[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chloroquine combined with primaquine has been the standard radical curative regimen for Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale malaria for over half a century. In an open-label, cross-over pharmacokinetic study, 16 healthy volunteers (4 males and 12 females) aged 20-47 years were randomized into two groups of three sequential hospital admissions to receive a single oral dose of 30 mg (base) primaquine, 600 mg (base) chloroquine and the two drugs together. The co-administration of the two drugs did not affect chloroquine or desethylchloroquine pharmacokinetics but increased plasma primaquine concentrations significantly (P ≤ 0.005); the geometric mean (90%CI) increases were 63% (47-81%) in maximum concentration and 24% (13-35%) in total exposure. There were also corresponding increases in plasma carboxyprimaquine concentrations (P ≤ 0.020). There were no significant electrocardiographic changes following primaquine, but there was slight QTc (Fridericia) interval lengthening following chloroquine administration (median; range = 6.32; -1.45 to 12.3 msec, P < 0.001) which was not affected by the addition of primaquine (5.58; 1.74 to 11.4 msec, P =0.642). This pharmacokinetic interaction may explain previous observations of synergy in preventing P.vivax relapse.This trial was registered at clinical trials.gov reference number: NCT01218932.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 03/2014; · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute kidney injury (AKI) complicating severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria occurs in up to 40% of adult patients. The case fatality rate reaches 75% in the absence of renal replacement therapy (RRT). The precise pathophysiology of AKI in falciparum malaria remains unclear. Histopathology shows acute tubular necrosis with localization of host monocytes and parasitized red blood cells in the microvasculature. This study explored the relationship of plasma soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), as a proxy-measure of mononuclear cell activation, and plasma P. falciparum histidine rich protein 2 (PfHRP2), as a measure of sequestered parasite burden, with AKI in severe malaria.
Admission plasma suPAR and PfHRP2 concentrations were assessed in Bangladeshi adults with severe falciparum malaria (n = 137). Patients were stratified according to AKI severity based on admission creatinine clearance.
A total of 106 (77%) patients had AKI; 32 (23%), 42 (31%) and 32 (23%) were classified into 'mild, 'moderate' and 'severe' AKI groups, respectively. Plasma suPAR and PfHRP2 concentrations increased with AKI severity (test-for-trend P <0.0001) and correlated with other markers of renal dysfunction. Admission plasma suPAR and PfHRP2 concentrations were higher in patients who later required RRT (P <0.0001 and P = 0.0004, respectively). In a multivariate analysis, both increasing suPAR and PfHRP2 were independently associated with increasing urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin concentration, a marker of acute tubular necrosis (beta = 16.54 (95% CI 6.36-26.71) and beta = 0.07 (0.02-0.11), respectively).
Both sequestered parasite burden and immune activation contribute to the pathogenesis of AKI in severe falciparum malaria.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most adults dying from falciparum malaria will die within 48 hours of their hospitalisation. An essential component of early supportive care is the rapid identification of patients at greatest risk. In resource-poor settings, where most patients with falciparum malaria are managed, decisions regarding patient care must frequently be made using clinical evaluation alone.
We retrospectively analysed 4 studies of 1801 adults with severe falciparum malaria to determine whether the presence of simple clinical findings might assist patient triage.
If present on admission, shock, oligo-anuria, hypo- or hyperglycaemia, an increased respiratory rate, a decreased Glasgow Coma Score and an absence of fever were independently predictive of death. The variables were used to construct a simple clinical algorithm. When applied to the 1801 patients, this algorithm's positive predictive value for survival to 48 hours was 99.4 (95% confidence interval (CI) 97.8-99.9) and for survival to discharge 96.9% (95% CI 94.3-98.5). In the 712 patients receiving artesunate, the algorithm's positive predictive value for survival to 48 hours was 100% (95% CI 97.3-100) and to discharge was 98.5% (95% CI 94.8-99.8).
Simple clinical findings are closely linked to the pathophysiology of severe falciparum malaria in adults. A basic algorithm employing these indices can facilitate the triage of patients in settings where intensive care services are limited. Patients classified as low-risk by this algorithm can be safely managed initially on a general ward whilst awaiting senior clinical review and laboratory data.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e87020. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Cytoadherence and sequestration of erythrocytes containing mature stages of P. falciparum are central to the pathogenesis of severe malaria. The oral anthelminthic drug levamisole inhibits cytoadherence in vitro and reduces sequestration of late stage parasites in uncomplicated falciparum malaria treated with quinine.Methods. 56 adult patients with severe malaria and high parasitaemia admitted to a referral hospital in Bangladesh were randomised to receive a single dose of levamisole hydrochloride (150 mg) or no adjuvant to antimalarial treatment with intravenous artesunate.Results. Circulating late stage parasites measured as the median (IQR) area under the parasite clearance curves were 2150 (0-28,025) parasites/µl*h in patients treated with levamisole and 5489 (192-25848) parasites/µl*h in controls (p=0.25). The 'sequestration ratios' at 6 and 12 hours for all parasite stages and changes in microvascular blood flow were not different between treatment groups (all p>0.40). The median (range) time to normalisation of plasma lactate (<2 mmol/L) was 24 (12-30) hours with levamisole versus 28 (12-36) hours without levamisole (p=0.15).Conclusions. There was no benefit of a single dose levamisole hydrochloride as adjuvant to intravenous artesunate in the treatment of adults with severe falciparum malaria. Rapid parasite killing by intravenous artesunate might obscure the effects of levamisole.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 08/2013; · 5.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of liberal fluid resuscitation of adults with severe malaria. DESIGN, SETTING, PATIENTS, AND METHODS:: Twenty-eight Bangladeshi and Indian adults with severe falciparum malaria received crystalloid resuscitation guided by transpulmonary thermodilution (PiCCO) in an intensive care setting. Systemic hemodynamics, microvascular indices and measures of acidosis, renal function, and pulmonary edema were followed prospectively. RESULTS:: All patients were hypovolemic (global end-diastolic volume index < 680 mL/m) on enrollment. Patients received a median (range) 3230 mL (390-7300) of isotonic saline in the first 6 hrs and 5450 mL (710-13,720) in the first 24 hrs. With resuscitation, acid-base status deteriorated in 19 of 28 (68%), and there was no significant improvement in renal function. Extravascular lung water increased in 17 of 22 (77%) liberally resuscitated patients; eight of these patients developed pulmonary edema, five of whom died. All other patients survived. All patients with pulmonary edema during the study were hypovolemic or euvolemic at the time pulmonary edema developed. Plasma lactate was lower in hypovolemic patients before (rs = 0.38; p = 0.05) and after (rs = 0.49; p = 0.01) resuscitation but was the strongest predictor of mortality before (chi-square = 9.9; p = 0.002) and after resuscitation (chi-square = 11.1; p < 0.001) and correlated with the degree of visualized microvascular sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes at both time points (rs = 0.55; p = 0.003 and rs = 0.43; p = 0.03, respectively). Persisting sequestration was evident in 7 of 15 (47%) patients 48 hrs after enrollment. CONCLUSIONS:: Lactic acidosis-the strongest prognostic indicator in adults with severe falciparum malaria-results from sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes in the microcirculation, not from hypovolemia. Liberal fluid resuscitation has little effect on this sequestration and does not improve acid-base status or renal function. Pulmonary edema-secondary to increased pulmonary vascular permeability-is common, unpredictable, and exacerbated by fluid loading. Liberal fluid replacement of adults with severe malaria should be avoided.
Critical care medicine 01/2013; · 6.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Long-term chemoprophylaxis using neuraminidase inhibitors may be needed during influenza epidemics but safety data are limited to several weeks. We sought to assess the tolerability of oseltamivir and zanamivir as primary prophylaxis over 16 weeks. METHODS: We conducted a parallel group, double blind, 2 (active drug) :1 (placebo) randomized trial of oral oseltamivir/placebo or inhaled zanamivir/placebo over 16 weeks in healthy, Thai hospital professionals at two Bangkok hospitals. The primary endpoint was study withdrawal due to drug-related (possibly, probably, definitely) serious or adverse events (AEs) graded ≥2. RESULTS: Recruited subjects numbered 129 oseltamivir/65 placebo and 131 zanamivir/65 placebo. A total of 102 grade ≥2 AEs were reported or detected in 69 subjects: 23/129 (17.8%) versus 15/65 (23.1%) (P = 0.26), and 23/131 (17.6%) versus 8/65 (12.3%) (P = 0.28). Intercurrent infections/fevers [26/102 (25.5%)], abnormal biochemistry [25/102 (24.5%)] and gastrointestinal symptoms [18/102 (17.6%)] were the most frequently reported AEs. There were no drug-related study withdrawals. Eight serious AEs were all due to intercurrent illnesses. Laboratory, lung function and ECG parameters were similar between drugs and placebos. CONCLUSIONS: Oseltamivir and zanamivir were well tolerated in healthy hospital professionals. Both drugs can be recommended for primary influenza prophylaxis for up to 16 weeks.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 11/2012; · 5.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes in the microcirculation is considered the central pathophysiological process in severe falciparum malaria. Hypovolemia with reduced oxygen delivery and microvascular obstruction have different implications for patient management; however, their relative contributions to disease severity are uncertain.
Adult patients (n = 28) with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria were enrolled in a prospective hemodynamic study. Volume status and oxygen delivery were assessed using transpulmonary thermodilution. Microvascular sequestration was measured using orthogonal polarized spectroscopy.
Duration of therapy before study enrollment was correlated with the amount of directly visualized and quantitated microvascular sequestration (P = .03). The amount of sequestration correlated with plasma lactate (r(s )= 0.55; P = .003) and disease severity (r(s )= 0.41; P = .04). In patients who had received artesunate for <10 hours, sequestration was higher in fatal cases than in survivors: median (range) 45% (32-50) vs 15% (0-40); P = .03). Parasite biomass estimated from plasma P. falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 correlated positively with disease severity (r(s )= 0.48; P = .01) and was significantly higher in patients who died (P = .046). There was no relationship between oxygen delivery and disease severity (P = .64) or outcome (P = .74).
Vital organ dysfunction in severe malaria results primarily from sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes in the microvasculature rather than reduction in circulating blood volume and oxygen delivery.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 06/2012; 206(4):571-9. · 5.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To optimize the fluid status of adult patients with severe malaria, World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend the insertion of a central venous catheter (CVC) and a target central venous pressure (CVP) of 0-5 cmH2O. However there are few data from clinical trials to support this recommendation.
Twenty-eight adult Indian and Bangladeshi patients admitted to the intensive care unit with severe falciparum malaria were enrolled in the study. All patients had a CVC inserted and had regular CVP measurements recorded. The CVP measurements were compared with markers of disease severity, clinical endpoints and volumetric measures derived from transpulmonary thermodilution.
There was no correlation between the admission CVP and patient outcome (p = 0.67) or disease severity (p = 0.33). There was no correlation between the baseline CVP and the concomitant extravascular lung water (p = 0.62), global end diastolic volume (p = 0.88) or cardiac index (p = 0.44). There was no correlation between the baseline CVP and the likelihood of a patient being fluid responsive (p = 0.37). On the occasions when the CVP was in the WHO target range patients were usually hypovolaemic and often had pulmonary oedema by volumetric measures. Seven of 28 patients suffered a complication of the CVC insertion, although none were fatal.
The WHO recommendation for the routine insertion of a CVC, and the maintenance of a CVP of 0-5 cmH2O in adults with severe malaria, should be reconsidered.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute renal failure is a common complication of severe malaria in adults, and without renal replacement therapy (RRT), it carries a poor prognosis. Even when RRT is available, delaying its initiation may increase mortality. Earlier identification of patients who will need RRT may improve outcomes.
Prospectively collected data from two intervention studies in adults with severe malaria were analysed focusing on laboratory features on presentation and their association with a later requirement for RRT. In particular, laboratory indices of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and acute kidney injury (AKI) that are used in other settings were examined.
Data from 163 patients were available for analysis. Whether or not the patients should have received RRT (a retrospective assessment determined by three independent reviewers) was used as the reference. Forty-three (26.4%) patients met criteria for dialysis, but only 19 (44.2%) were able to receive this intervention due to the limited availability of RRT. Patients with impaired renal function on admission (creatinine clearance < 60 ml/min) (n = 84) had their laboratory indices of ATN/AKI analysed. The plasma creatinine level had the greatest area under the ROC curve (AUC): 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.74-0.92), significantly better than the AUCs for, urinary sodium level, the urea to creatinine ratio (UCR), the fractional excretion of urea (FeUN) and the urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalcin (NGAL) level. The AUC for plasma creatinine was also greater than the AUC for blood urea nitrogen level, the fractional excretion of sodium (FeNa), the renal failure index (RFI), the urinary osmolality, the urine to plasma creatinine ratio (UPCR) and the creatinine clearance, although the difference for these variables did not reach statistical significance.
In adult patients with severe malaria and impaired renal function on admission, none of the evaluated laboratory indices was superior to the plasma creatinine level when used to predict a later requirement for renal replacement therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early start of enteral feeding is an established treatment strategy in intubated patients in intensive care since it reduces invasive bacterial infections and length of hospital stay. There is equipoise whether early enteral feeding is also beneficial in non-intubated patients with cerebral malaria in resource poor settings. We hypothesized that the risk of aspiration pneumonia might outweigh the potential benefits of earlier recovery and prevention of hypoglycaemia.
A randomized trial of early (day of admission) versus late (after 60 hours in adults or 36 hours in children) start of enteral feeding was undertaken in patients with cerebral malaria in Chittagong, Bangladesh from May 2008 to August 2009. The primary outcome measures were incidence of aspiration pneumonia, hypoglycaemia and coma recovery time. The trial was terminated after inclusion of 56 patients because of a high incidence of aspiration pneumonia in the early feeding group (9/27 (33%)), compared to the late feeding group (0/29 (0%)), p = 0.001). One patient in the late feeding group, and none in the early group, had hypoglycaemia during admission. There was no significant difference in overall mortality (9/27 (33%) vs 6/29 (21%), p = 0.370), but mortality was 5/9 (56%) in patients with aspiration pneumonia.
In conclusion, early start of enteral feeding is detrimental in non-intubated patients with cerebral malaria in many resource-poor settings. Evidence gathered in resource rich settings is not necessarily transferable to resource-poor settings.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(11):e27273. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: World Health Organization treatment guidelines recommend that adults with severe malaria be admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). However, ICU facilities are limited in the resource-poor settings where most malaria occurs. Identification of patients at greater risk of complications may facilitate their triage and resource allocation.
With use of data from a trial conducted in Southeast Asia (n=868), a logistic regression model was built to identify independent predictors of mortality among adults with severe malaria. A scoring system based on this model was tested in the original dataset and then validated in 2 series from Bangladesh (n=188) and Vietnam (n=292).
Acidosis (base deficit) and cerebral malaria (measured as Glasgow Coma Score) were the main independent predictors of outcome. The 5-point Coma Acidosis Malaria (CAM) score was simply derived from these 2 variables. Mortality increased steadily with increasing score. A CAM score <2 predicted survival with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 95.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 93%- 97.7%). Of the 14 of 331 patients who died with a CAM score <2, 11 (79%) had renal failure and death occurred late after hospital admission (median, 108 h; range, 40-360 h). Substitution of plasma bicarbonate as the measure of acidosis only slightly reduced the prognostic value of the model. Use of respiratory rate was inferior, but a score <2 still predicted survival with a PPV of 92.2% (95% CI, 89.1%-94.7%).
Patients with a CAM score <2 at hospital admission may be safely treated in a general ward, provided that renal function can be monitored.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Markers of oxidative stress are reported to be increased in severe malaria. It has been suggested that the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may be beneficial in treatment. We studied the efficacy and safety of parenteral NAC as an adjunct to artesunate treatment of severe falciparum malaria.
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on the use of high-dose intravenous NAC as adjunctive treatment to artesunate.
A provincial hospital in Western Thailand and a tertiary referral hospital in Chittagong, Bangladesh.
One hundred eight adult patients with severe falciparum malaria.
Patients were randomized to receive NAC or placebo as an adjunctive treatment to intravenous artesunate.
A total of 56 patients were treated with NAC and 52 received placebo. NAC had no significant effect on mortality, lactate clearance times (p = 0.74), or coma recovery times (p = 0.46). Parasite clearance time was increased from 30 hours (range, 6-144 hours) to 36 hours (range, 6-120 hours) (p = 0.03), but this could be explained by differences in admission parasitemia. Urinary F2-isoprostane metabolites, measured as a marker of oxidative stress, were increased in severe malaria compared with patients with uncomplicated malaria and healthy volunteers. Admission red cell rigidity correlated with mortality, but did not improve with NAC.
Systemic oxidative stress is increased in severe malaria. Treatment with NAC had no effect on outcome in patients with severe falciparum malaria in this setting.
Critical care medicine 01/2010; 37(2):516-22. · 6.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Severe falciparum malaria remains a major killer in tropical countries. Central in the pathophysiology is mechanical obstruction in the microcirculation caused by cytoadherence and sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes. However, the pathogenesis of many features complicating severe malaria, including coma, renal failure and thrombocytopenia, remains incompletely understood. These disease manifestations are also key features of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, a life-threatening disease strongly associated with a deficiency of the von Willebrand factor (VWF) cleaving protease, ADAMTS13. We measured plasma ADAMTS13 activity, VWF antigen and VWF propeptide levels in 30 patients with severe falciparum malaria, 12 patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria and 14 healthy Bangladeshi controls. In patients with severe malaria ADAMTS13 activity levels were markedly decreased in comparison to normal controls (mean [95%CI]: 23% [20-26] vs. 64% [55-72]) and VWF antigen and propeptide concentrations were significantly elevated (VWF antigen: 439% [396-481] vs. 64% [46-83]; VWF propeptide: 576% [481-671] vs. 69% [59-78]). In uncomplicated malaria VWF levels were also increased compared to healthy controls but ADAMTS13 activity was normal. The results suggest that decreased ADAMTS13 activity in combination with increased VWF concentrations may contribute to the complications in severe malaria.
Thrombosis and Haemostasis 01/2010; 103(1):181-7. · 6.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A specific retinopathy has been described in African children with cerebral malaria, but in adults this has not been extensively studied. Since the structure and function of the retinal vasculature greatly resembles the cerebral vasculature, study of retinal changes can reveal insights into the pathophysiology of cerebral malaria. A detailed observational study of malarial retinopathy in Bangladeshi adults was performed using high-definition portable retinal photography. Retinopathy was present in 17/27 adults (63%) with severe malaria and 14/20 adults (70%) with cerebral malaria. Moderate or severe retinopathy was more frequent in cerebral malaria (11/20, 55%) than in uncomplicated malaria (3/15, 20%; P=0.039), bacterial sepsis (0/5, 0%; P=0.038) or healthy controls (0/18, 0%; P<0.001). The spectrum of malarial retinopathy was similar to that previously described in African children, but no vessel discolouration was observed. The severity of retinal whitening correlated with admission venous plasma lactate (P=0.046), suggesting that retinal ischaemia represents systemic ischaemia. In conclusion, retinal changes related to microvascular obstruction were common in adults with severe falciparum malaria and correlated with disease severity and coma, suggesting that a compromised microcirculation has important pathophysiological significance in severe and cerebral malaria. Portable retinal photography has potential as a valuable tool to study malarial retinopathy.
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 04/2009; 103(7):665-71. · 1.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several antimalarials can cause significant prolongation of the electrocardiograph QT interval, which can be associated with an increased risk of potentially lethal ventricular arrhythmias. High doses of artemether and artemotil have been associated with QT prolongation in dogs, raising the possibility of a class effect with the artemisinin derivatives. Serial electrocardiograms were recorded, and QTc interval was calculated before and after administration of artesunate by intravenous injection in patients with severe falciparum malaria in Bangladesh. Of 21 adult patients with severe malaria enrolled, 8 (38%) died. The mean QTc interval was unaffected by bolus intravenous artesunate (2.4 mg/kg). In two patients, the QTc interval exceeded 0.5 seconds, but in both cases, an alternative explanation was plausible. No effect was observed on the JTc or PR interval, QRS width, blood pressure, or heart rate. Intravenous artesunate does not have significant cardiovascular effects in patients with severe falciparum malaria.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 02/2009; 80(1):126-32. · 2.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although hyponatremia occurs in most patients with severe malaria, its pathogenesis, prognostic significance, and optimal management have not been established. Clinical and biochemical data were prospectively collected from 171 consecutive Bangladeshi adults with severe malaria. On admission, 57% of patients were hyponatremic. Plasma sodium and Glasgow Coma Score were inversely related (r(s) = -0.36, P < 0.0001). Plasma antidiuretic hormone concentrations were similar in hyponatremic and normonatremic patients (median, range: 6.1, 2.3-85.3 versus 32.7, 3.0-56.4 pmol/L; P = 0.19). Mortality was lower in hyponatremic than normonatremic patients (31.6% versus 51.4%; odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 0.44 [0.23-0.82]; P = 0.01 by univariate analysis). Plasma sodium normalized with crystalloid rehydration from (median, range) 127 (123-140) mmol/L on admission to 136 (128-149) mmol/L at 24 hours (P = 0.01). Hyponatremia in adults with severe malaria is common and associated with preserved consciousness and decreased mortality. It likely reflects continued oral hypotonic fluid intake in the setting of hypovolemia and requires no therapy beyond rehydration.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 01/2009; 80(1):141-5. · 2.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study sought to describe and quantify microcirculatory changes in the mucosal surfaces of patients with severe malaria, by direct in vivo observation using orthogonal polarization spectral (OPS) imaging.
The microcirculation in the rectal mucosa of adult patients with severe malaria was assessed by use of OPS imaging, at admission and then daily. Comparison groups comprised patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria, patients with bacterial sepsis, and healthy individuals.
Erythrocyte velocities were measured directly in 43 adult patients with severe falciparum malaria, of whom 20 died. Microcirculatory blood flow was markedly disturbed, with heterogeneous obstruction that was proportional to severity of disease. Blocked capillaries were found in 29 patients (67%) and were associated with concurrent hyperdynamic blood flow (erythrocyte velocity, >750 mm/s) in adjacent vessels in 27 patients (93%). The proportion of blocked capillaries correlated with the base deficit in plasma and with the concentration of lactate. Abnormalities disappeared when the patients recovered. In healthy individuals and in patients with uncomplicated malaria or sepsis, no stagnant erythrocytes were detected, and, in patients with sepsis, hyperdynamic blood flow was prominent.
Patients with severe falciparum malaria show extensive microvascular obstruction that is proportional to the severity of the disease. This finding underscores the prominent role that microvascular obstruction plays in the pathophysiology of severe malaria and illustrates the fundamental difference between the microvascular pathophysiology of malaria and that of bacterial sepsis.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 01/2008; 197(1):79-84. · 5.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In falciparum malaria, the deformability of the entire erythrocyte population is reduced in proportion to disease severity, and this compromises microcirculatory blood flow through vessels partially obstructed by cytoadherent parasitized erythrocytes. The cause of rigidity of uninfected erythrocytes in not known but could be mediated by malaria heme products. In this study, we show that red blood cell deformability (RBC-D), measured by laser-assisted optical rotational cell analyzer, decreased in a dose-dependent manner after incubation with hemin and hydrogen peroxide but not with hemoglobin or beta-hematin. Hemin also reduced mean red cell volume. Albumin decreased and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) both prevented and reversed rigidity induced by hemin. Hemin-induced oxidative damage of the membrane seems to be a more important contributor to pathology than cell shrinkage because the antioxidant NAC restored RBC-D but not red blood cell volume. The findings suggest novel approaches to the treatment of potentially lethal malaria.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 11/2007; 77(4):617-22. · 2.53 Impact Factor