Mikiko Kojima

Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Sheng, China

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Publications (70)440.8 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Under drought conditions, leaf photosynthesis is limited by the supply of CO2 . Drought induces production of abscisic acid (ABA), and ABA decreases stomatal conductance (gs ). Previous papers reported that the drought stress also causes the decrease in mesophyll conductance (gm ). However, the relationships between ABA content and gm are unclear. We investigated the responses of gm to the leaf ABA content ([ABA]L ) using an ABA deficient mutant, aba1 and the wild type (WT) of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. We also measured leaf water potential (ΨL ) because leaf hydraulics may be related to gm . Under drought conditions, gm decreased with the increase in [ABA]L in WT, whereas both [ABA]L and gm were unchanged by the drought treatment in aba1. Exogenously applied ABA decreased gm in both WT and aba1 in a dose dependent manner. ΨL in WT was decreased by the drought treatment to -0.7 MPa, whereas ΨL in aba1 was around -0.8 MPa even under the well-watered conditions and unchanged by the drought treatment. From these results, we conclude that the increase in [ABA]L is crucial for the decrease in gm under drought conditions. We discuss possible relationships between the decrease in gm and changes in the leaf hydraulics.
    Plant Cell and Environment 07/2014; · 5.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Under flooded conditions, the leaves and internodes of deepwater rice can elongate above the water surface to capture oxygen and prevent drowning. Our previous studies showed that three major quantitative trait loci (QTL) regulate deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. In this study, we investigated the age-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. We also investigated the relationship between deepwater-dependent internode elongation and the phytohormone gibberellin (GA) by physiological and genetic approach using a QTL pyramiding line (NIL-1+3+12). Deepwater rice did not show internode elongation before the sixth leaf stage under deepwater condition. Additionally, deepwater-dependent internode elongation occurred on the sixth and seventh internode during the sixth leaf stage. These results indicate that deepwater rice could not start internode elongation until the sixth leaf stage. LC-qMS/MS analysis showed a deepwater-dependent GA1 and GA4 accumulation in deepwater rice. Additionally, a GA inhibitor abolished deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. On the other hand, GA feeding mimicked internode elongation under ordinary growth conditions. However, mutations in GA biosynthesis and signal transduction genes blocked deepwater-dependent internode elongation. These data suggested that GA biosynthesis and signal transduction are essential for deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice.
    Plant Cell and Environment 05/2014; · 5.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cytokinins are phytohormones that induce cytokinesis and are essential for diverse developmental and physiological processes in plants. Cytokinins of the trans-zeatin type are mainly synthesized in root vasculature and transported to the shoot, where they regulate shoot growth. However, the mechanism of long-distance transport of cytokinin was hitherto unknown. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter subfamily G14 (AtABCG14) is mainly expressed in roots and plays a major role in delivering cytokinins to the shoot. Loss of AtABCG14 expression resulted in severe shoot growth retardation, which was rescued by exogenous trans-zeatin application. Cytokinin content was decreased in the shoots of atabcg14 plants and increased in the roots, with consistent changes in the expression of cytokinin-responsive genes. Grafting of atabcg14 scions onto wild-type rootstocks restored shoot growth, whereas wild-type scions grafted onto atabcg14 rootstocks exhibited shoot growth retardation similar to that of atabcg14. Cytokinin concentrations in the xylem are reduced by ∼90% in the atabcg14 mutant. These results indicate that AtABCG14 is crucial for the translocation of cytokinin to the shoot. Our results provide molecular evidence for the long-distance transport of cytokinin and show that this transport is necessary for normal shoot development.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2014; · 9.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microsporogenesis in rice plants is susceptible to moderate low temperatures (LT, approximately 19°C) that disrupt pollen development and cause severe reductions in grain yields. Although considerable research has been invested in the study of cool-temperature injury, a full understanding of the molecular mechanism has not been achieved. Here, we show that endogenous levels of the bioactive gibberellins GA4 and GA7, and expression levels of the gibberellic acid (GA) biosynthesis genes GA20ox3 and GA3ox1, decrease in the developing anthers by exposure to LT. By contrast, the levels of precursor GA12 were higher in response to LT. In addition, the expression of DREB2B and SLR1/DELLA was upregulated in response to LT. Mutants involved in GA biosynthetic and response pathways were hypersensitive to LT stress, including the semi-dwarf mutants sd1 and d35, the gain-of-function slender rice 1 (slr1-d), and the gibberellin insensitive dwarf 1 (gid1). The reduction in the number of sporogenous cells and the abnormal enlargement of tapetal cells occurred most severely in the GA-insensitive mutant. Application of exogenous GA significantly reversed the male sterility caused by LT, and simultaneous application of exogenous GA with sucrose substantially improved the extent of normal pollen development. Modern rice varieties carrying the semi-dwarf sd1 mutation are widely cultivated, and the sd1 mutation is considered as one of the greatest achievements of the Green Revolution. The protective strategy achieved by our work may help sustain steady yields of rice under global climate change.
    Plant physiology 02/2014; · 6.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Correlations between gene expression and metabolite/phytohormone levels under abiotic stress conditions have been reported for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, little is known about these correlations in rice, despite its importance as a model monocot. We performed an integrated analysis to clarify the relationships among cold- and dehydration-responsive metabolites, phytohormones, and gene transcription in rice. An integrated analysis of metabolites and gene expression indicated that several genes encoding enzymes involved in starch degradation, sucrose metabolism, and the glyoxylate cycle are upregulated in rice plants exposed to cold or dehydration, and that these changes are correlated with the accumulation of glucose, fructose, and sucrose. In particular, high expression levels of genes encoding isocitrate lyase and malate synthase in the glyoxylate cycle correlate with increased glucose levels in rice, but not in Arabidopsis, under dehydration conditions, indicating that the regulation of the glyoxylate cycle may be involved in glucose accumulation under dehydration conditions in rice, but not in Arabidopsis. An integrated analysis of phytohormones and gene transcripts revealed an inverse relationship between abscisic acid (ABA)-signaling and cytokinin-signaling under cold and dehydration stresses; these stresses increase ABA signaling and decrease cytokinin signaling. High levels of OsNCED transcripts correlate with ABA accumulation, and low levels of CYP735A transcripts correlate with decreased levels of a cytokinin precursor in rice. This reduced expression of CYP735As occurs in rice, but not in Arabidopsis. Therefore, transcriptional regulation of CYP735As might be involved in regulating cytokinin levels under cold and dehydration conditions in rice, but not in Arabidopsis.
    Plant physiology 02/2014; · 6.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biomass allocation between shoots and roots is an important strategy used by plants to optimize growth in various environments. Root-to-shoot mass ratios typically increase in response to high CO2, a trend particularly evident under abiotic stress. We investigated this preferential root growth (PRG) in Arabidopsis thaliana plants cultivated under low pH/high CO2 or low nitrogen (N)/high CO2 conditions. Previous studies have suggested that changes in plant hormone, carbon (C) and N status may be related to PRG. We therefore examined the mechanisms underlying PRG by genetically modifying cytokinin (CK) levels, C and N status and sugar signaling, performing sugar application experiments, and determining primary metabolites, plant hormones and related gene expressions. Both low pH/high CO2 and low N/high CO2 stresses induced increases in lateral root (LR) number and led to high C/N ratios; however, under low pH/high CO2 conditions, large quantities of C were accumulated, whereas under low N/high CO2 conditions, N was severely depleted. Analyses of a CK-deficient mutant and a starchless mutant, in conjunction with sugar application experiments, revealed that these stresses induce PRG via different mechanisms. Metabolite and hormone profile analysis indicated that under low pH/high CO2 conditions, excess C accumulation may enhance LR number through the dual actions of increased auxin and decreased CKs.
    Plant and Cell Physiology 01/2014; · 4.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To clarify the effect of deep rooting on grain yield in rice (Oryza sativa L.) in an irrigated paddy field with or without fertilizer, we used the shallow-rooting IR64 and the deep-rooting Dro1-NIL (a near-isogenic line homozygous for the Kinandang Patong allele of DEEPER ROOTING 1 (DRO1) in the IR64 genetic background). Although total root length was similar in both lines, more roots were distributed within the lower soil layer of the paddy field in Dro1-NIL than in IR64, irrespective of fertilizer treatment. At maturity, Dro1-NIL showed approximately 10% higher grain yield than IR64, irrespective of fertilizer treatment. Higher grain yield of Dro1-NIL was mainly due to the increased 1000-kernel weight and increased percentage of ripened grains, which resulted in a higher harvest index. After heading, the uptake of nitrogen from soil and leaf nitrogen concentration were higher in Dro1-NIL than in IR64. At the mid-grain-filling stage, Dro1-NIL maintained higher cytokinin fluxes from roots to shoots than IR64. These results suggest that deep rooting by DRO1 enhances nitrogen uptake and cytokinin fluxes at late stages, resulting in better grain filling in Dro1-NIL in a paddy field in this study.
    Scientific reports. 01/2014; 4:5563.
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    ABSTRACT: Eucalyptus globulus is the one of the most economically important trees for pulp and paper industries due to its fast growth and short harvesting cycle. However, E. globulus is well known as a woody plant that is hard to propagate vegetatively. In this study, we found wide distribution of rooting ability among seven independent genotypes we tested. Analysis of the mechanism of adventitious rooting by using the auxin transport inhibitor, N-naphthylphthalamic acid, revealed that polar auxin transport is crucial in root formation. The gravitropism of the stem was highly correlated to the percentage of adventitious root formation. Hormonal analysis showed that the levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) were the same between difficult-to-root and easy-to-root genotypes, whereas levels of IAAsp (indole-3-acetyl aspartic acid) were higher in the difficult-to-root genotype, indicating that IAA metabolism might play an important role in adventitious root formation in this species. Levels of several cytokinins exhibited differences between genotypes that varied in their cutting performance and rooting ability. Furthermore, higher level of cytokinin in elongating shoots were correlated with rooting percentage. Taken together, our results indicate that both auxins and cytokinins play a role in adventitious root formation in E. globulus, and that a complex interplay between the levels of auxins and cytokinins and their metabolism might result in root formation in this commercially important plant.
    New Forests 01/2014; · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Higher organisms possess mechanisms to maintain stem cells’ proliferative and pluripotent states in stem cell niches [1]. Plants possess two types of stem cell niches in the root and shoot apical meristems, where regulatory interactions exist between stem cells and organizing cells. Recent studies provided new insights into the molecular mechanism of stem cell maintenance [2, 3 and 4]. However, earlier and more essential developmental events such as the acquisition of stem cell proliferative activity are still unknown. In vascular tissues, procambial cells function as stem cells and differentiate into xylem, phloem, and procambium. Procambial cell proliferation starts at root apical meristem (RAM) postembryonically; therefore, procambial cell development in RAM is a good model for investigating the regulation of stem cell proliferation. LONESOME HIGHWAY (LHW) and TARGET OF MONOPTEROS5 (TMO5), as well as its homolog, TMO5-LIKE1 (T5L1), encode bHLH proteins that function as heterodimers (LHW-TMO5 and LHW-T5L1) in vascular tissue organization [ 5, 6 and 7]. LHW-T5L1 promotes vascular-cell-specific proliferation in RAM [ 7]. Here, we demonstrate that LHW-T5L1 promotes expression of key cytokinin production genes, including LONELY GUY3 (LOG3) and LOG4, in xylem precursor cells, resulting in elevated cytokinin levels in the surrounding cells. LHW-T5L1 can also promote expression of AHP6, which suppresses cytokinin signaling and then maintains xylem precursor cells at a nondividing state. Our results indicate that LHW-T5L1 establishes xylem precursor cells as a signal center that promotes procambial-cell-specific proliferation through cytokinin response.
    Current biology : CB. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The notion that plants use specialized metabolism to protect against environmental stresses is needed to be experimentally proven by addressing the question whether stress tolerance by specialized metabolism is directly due to metabolites such as flavonoids. We report that flavonoids with radical scavenging activity play a mitigative role against oxidative and drought stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. Metabolome and transcriptome profiling and experiments with oxidative and drought stress in wild-type, single overexpressors of MYB12/PFG1 (PRODUCTION OF FLAVONOL GLYCOSIDES1) or MYB75/PAP1 (PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT1), double overexpressors of MYB12 and PAP1, transparent testa4 (tt4) as a flavonoid-deficient mutant, and flavonoid-deficient MYB12 or PAP1overexpressing lines (obtained by crossing tt4 and the individual MYB overexpressor) demonstrated that flavonoid overaccumulation was key to enhanced tolerance to such stresses. Antioxidative activity assays using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, methyl viologen, and 3,3'-diaminobenzidine clearly showed that anthocyanin overaccumulation with strong in vitro antioxidative activity mitigated the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in vivo under oxidative and drought stress. These data confirm the usefulness of flavonoids for enhancing both biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in crops. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    The Plant Journal 11/2013; · 6.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cytokinins (CKs), a class of plant hormones, are central regulators of plant growth and development. Based on numerous physiological and genetic studies, the quantitative regulation of cytokinin levels is the major mechanism regulating cytokinin action in diverse developmental processes. Here, we identified a different mechanism with which the physiological function of CK is modulated through side-chain modification (trans-hydroxylation). The trans-hydroxylation that forms trans-zeatin (tZ)-type CK from N(6)-(Δ(2)-isopentenyl)adenine (iP)-type CK is catalyzed by the cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP735A1 and CYP735A2 in Arabidopsis. Deficiency in trans-hydroxylation activity results in dramatic retardation of shoot growth without affecting total CK quantity, while augmentation of the activity enhances shoot growth. Application of exogenous tZ but not iP recovers the wild-type phenotype in the mutants, indicating that trans-hydroxylation modifies the physiological function of CK. We propose that the control of cytokinin function by side-chain modification is crucial for shoot growth regulation in plants.
    Developmental Cell 11/2013; 27(4):452-61. · 12.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cytokinin activity in plants is closely related to nitrogen availability, and an Arabidopsis gene for adenosine phosphate-isopentenyltransferase (IPT), IPT3, is regulated by inorganic nitrogen sources in a nitrate-specific manner. In this study, we have identified another regulatory system of cytokinin de novo biosynthesis in response to nitrogen status. In rice, OsIPT4, OsIPT5, OsIPT7, and OsIPT8 were up-regulated in response to exogenously applied nitrate and ammonium with accompanying accumulation of cytokinins. Pretreatment of roots with L-methionine sulfoximine, a potent inhibitor of glutamine synthetase, abolished the nitrate- and ammonium-dependent induction of OsIPT4 and OsIPT5, while glutamine application induced their expression. Thus, neither nitrate nor ammonium but glutamine or a related metabolite is essential for the induction of these IPTs in rice. On the other hand, glutamine-dependent induction of IPT3 occurs in Arabidopsis, at least to some extent. In transgenic lines repressing the expression of OsIPT4, which is the dominant IPT in rice roots, the nitrogen-dependent increase of cytokinin in the xylem sap was significantly reduced, and seedling shoot growth was retarded despite sufficient nitrogen. We conclude that plants possess multiple regulation systems for nitrogen-dependent cytokinin biosynthesis to modulate growth in response to nitrogen availability.
    Plant and Cell Physiology 09/2013; · 4.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) are major components of cuticular wax and are also contained in seed storage triacylglycerols and sphingolipids. Arabidopsis mutants with severe defects in VLCFA synthesis produce fused leaves because of impaired cuticle formation. We recently reported that a small decrease in VLCFA content did not cause growth defects, but instead led to enhanced cell proliferation in internal tissues. We observed that this overproliferation was induced by elevated expression of cytokinin biosynthesis genes, which in turn increased the cytokinin level. Interestingly, VLCFAs are specifically synthesized in the epidermis for cuticular wax secretion, whereas cytokinin biosynthesis mainly occurs in the vasculature. Our results indicate the requirement of VLCFA synthesis in the epidermis for sending non-autonomous signals, thereby suppressing cytokinin biosynthesis in the vasculature. We propose that the interaction between the surface (epidermis) and axis (vasculature) of the plant body fine-tunes cell division activity and restricts organ size in determinate growth.
    Plant signaling & behavior 06/2013; 8(8).
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    ABSTRACT: Plant organ growth is controlled by inter-cell-layer communication, which thus determines the overall size of the organism. The epidermal layer interfaces with the environment and participates in both driving and restricting growth via inter-cell-layer communication. However, it remains unknown whether the epidermis can send signals to internal tissue to limit cell proliferation in determinate growth. Very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) are synthesized in the epidermis and used in the formation of cuticular wax. Here we found that VLCFA synthesis in the epidermis is essential for proper development of Arabidopsis thaliana. Wild-type plants treated with a VLCFA synthesis inhibitor and pasticcino mutants with defects in VLCFA synthesis exhibited overproliferation of cells in the vasculature or in the rib zone of shoot apices. The decrease of VLCFA content increased the expression of IPT3, a key determinant of cytokinin biosynthesis in the vasculature, and, indeed, elevated cytokinin levels. These phenotypes were suppressed in ipt3;5;7 triple mutants, and also by vasculature-specific expression of cytokinin oxidase, which degrades active forms of cytokinin. Our results imply that VLCFA synthesis in the epidermis is required to suppress cytokinin biosynthesis in the vasculature, thus fine-tuning cell division activity in internal tissue, and therefore that shoot growth is controlled by the interaction between the surface (epidermis) and the axis (vasculature) of the plant body.
    PLoS Biology 04/2013; 11(4):e1001531. · 12.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cytokinins are master regulators of plant growth and development. The glucosyltransferase UGT76C1 capable of N-glucosylation of different cytokinins at the N(7)- and N(9)-position was previously identified in Arabidopsis thaliana, but its physiological relevance in plants remains unclear. In the present work, we investigated the physiological characteristics of UGT76C1 mutant (ugt76c1) and its overexpressors. Under normal growth conditions, although ugt76c1 plants and UGT76C1 overexpressors did not display obvious phenotypic alteration, ugt76c1 plants significantly reduced the accumulation of cytokinin N-glucosides, whereas UGT76C1 overexpressors increased cytokinin N-glucosides. Unexpectedly, the concentrations of free forms of cytokinins (mainly trans-zeatin and N(6)-isopentenyladenine) were comparable to those of the wild type. Upon application of exogenous cytokinin, the mutant showed the same tendency of more sensitive cytokinin response in primary root elongation, chlorophyll retention and anthocyanin accumulation. In contrast, overexpressors showed a tendency of less sensitive cytokinin response in most tests. Furthermore, cytokinin-related genes were investigated for their expression; and the expression levels of AHK3, ARR1, CYP735A2 and LOG2 noticeably changed in ugt76c1 plants, suggesting that plants employ a set of cytokinin regulation mechanisms to coordinate the loss-of-function of UGT76C1. Tissue-specific expression of UGT76C1 showed a high level of expression in germinating seeds and young seedlings. Taken together, our data suggest that the glucosyltransferase UGT76C1 could finely modulate cytokinin responses in planta via N-glucosylation of cytokinins.
    Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 02/2013; 65C:9-16. · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plant vascular tissues are essential for the existence of land plants. Many studies of transcriptional regulation and cell-cell communication have revealed the process underlying the development of vascular tissues from vascular initial cells. However, the initiation of vascular cell differentiation is still a mystery. Here, we report that LONESOME HIGHWAY (LHW), which encodes a bHLH transcription factor, is expressed in pericycle-vascular mother cells at the globular embryo stage and is required for proper asymmetric cell division to generate vascular initial cells. In addition, ectopic expression of LHW elicits an ectopic auxin response. Moreover, LHW is required for the correct expression patterns of components related to auxin flow, such as PIN-FORMED 1 (PIN1), MONOPTEROS (MP) and ATHB-8, and ATHB-8 partially rescues the vascular defects of lhw. These results suggest that LHW functions as a key regulator to initiate vascular cell differentiation in association with auxin regulation.
    Development 02/2013; 140(4):765-9. · 6.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The shoot apical meristem is the ultimate source of the cells that constitute the entire aboveground portion of the plant body. In Arabidopsis thaliana, meristem maintenance is regulated by the negative feedback loop of WUSCHEL-CLAVATA (WUS-CLV). Although CLV-like genes, such as FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER1 (FON1) and FON2, have been shown to be involved in maintenance of the reproductive meristems in rice (Oryza sativa), current understanding of meristem maintenance remains insufficient. In this article, we demonstrate that the FON2-LIKE CLE PROTEIN1 (FCP1) and FCP2 genes encoding proteins with similar CLE domains are involved in negative regulation of meristem maintenance in the vegetative phase. In addition, we found that WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX4 (WOX4) promotes the undifferentiated state of the meristem in rice and that WOX4 function is associated with cytokinin action. Consistent with similarities in the shoot apical meristem phenotypes caused by overexpression of FCP1 and downregulation of WOX4, expression of WOX4 was negatively regulated by FCP1 (FCP2). Thus, FCP1/2 and WOX4 are likely to be involved in maintenance of the vegetative meristem in rice.
    The Plant Cell 01/2013; · 9.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plant hormones play important roles as signaling molecules in the regulation of growth and development by controlling the expression of downstream genes. Since the hormone signaling system represents a complex network involving functional crosstalk through the mutual regulation of signaling and metabolism, a comprehensive and integrative analysis of plant hormone concentrations and gene expression is important for a deeper understanding of hormone actions. We have developed a database named Uniformed Viewer for Integrated Omics (UniVIO: http://univio.psc.riken.jp/), which displays hormone-metabolome (hormonome) and transcriptome data in a single formatted (uniformed) heat map. At the present time, hormonome and transcriptome data obtained from 14 organ parts of rice plants at the reproductive stage and seedling shoots of 3 gibberellin signaling mutants are included in the database. The hormone concentration and gene expression data can be searched by substance name, probe ID, gene locus ID, or gene description. A correlation search function has been implemented to enable users to obtain information of correlated substance accumulation and gene expression. In the correlation search, calculation method, range of correlation coefficient, and plant samples can be selected freely.
    Plant and Cell Physiology 01/2013; · 4.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cytokinin (CK) is a plant hormone that plays important regulatory roles in many aspects of plant growth and development. Although functions of CK and its biosynthesis pathway have been studied extensively, there is still no efficient biosynthesis inhibitor, which would be useful for studying CK from a chemical genetic approach. Here, CK biosynthesis inhibitor candidates were searched for using a systematic approach. In silico screening of candidates were carried out using genome-wide gene expression profiles and prediction of target sites using global CK accumulation profile analysis. As a result of these screenings, it was found that uniconazole, a well known inhibitor of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, prevents the biosynthesis of trans-zeatin, and that its target is CYP735As in Arabidopsis.
    Phytochemistry 12/2012; · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hormone crosstalk is pivotal in plant-pathogen interactions. Here we report on the accumulation of cytokinins (CKs) in rice seedlings after infection of blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and its potential significance in rice-M. oryzae interaction. Blast infection to rice seedlings increased levels of N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl) adenine (iP), iP riboside (iPR) and iPR 5'-phosphates (iPRP) in leaf blades. Consistent with this, CK signaling was activated around the infection sites as shown by histochemical staining for β-glucuronidase activity driven by a CK-responsive OsRR6 promoter. A diverse CK species were also detected in the hyphae (mycelium), conidia and culture filtrates of blast fungus, indicating that M. oryzae is capable of production, as well as hyphal secretion of CKs. Co-treatment of leaf blades with CK and salicylic acid (SA), but not with either one alone, markedly induced pathogenesis-related genes OsPR1b and PBZ1 (probenazole-induced protein 1). These effects were diminished by RNAi-knockdown of OsNPR1 or WRKY45, the key regulators of SA signaling pathway in rice, indicating that the effects of CKs depend on these two regulators. Taken together, our data imply a coevolutionary rice-M. oryzae interaction, wherein M. oryzae probably elevates rice CK levels for its own benefits such as nutrient translocation. Rice plants, on the other hand, sense it as an infection signal and activate defense reactions through the synergistic action with SA.
    Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 12/2012; · 4.31 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
440.80 Total Impact Points


  • 2011–2013
    • Shandong University
      • School of Life Science
      Jinan, Shandong Sheng, China
    • Florida State University
      • Department of Biological Science
      Tallahassee, FL, United States
    • Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
  • 2006–2012
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Faculty and Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sceince
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 2004–2012
    • National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences
      • Disease Resistant Crops Research Unit
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki-ken, Japan
  • 2004–2009
    • RIKEN
      • Plant Productivity Systems Research Group
      Вако, Saitama, Japan
  • 2007–2008
    • Nagoya University
      • Graduate School of Bio-Agricultural Sciences
      Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, Japan