[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reducing side effects of immunosuppressive regimens has become a priority in transplantation medicine because of the large number of patients and grafts that succumb to infection in the short term and cardiovascular disease in the long term. The Symphony study was a 12-month prospective, randomized, open-label, multi-centre, four parallel arm study that aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of low-dose immunosuppressive regimens compared with a standard-dose regimen in renal transplant recipients. This sub-analysis focuses on specific toxicities observed with the low-dose regimens.
Adult patients (n = 1645) scheduled to undergo renal transplantation received low-dose cyclosporine (CsA), tacrolimus (Tac) or sirolimus (SRL) in addition to daclizumab induction or standard-dose cyclosporine without induction. All patients received mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids. We evaluated the incidence of adverse events (AEs), tested specific group differences and assessed the relationship of selected AEs with drug levels.
The four arms had similar incidences of AEs, but serious AEs were more common with low-dose SRL and led to more discontinuations. Infections were the most common AEs, with the highest incidence in the standard-dose CsA group, in particular, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. Low-dose Tac had the most reports of new-onset diabetes, leucopenia and diarrhoea. Low-dose SRL negatively influenced triglycerides, wound healing, lymphocele and anaemia. We found only weak relationships between specific AEs and drug levels.
Despite the low doses, CsA, Tac and SRL retained distinct and different toxicity profiles. These findings may be of relevance for tailoring specific immunosuppressive regimens to patients with particular needs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed a prospective, double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled multicenter study on the efficacy and safety of rituximab as induction therapy, together with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids. The primary endpoint was defined as acute rejection, graft loss, or death during the first 6 months. Secondary endpoints were creatinine clearance, incidence of infections, and incidence of rituximab-related adverse event. RESULTS: We enrolled 140 patients (44 living donor and 96 deceased donor), and of those, 68 rituximab and 68 placebo patients fulfilled the study. In all the patients receiving rituximab, there was a complete depletion of CD19/CD20 cells, whereas there was no change in the number of CD19/CD20 cells in the placebo group. There were 10 treatment failures in the rituximab group versus 14 in the placebo group (P=0.348). There were eight rejection episodes in the rituximab group versus 12 in the placebo group (P=0.317) Creatinine clearance was 66+/-22 mL/min in the study group and 67+/-23 mL/min in the placebo group. There was no difference in the number of bacterial infections, cytomegalovirus infections, and BK virus infections or fungal infections. CONCLUSION: We performed a placebo-controlled study of rituximab induction in renal transplantation. There was a tendency toward fewer and milder rejections during the first 6 months in the rituximab group. Although induction with one dose of rituximab induced a complete depletion B cells, there was no increase in the incidence of infectious complications or leukopenia and it seems safe, therefore, to conduct further studies on the use of rituximab in transplantation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The increasing use of living kidney donors requires knowledge about long-term effects, especially number and causes of donors with end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
A retrospective data analysis of 1,112 consecutive living kidney donors who underwent nephrectomy from 1965 until 2005 at Sahlgrenska University Hospital. Case reports were sought with help from nephrologists in the region and data from Swedish Registry of Active Uremic Treatment (SRAU).
The number of cases with end stage kidney failure among living kidney donors was 6/1112, that is 0.5%. The donors had reached ESRD during the years 2001-2006, that means 36-41 years after start of the living donor program. The donors were 45-89 years old, median 77 years, and five of six were males. Time since donation was 14-27 years, median 20 years, for the donors developing ESRD. The diagnoses were nephrosclerosis (4 cases), postrenal failure (1 case), and renal carcinoma (1 case). The expected incidence for development of ESRD according to incidence in the general population would have been two donors but we found six. However, considering the high age of the donors in this follow up, the age-matched incidence is calculated to be closer to six donors due to higher incidence in the aged.
In all 0.5% of the donors developed ESRD. Due to high age of the uremic donors, there seems to be no increased incidence.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blood group ABO-incompatible live donor (LD) renal transplantation may provide a significant source of organs. We report the results of our first 14 cases of ABO-incompatible LD renal transplantation using specific anti-A/B antibody (Ab) immunoadsorption (IA) and anti-CD20 monoclonal Ab (mAb) treatment. PATIENTS AND TREATMENT PROTOCOL: Recipients were blood group O (n = 12), A (n = 1) and B (n = 1). Donors were A1 (n = 2), A2 (n = 3), A2B (n = 1) and B (n = 8), and all were secretor positive. Anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) Ab panel reactivity was negative in all recipients except one. All recipients were pre-treated with 3 to 6 IA sessions, using A or B carbohydrate antigen columns, until their anti-A1/B RBC panel indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) titers were < or =8. CDC crossmatch was negative in all cases. Recipients received preoperative mycophenolic acid, and steroids/tacrolimus were started at transplantation. No splenectomy was performed. Eight recipients received one dose of anti-CD20 mAb (rituximab, 375 mg/m2) pre-operatively and 11 recipients had postoperative protocol IA.
In the initial protocol, anti-CD20 mAbs were used only for recipients receiving A1 grafts. One B graft (HLA-identical donor, 84% panel reactivity) was lost in a severe anti-B Ab-mediated acute rejection. Subsequently, the protocol included anti-CD20 for recipients of both A1 and B grafts and postoperative protocol IA to all recipients. The subsequent 10 grafts had excellent function, giving a total graft survival of 13/14 (observation range 2 to 41 months). At 1 yr, mean serum creatinine was 113 micromol/l (n = 8) and mean glomerular filtration rate was 55 ml/min/1.73 m2 (range 24 to 77). In the remaining five cases, with less than 1 yr follow up, mean serum creatinine was 145 micromol/l at 2 to 9 months follow up. Pre-IA anti-A/B titers were in the range of 2 to 32 (NaCl technique) and 16 to 512 (IAT). More than 90 IA sessions were performed in 14 recipients without any significant side effects. Recipient anti-A/B titers returned after transplantation to pre-IA levels or slightly lower. Postoperative renal biopsies were performed in 10 patients. In the 13 patients with long-term function, one patient experienced cellular rejection (Banff IIB) at 3 months without anti-B titer rise. This rejection was concomitant with low tacrolimus plasma levels and was easily reversed by steroids. In 8 of 10 cases, C4d staining was positive in peritubular capillaries.
Blood group ABO-incompatible LD renal transplantation using A and B carbohydrate-specific IA and anti-CD20 mAbs has excellent graft survival and function.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The longer waiting time for a liver graft in patients with blood group O makes it necessary to expand the donor pool for these patients. This applies in both urgent situations and for elective patients. We report on our experience with ABO-incompatible liver transplantation using A2 and B non-secretor donors here.
Between 1996 and 2005, 12 adult blood group O recipients (seven male/five female) received ABO-incompatible cadaveric liver grafts (10 A2 donors, two B non-secretor donors). The indications were either rapid deterioration of liver function or hepatocellular cancer, in blood group O recipients, where an ABO-identical/compatible graft was not available. Mean recipient age was 54+/-8 (mean+/-SD) yr. All pre-operative CDC crossmatches were negative. The initial immunosuppression was induction therapy with antithymocyte globulin (n = 3), interleukin 2 receptor antagonists (n = 3) or anti-CD20 antibody (rituximab) (n = 1), followed by a tacrolimus-based protocol. Three patients underwent plasmapheresis post-transplantation. Baseline biopsies were taken before or immediately after reperfusion of the graft and after grafting when clinically indicated. No pre-operative plasmapheresis, immunoadsorption or splenectomies were performed.
Patient and graft survival was 10/12 (83%) and 8/12 (67%), respectively, with a 6.5-month median follow-up (range 10 days to 109 months). Two patients (B non-secretor grafts) died of multiorgan failure probably because of a poor condition before transplantation. Three patients were retransplanted. Causes of graft loss were bacterial arteritis (n = 1), death with a functioning graft (n = 1) and portal vein thrombosis (n = 2). In one of the patients with portal vein thrombosis, an anti-A titer increase occurred concomitantly, and ABO incompatibility as the cause of the thrombosis cannot be excluded. Seven acute rejections occurred in five patients and all were reversed by steroids or increased tacrolimus dosage. The pre-transplant anti-A titers tested against A1 red blood cells were 1 to 128 (NaCl technique) and 4 to 1024 (indirect antiglobulin technique, IAT); the maximum postoperative titers were 16 to 2048 (NaCl) and 256 to 32,000 (IAT).
The favorable outcome of A2 to O grafting, with a patient survival of 10/10 and a graft survival of 8/10, makes it possible to also consider this blood group combination in non-urgent situations. The use of non-secretor donor grafts is interesting but has to be further documented. There was no hyperacute rejection or increased rate of rejection. Anti-A/B titer changes seem not to play a significant role in the monitoring of ABO-incompatible liver transplantation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract We carried out a randomized prospective trial to compare a 3-day with a 10-day course of anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG)- (Frese-nius) for treatment of steroid-resistant rejection after renal transplantation. The aim was to study whether a short 3-day course was as safe and effective as the longer 10-day treatment. Thirty patients over a 3-year period were included. Patients that did not respond to treatment after 3 days received additional ATG from day 5 to day 10. The graft survival and the proportion of rejections reversed with the treatment were compared. Fifty percent responded promptly in the 3-day group and a further 29 % after additional treatment. In the 10-day group, 62 % reponded to the treatment. There was no significant difference between the groups. We, therefore, suggest that the standard antirejection treatment with ATG could be shortened without an increased risk of graft failure.
Transplant International 07/1996; 9:S38 - S40. · 3.16 Impact Factor