the cleavage of DNA by both DNA2 and EXO1 in vitro, showing that the resection-stimulatory role of the 9-1-1 complex is direct. We also show that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the 9-1-1 complex promotes both Dna2-Sgs1 and Exo1-dependent resection in response to uncapped telomeres. Our results suggest that the 9-1-1 complex facilitates resection by recruiting both Dna2-Sgs1 and Exo1 to sites of resection. This activity of the 9-1-1 complex in supporting resection is strongly inhibited by the checkpoint adaptor Rad9(53BP1). Our results provide important mechanistic insights into how DNA resection is regulated by checkpoint proteins and have implications for genome stability in eukaryotes.
    Nucleic Acids Research 08/2014; · 8.81 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: FANCD2 is required for the repair of DNA damage by the FA (Fanconi anemia) pathway, and, consequently, FANCD2-deficient cells are sensitive to compounds such as cisplatin and formaldehyde that induce DNA:DNA and DNA:protein crosslinks, respectively. The DNA2 helicase/nuclease is required for RNA/DNA flap removal from Okazaki fragments during DNA replication and for the resection of DSBs (double-strand breaks) during HDR (homology-directed repair) of replication stress-induced damage. A knockdown of DNA2 renders normal cells as sensitive to cisplatin (in the absence of EXO1) and to formaldehyde (even in the presence of EXO1) as FANCD2(-/-) cells. Surprisingly, however, the depletion of DNA2 in FANCD2-deficient cells rescues the sensitivity of FANCD2(-/-) cells to cisplatin and formaldehyde. We previously showed that the resection activity of DNA2 acts downstream of FANCD2 to insure HDR of the DSBs arising when replication forks encounter ICL (interstrand crosslink) damage. The suppression of FANCD2(-/-) by DNA2 knockdowns suggests that DNA2 and FANCD2 also have antagonistic roles: in the absence of FANCD2, DNA2 somehow corrupts repair. To demonstrate that DNA2 is deleterious to crosslink repair, we used psoralen-induced ICL damage to trigger the repair of a site-specific crosslink in a GFP reporter and observed that "over-resection" can account for reduced repair. Our work demonstrates that excessive resection can lead to genome instability and shows that strict regulatory processes have evolved to inhibit resection nucleases. The suppression of FANCD2(-/-) phenotypes by DNA2 depletion may have implications for FA therapies and for the use of ICL-inducing agents in chemotherapy.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 03/2014; 13(10). · 5.24 Impact Factor
  • Martin E Budd, Judith L Campbell
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Post-replicational telomere end processing involves both extension by telomerase and resection to produce 3'-GT overhangs that extend beyond the complementary 5'-CA rich strand. Resection must be carefully controlled to maintain telomere length. At short, de novo telomeres generated artificially by HO endonuclease in G2 phase, we show that dna2 defective strains are impaired in both telomere elongation and sequential 5'-CA resection. At native telomeres in dna2 mutants, GT overhangs do clearly elongate during late S phase, but are shorter than in wild-type, suggesting a role for Dna2 in 5'-CA resection but also indicating significant redundancy with other nucleases. Surprisingly, elimination of Mre11 nuclease or Exo1, which are complementary to Dna2 in resection of internal DSBs (double-strand breaks), does not lead to further shortening of GT overhangs in dna2 mutants. A second step in end processing involves filling in of the C-strand to maintain appropriate telomere length. We show that Dna2 is required for normal, telomeric C-strand fill in. Yeast dna2 mutants, like mutants in DNA ligase 1 (cdc9), accumulate low molecular weight, nascent lagging strand DNA replication intermediates at telomeres. Based on this and other results, we propose that FEN1 is not sufficient and that either Dna2 or Exo1 is required to supplement FEN1 in maturing lagging strands at telomeres. Telomeres may be among the subset of genomic locations where Dna2 helicase/nuclease is essential for the two-nuclease pathway of primer processing on lagging strands.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: During DNA replication, stalled replication forks and DSBs arise when the replication fork encounters ICLs (interstrand crosslinks), covalent protein/DNA intermediates or other discontinuities in the template. Recently, homologous recombination proteins have been shown to function in replication-coupled repair of ICLs in conjunction with the Fanconi anemia (FA) regulatory factors FANCD2-FANCI, and, conversely, the FA gene products have been shown to play roles in stalled replication fork rescue even in the absence of ICLs, suggesting a broader role for the FA network than previously appreciated. Here we show that DNA2 helicase/nuclease participates in resection during replication-coupled repair of ICLs and other replication fork stresses. DNA2 knockdowns are deficient in HDR (homology-directed repair) and the S phase checkpoint and exhibit genome instability and sensitivity to agents that cause replication stress. DNA2 is partially redundant with EXO1 in these roles. DNA2 interacts with FANCD2, and cisplatin induces FANCD2 ubiquitylation even in the absence of DNA2. DNA2 and EXO1 deficiency leads to ICL sensitivity but does not increase ICL sensitivity in the absence of FANCD2. This is the first demonstration of the redundancy of human resection nucleases in the HDR step in replication-coupled repair, and suggests that DNA2 may represent a new mediator of the interplay between HDR and the FA/BRCA pathway.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 09/2012; 11(21). · 5.24 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Subhash Pokharel, Judith L Campbell
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dna2 nuclease/helicase is a multitasking protein involved in DNA replication and recombinational repair, and it is important for preservation of genomic stability. Yeast Dna2 protein contains a conserved putative Fe-S (iron-sulfur) cluster signature motif spanning the nuclease active site. We show that this motif is indeed an Fe-S cluster domain. Mutation of cysteines involved in metal coordination greatly reduces not just the nuclease activity but also the ATPase activity of Dna2, suggesting that the nuclease and helicase activities are coupled. The affinity for DNA is not significantly reduced, but binding mode in the C to A mutants is altered. Remarkably, a point mutation (P504S), proximal to the Fe-S cluster domain, which renders cells temperature sensitive, closely mimics the global defects of the Fe-S cluster mutation itself. This points to an important role of this conserved proline residue in stabilizing the Fe-S cluster. The C to A mutants are deficient in DNA replication and repair in vivo, and, strikingly, the degree to which they are defective correlates directly with degree of loss of enzymatic activity. Taken together with previous results showing that mutations in the ATP domain affect nuclease function, our results provide a new mechanistic paradigm for coupling between nuclease and helicase modules fused in the same polypeptide.
    Nucleic Acids Research 06/2012; 40(16):7821-30. · 8.81 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dna2 is an essential helicase/nuclease that is postulated to cleave long DNA flaps that escape FEN1 activity during Okazaki fragment (OF) maturation in yeast. We previously demonstrated that the human Dna2 orthologue (hDna2) localizes to the nucleus and contributes to genomic stability. Here we investigated the role hDna2 plays in DNA replication. We show that Dna2 associates with the replisome protein And-1 in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Depletion of hDna2 resulted in S/G(2) phase-specific DNA damage as evidenced by increased γ-H2AX, replication protein A foci, and Chk1 kinase phosphorylation, a readout for activation of the ATR-mediated S phase checkpoint. In addition, we observed reduced origin firing in hDna2-depleted cells consistent with Chk1 activation. We next examined the impact of hDna2 on OF maturation and replication fork progression in human cells. As expected, FEN1 depletion led to a significant reduction in OF maturation. Strikingly, the reduction in OF maturation had no impact on replication fork progression, indicating that fork movement is not tightly coupled to lagging strand maturation. Analysis of hDna2-depleted cells failed to reveal a defect in OF maturation or replication fork progression. Prior work in yeast demonstrated that ectopic expression of FEN1 rescues Dna2 defects. In contrast, we found that FEN1 expression in hDna2-depleted cells failed to rescue genomic instability. These findings suggest that the genomic instability observed in hDna2-depleted cells does not arise from defective OF maturation and that hDna2 plays a role in DNA replication that is distinct from FEN1 and OF maturation.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2012; 287(26):21980-91. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In eukaryotic Okazaki fragment processing, the RNA primer is displaced into a single-stranded flap prior to removal. Evidence suggests that some flaps become long before they are cleaved, and that this cleavage involves the sequential action of two nucleases. Strand displacement characteristics of the polymerase show that a short gap precedes the flap during synthesis. Using biochemical techniques, binding and cleavage assays presented here indicate that when the flap is ∼ 30 nt long the nuclease Dna2 can bind with high affinity to the flap and downstream double strand and begin cleavage. When the polymerase idles or dissociates the Dna2 can reorient for additional contacts with the upstream primer region, allowing the nuclease to remain stably bound as the flap is further shortened. The DNA can then equilibrate to a double flap that can bind Dna2 and flap endonuclease (FEN1) simultaneously. When Dna2 shortens the flap even more, FEN1 can displace the Dna2 and cleave at the flap base to make a nick for ligation.
    Nucleic Acids Research 05/2012; 40(14):6774-86. · 8.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Two processes, DNA replication and DNA damage repair, are key to maintaining genomic fidelity. The Dna2 enzyme lies at the heart of both of these processes, acting in conjunction with flap endonuclease 1 and replication protein A in DNA lagging strand replication and with BLM/Sgs1 and MRN/X in double strand break repair. In vitro, Dna2 helicase and flap endo/exonuclease activities require an unblocked 5′ single-stranded DNA end to unwind or cleave DNA. In this study we characterize a Dna2 nuclease activity that does not require, and in fact can create, 5′ single-stranded DNA ends. Both endonuclease and flap endo/exonuclease are abolished by the Dna2-K677R mutation, implicating the same active site in catalysis. In addition, we define a novel ATP-dependent flap endo/exonuclease activity, which is observed only in the presence of Mn2+. The endonuclease is blocked by ATP and is thus experimentally distinguishable from the flap endo/exonuclease function. Thus, Dna2 activities resemble those of RecB and AddAB nucleases even more closely than previously appreciated. This work has important implications for understanding the mechanism of action of Dna2 in multiprotein complexes, where dissection of enzymatic activities and cofactor requirements of individual components contributing to orderly and precise execution of multistep replication/repair processes depends on detailed characterization of each individual activity.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2011; 286(27):23763-23770. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dna2 is a dual polarity exo/endonuclease, and 5' to 3' DNA helicase involved in Okazaki Fragment Processing (OFP) and Double-Strand Break (DSB) Repair. In yeast, DNA2 is an essential gene, as expected for a DNA replication protein. Suppression of the lethality of dna2Δ mutants has been found to occur by two mechanisms: overexpression of RAD27 (scFEN1) , encoding a 5' to 3' exo/endo nuclease that processes Okazaki fragments (OFs) for ligation, or deletion of PIF1, a 5' to 3' helicase involved in mitochondrial recombination, telomerase inhibition and OFP. Mapping of a novel, spontaneously arising suppressor of dna2Δ now reveals that mutation of rad9 and double mutation of rad9 mrc1 can also suppress the lethality of dna2Δ mutants. Interaction of dna2Δ and DNA damage checkpoint mutations provides insight as to why dna2Δ is lethal but rad27Δ is not, even though evidence shows that Rad27 (ScFEN1) processes most of the Okazaki fragments, while Dna2 processes only a subset.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 05/2011; 10(10):1690-8. · 5.24 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Two processes, DNA replication and DNA damage repair, are key to maintaining genomic fidelity. The Dna2 enzyme lies at the heart of both of these processes, acting in conjunction with flap endonuclease 1 and replication protein A in DNA lagging strand replication and with BLM/Sgs1 and MRN/X in double strand break repair. In vitro, Dna2 helicase and flap endo/exonuclease activities require an unblocked 5' single-stranded DNA end to unwind or cleave DNA. In this study we characterize a Dna2 nuclease activity that does not require, and in fact can create, 5' single-stranded DNA ends. Both endonuclease and flap endo/exonuclease are abolished by the Dna2-K677R mutation, implicating the same active site in catalysis. In addition, we define a novel ATP-dependent flap endo/exonuclease activity, which is observed only in the presence of Mn(2+). The endonuclease is blocked by ATP and is thus experimentally distinguishable from the flap endo/exonuclease function. Thus, Dna2 activities resemble those of RecB and AddAB nucleases even more closely than previously appreciated. This work has important implications for understanding the mechanism of action of Dna2 in multiprotein complexes, where dissection of enzymatic activities and cofactor requirements of individual components contributing to orderly and precise execution of multistep replication/repair processes depends on detailed characterization of each individual activity.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2011; 286(27):23763-70. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Repair of dsDNA breaks requires processing to produce 3'-terminated ssDNA. We biochemically reconstituted DNA end resection using purified human proteins: Bloom helicase (BLM); DNA2 helicase/nuclease; Exonuclease 1 (EXO1); the complex comprising MRE11, RAD50, and NBS1 (MRN); and Replication protein A (RPA). Resection occurs via two routes. In one, BLM and DNA2 physically and specifically interact to resect DNA in a process that is ATP-dependent and requires BLM helicase and DNA2 nuclease functions. RPA is essential for both DNA unwinding by BLM and enforcing 5' → 3' resection polarity by DNA2. MRN accelerates processing by recruiting BLM to the end. In the other, EXO1 resects the DNA and is stimulated by BLM, MRN, and RPA. BLM increases the affinity of EXO1 for ends, and MRN recruits and enhances the processivity of EXO1. Our results establish two of the core machineries that initiate recombinational DNA repair in human cells.
    Genes & development 02/2011; 25(4):350-62. · 12.08 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Two pathways have been proposed for eukaryotic Okazaki fragment RNA primer removal. Results presented here provide evidence for an alternative pathway. Primer extension by DNA polymerase δ (pol δ) displaces the downstream fragment into an RNA-initiated flap. Most flaps are cleaved by flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) while short, and the remaining nicks joined in the first pathway. A small fraction escapes immediate FEN1 cleavage and is further lengthened by Pif1 helicase. Long flaps are bound by replication protein A (RPA), which inhibits FEN1. In the second pathway, Dna2 nuclease cleaves an RPA-bound flap and displaces RPA, leaving a short flap for FEN1. Pif1 flap lengthening creates a requirement for Dna2. This relationship should not have evolved unless Pif1 had an important role in fragment processing. In this study, biochemical reconstitution experiments were used to gain insight into this role. Pif1 did not promote synthesis through GC-rich sequences, which impede strand displacement. Pif1 was also unable to open fold-back flaps that are immune to cleavage by either FEN1 or Dna2 and cannot be bound by RPA. However, Pif1 working with pol δ readily unwound a full-length Okazaki fragment initiated by a fold-back flap. Additionally, a fold-back in the template slowed pol δ synthesis, so that the fragment could be removed before ligation to the lagging strand. These results suggest an alternative pathway in which Pif1 removes Okazaki fragments initiated by fold-back flaps in vivo.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2010; 285(53):41712-41723. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dna2 endonuclease/helicase participates in eukaryotic DNA transactions including cleavage of long flaps generated during Okazaki fragment processing. Its unusual substrate interaction consists of recognition and binding of the flap base, then threading over the 5'-end of the flap, and cleaving periodically to produce a terminal product ∼5 nt in length. Blocking the 5'-end prevents cleavage. The Dna2 ATP-driven 5' to 3' DNA helicase function promotes motion of Dna2 on the flap, presumably aiding its nuclease function. Here we demonstrate using two different nuclease-dead Dna2 mutants that on substrates simulating Okazaki fragments, Dna2 must thread onto an unblocked 5' flap to display helicase activity. This requirement is maintained on substrates with single-stranded regions thousands of nucleotides in length. To our knowledge this is the first description of a eukaryotic helicase that cannot load onto its tracking strand internally but instead must enter from the end. Biologically, the loading requirement likely helps the helicase to coordinate with the Dna2 nuclease function to prevent creation of undesirably long flaps during DNA transactions.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2010; 285(50):38861-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Two pathways have been proposed for eukaryotic Okazaki fragment RNA primer removal. Results presented here provide evidence for an alternative pathway. Primer extension by DNA polymerase δ (pol δ) displaces the downstream fragment into an RNA-initiated flap. Most flaps are cleaved by flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) while short, and the remaining nicks joined in the first pathway. A small fraction escapes immediate FEN1 cleavage and is further lengthened by Pif1 helicase. Long flaps are bound by replication protein A (RPA), which inhibits FEN1. In the second pathway, Dna2 nuclease cleaves an RPA-bound flap and displaces RPA, leaving a short flap for FEN1. Pif1 flap lengthening creates a requirement for Dna2. This relationship should not have evolved unless Pif1 had an important role in fragment processing. In this study, biochemical reconstitution experiments were used to gain insight into this role. Pif1 did not promote synthesis through GC-rich sequences, which impede strand displacement. Pif1 was also unable to open fold-back flaps that are immune to cleavage by either FEN1 or Dna2 and cannot be bound by RPA. However, Pif1 working with pol δ readily unwound a full-length Okazaki fragment initiated by a fold-back flap. Additionally, a fold-back in the template slowed pol δ synthesis, so that the fragment could be removed before ligation to the lagging strand. These results suggest an alternative pathway in which Pif1 removes Okazaki fragments initiated by fold-back flaps in vivo.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2010; 285(53):41712-23. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Judith L Campbell
    Nature Chemical Biology 10/2010; 6(10):701-2. · 12.95 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Reconstitution of eukaryotic Okazaki fragment processing implicates both one- and two-nuclease pathways for processing flap intermediates. In most cases, FEN1 (flap endonuclease 1) is able to efficiently cleave short flaps as they form. However, flaps escaping cleavage bind replication protein A (RPA) inhibiting FEN1. The flaps must then be cleaved by Dna2 nuclease/helicase before FEN1 can act. Pif1 helicase aids creation of long flaps. The pathways were considered connected only in that the products of Dna2 cleavage are substrates for FEN1. However, results presented here show that Dna2, Pif1, and RPA, the unique proteins of the two-nuclease pathway from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, all stimulate FEN1 acting in the one-nuclease pathway. Stimulation is observed on RNA flaps representing the initial displacement and on short DNA flaps, subsequently displaced. Neither the RNA nor the short DNA flaps can bind the two-nuclease pathway proteins. Instead, direct interactions between FEN1 and the two-nuclease pathway proteins have been detected. These results suggest that the proteins are either part of a complex or interact successively with FEN1 because the level of stimulation would be similar either way. Proteins bound to FEN1 could be tethered to the flap base by the interaction of FEN1 with PCNA, potentially improving their availability when flaps become long. These findings also support a model in which cleavage by FEN1 alone is the preferred pathway, with the first opportunity to complete cleavage, and is stimulated by components of the backup pathway.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2010; 285(37):28496-505. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination requires processing of broken ends. For repair to start, the DSB must first be resected to generate a 3'-single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) overhang, which becomes a substrate for the DNA strand exchange protein, Rad51 (ref. 1). Genetic studies have implicated a multitude of proteins in the process, including helicases, nucleases and topoisomerases. Here we biochemically reconstitute elements of the resection process and reveal that it requires the nuclease Dna2, the RecQ-family helicase Sgs1 and the ssDNA-binding protein replication protein-A (RPA). We establish that Dna2, Sgs1 and RPA constitute a minimal protein complex capable of DNA resection in vitro. Sgs1 helicase unwinds the DNA to produce an intermediate that is digested by Dna2, and RPA stimulates DNA unwinding by Sgs1 in a species-specific manner. Interestingly, RPA is also required both to direct Dna2 nucleolytic activity to the 5'-terminated strand of the DNA break and to inhibit 3' to 5' degradation by Dna2, actions that generate and protect the 3'-ssDNA overhang, respectively. In addition to this core machinery, we establish that both the topoisomerase 3 (Top3) and Rmi1 complex and the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex (MRX) have important roles as stimulatory components. Stimulation of end resection by the Top3-Rmi1 heterodimer and the MRX proteins is by complex formation with Sgs1 (refs 5, 6), which unexpectedly stimulates DNA unwinding. We suggest that Top3-Rmi1 and MRX are important for recruitment of the Sgs1-Dna2 complex to DSBs. Our experiments provide a mechanistic framework for understanding the initial steps of recombinational DNA repair in eukaryotes.
    Nature 09/2010; 467(7311):112-6. · 38.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have used the Xenopus laevis egg extract system to study the roles of vertebrate Dna2 in DNA replication and double-strand-break (DSB) repair. We first establish that Xenopus Dna2 is a helicase, as well as a nuclease. We further show that Dna2 is a nuclear protein that is actively recruited to DNA only after replication origin licensing. Dna2 co-localizes in foci with RPA and is found in a complex with replication fork components And-1 and Mcm10. Dna2 interacts with the DSB repair and checkpoint proteins Nbs1 and ATM. We also determine the order of arrival of ATM, MRN, Dna2, TopBP1, and RPA to duplex DNA ends and show that it is the same both in S phase and M phase extracts. Interestingly, Dna2 can bind to DNA ends independently of MRN, but efficient nucleolytic resection, as measured by RPA recruitment, requires both MRN and Dna2. The nuclease activity of Mre11 is required, since its inhibition delays both full Dna2 recruitment and resection. Dna2 depletion inhibits but does not block resection, and Chk1 and Chk2 induction occurs in the absence of Dna2.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 03/2010; 9(6):1156-66. · 5.24 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) and Dna2 endonuclease/helicase (Dna2) sequentially coordinate their nuclease activities for efficient resolution of flap structures that are created during the maturation of Okazaki fragments and repair of DNA damage. Acetylation of FEN1 by p300 inhibits its endonuclease activity, impairing flap cleavage, a seemingly undesirable effect. We now show that p300 also acetylates Dna2, stimulating its 5'-3' endonuclease, the 5'-3' helicase, and DNA-dependent ATPase activities. Furthermore, acetylated Dna2 binds its DNA substrates with higher affinity. Differential regulation of the activities of the two endonucleases by p300 indicates a mechanism in which the acetylase promotes formation of longer flaps in the cell at the same time as ensuring correct processing. Intentional formation of longer flaps mediated by p300 in an active chromatin environment would increase the resynthesis patch size, providing increased opportunity for incorrect nucleotide removal during DNA replication and damaged nucleotide removal during DNA repair. For example, altering the ratio between short and long flap Okazaki fragment processing would be a mechanism for better correction of the error-prone synthesis catalyzed by DNA polymerase alpha.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2009; 285(7):4398-404. · 4.65 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
345.29 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000–2014
    • California Institute of Technology
      • • Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
      • • Division of Biology
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 2004–2012
    • University of Rochester
      • Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics
      Rochester, NY, United States
  • 2002
    • Pomona College
      Claremont, California, United States