J Krywult

Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Geelong, Victoria, Australia

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Publications (8)33.03 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A defined phospholipase D mutant of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, designated Toxminus, was used as a live vector to express and deliver a range of candidate vaccine antigens to sheep. Expression levels of the foreign genes in Toxminus were evaluated when directed from a number of different promoters, both constitutively expressed and inducible, as fusions with expressed genes including a signal sequence, and from chromosomal and episomal loci. In general expression levels were low and it appeared that some of the recombinant proteins were tolerated by C. pseudotuberculosis Toxminus better than others. Gene expression was however sufficiently high for three of the genes to elicit antibody responses specific to the recombinant protein following a single dose of the live Toxminus vector vaccine. This work suggests that C. pseudotuberculosis Toxminus has potential for development as a live veterinary vaccine vector.
    Vaccine 11/1999; 18(5-6):487-97. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The production of toxin (Apx)-neutralizing antibodies during infection plays a major role in the induction of protective immunity to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae reinfection. In the present study, the gene encoding the ApxII-activating protein, apxIIC, was insertionally inactivated on the chromosome of a serovar 7 strain, HS93. Expression of the structural toxin, ApxIIA, and of the two genes required for its secretion, apxIB and apxID, still occurs in this strain. The resulting mutant strain, HS93C- Ampr, was found to secrete the unactivated toxin. Pigs vaccinated with live HS93C- Ampr via the intranasal route were protected against a cross-serovar challenge with a virulent serovar 1 strain of A. pleuropneumoniae. This is the first reported vaccine strain of A. pleuropneumoniae which can be delivered live to pigs and offers cross-serovar protection against porcine pleuropneumonia.
    Infection and Immunity 05/1999; 67(4):1962-6. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is an economically significant disease of sheep caused by the gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. CLA vaccines are currently formulated using formalin inactivated culture supernatants that are rich in the C. pseudotuberculosis phospholipase D (PLD) exotoxin. One alternative to chemical detoxification is to inactivate the PLD genetically. This procedure not only provides a means to remove an onerous chemical treatment step but also the opportunity to increase gene expression, therefore improve protein yields. Using site-specific mutagenesis the C. pseudotuberculosis PLD was inactivated by substituting a serine residue at histidine 20 within the enzyme active site. CLA vaccine formulated using genetically inactivated PLD protected 44% of sheep against C. pseudotuberculosis challenge compared with 95% protection offered by the formalin inactivated preparation. Since there was no apparent difference in immune response mounted by vaccinated sheep the reason for this variation in vaccine efficacy remains unclear. Although genetic inactivation can be a convenient means to produce toxoid vaccines its use to develop a new CLA vaccine provided no net benefit over the conventional formulation.
    Vaccine 03/1999; 17(7-8):802-8. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Protective immune responses and the virulence of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) have been attributed, in part, to toxins (Apx) produced by the bacterium. A mutant of the serovar 7 strain HS93 (HS93Tox-), lacking the genes encoding the structural toxin ApxA and the post-translational activating protein ApxC, but retaining the genes required for secretion ApxB and ApxD, was isolated and shown to be attenuated in a mouse model. A plasmid vector system was developed and used to express the ApxA gene from within the HS93Tox- strain. The resulting strain, HS93Tox-/pIG-T1K, expresses the Apx structural protein in a non-activated form. HS93Tox-/pIG-T1K was shown to be attenuated in a mouse model and to be capable of inducing Apx-specific antibodies, which were boosted on re-inoculation. Live vaccination of mice with HS93Tox-/pIG-T1K offered protection against homologous wild-type serovar 7 challenge, and also heterologous challenge with a serovar 1 strain. This is in contrast to vaccination with the HS93Tox- strain, which failed to protect mice against a heterologous challenge.
    Current Microbiology 12/1998; 37(5):324-32. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, a gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen, is the etiological agent of the economically important disease caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) in both sheep and goats. Attenuated mutants of C. pseudotuberculosis have the potential to act as novel vaccines against CLA and as veterinary vaccine vectors. In this report, we have assessed the virulence of both aroQ and pld mutants of C. pseudotuberculosis in sheep and concurrently their capacity to act as vaccines against homologous challenge. The results suggest that aroQ mutants of C. pseudotuberculosis are attenuated with regard to both lymph node persistence and vaccination site reactogenicity. Immunologically, aroQ mutants failed to elicit detectable specific gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-secreting lymphocytes and induced low levels of antibodies to C. pseudotuberculosis culture supernatant antigens. Following subcutaneous vaccination, the immune responses induced by aroQ mutants did not protect sheep from infection with the wild-type strain but did appear to reduce the clinical severity of disease resulting from challenge. Conversely, an attenuated C. pseudotuberculosis strain expressing an enzymatically inactive phospholipase D exotoxin, when used as a vaccine, elicited a protective immune response. Protection appeared to correlate with in vivo persistence of the vaccine strain, the induction of IFN-gamma-secreting lymphocytes, and relatively high levels of antibodies to culture supernatant antigens. The results suggest that aroQ mutants of C. pseudotuberculosis may be overly attenuated for use as a CLA vaccines or as vaccine vectors.
    Infection and Immunity 03/1998; 66(2):474-9. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vaccines for ovine caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) are currently formulated using partially purified, formalin inactivated phospholipase D (PLD) derived from Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis culture supernatants. Chemical treatment has been a common and effective way of inactivating bacterial toxins for use in toxoid vaccines. Genetic inactivation of toxin genes using site-specific mutagenesis has the potential to improve this process by providing a safer and more cost-effective product. In the present study amino acid substitutions at the putative catalytic site and metal binding domain of the PLD protein had a profound affect upon PLD activity and secretion from C. pseudotuberculosis. Two mutated PLD analogues that were secreted to a level of 40% compared to the wild-type and retained minimal activity showed promise for development as recombinant CLA vaccines. Further work will be required to establish their suitability for commercialization.
    Vaccine 01/1996; 13(18):1785-92. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The phospholipase D (PLD) gene (pld) has been deleted from the Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis chromosome by using site-specific mutagenesis. Sheep infection trials indicate that the PLD-negative C. pseudotuberculosis strain (Toxminus) is incapable of inducing caseous lymphadentis (cheesy gland) even at doses two logs higher than that at which the wild-type strain produces the disease. This clearly establishes PLD as a major C. pseudotuberculosis virulence factor. Vaccination of sheep with live Toxminus C. pseudotuberculosis elicits strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses and protects the animals from wild-type challenge.
    Infection and Immunity 08/1992; 60(7):2900-5. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    A L Hodgson, J Krywult, A J Radford
    Nucleic Acids Research 05/1990; 18(7):1891. · 8.81 Impact Factor