[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) are included in renal transplantation immunosuppressive protocols around the world. Well-known side effects are associated with the use of these drugs, including new onset of diabetes after transplantation (NODAT). Long-term patient survival rates are lower among patients with NODAT. The optimal immunosuppressive protocol would therefore include not using corticosteroids and minimization of CNI use.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our program for ABO-incompatible renal transplantation includes antigen-specific immunoadsorption (extracorporeal columns with the A or B trisaccharides), rituximab, and standard maintenance immunosuppression. Anti-A or -B titers ≤8 in the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) against panel A1 or B RBC are acceptable for transplantation.
A previously healthy, 15-month-old girl was diagnosed with Wilms' tumor and proteinuria. Denys-Drash syndrome was confirmed. Bilateral nephrectomy was performed. At 3.5 years of age she received an ABO-incompatible renal transplant from her father (A1 to O). The anti-A titers before transplantation were low. She was treated preoperatively with rituximab, immunoadsorption, immunoglobulin and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). The maintenance immunosuppression protocol included basiliximab, tacrolimus, MMF, and prednisolone. The initial postoperative course was uncomplicated with rapid normalization of serum creatinine. The anti-A titers started to increase on postoperative day 5 (8 NaCl/16 IAT). Despite daily immunoadsorptions the titers rose to 1024 NaCl/1024 IAT on day 9. Renal function deteriorated and hemodialysis was started. A renal biopsy on day 9 showed acute severe antibody-mediated rejection. Additional treatment with bortezomib was given and after 2 doses the titers started to decline, renal allograft function improved and hemodialysis was stopped. On day 21 posttransplant the titers went down, creatinine was 28 μmol/L, and no more immunoadsorptions were performed.
By using bortezomib, we were able to successfully reverse a severe ABO antibody-mediated rejection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In an open-label, multicenter trial, de novo kidney transplant recipients at low to medium immunological risk were randomized at week 7 posttransplant to remain on CsA (n = 100, controls) or convert to everolimus (n = 102), both with enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium and corticosteroids. The primary endpoint, change in measured GFR (mGFR) from week 7 to month 12, was significantly greater with everolimus than controls: 4.9 (11.8) mL/min versus 0.0 (12.9) mL/min (p = 0.012; analysis of covariance [ANCOVA]). Per protocol analysis demonstrated a more marked difference: an increase of 8.7 (11.2) mL/min with everolimus versus a decrease of 0.4 (12.0) mL/min in controls (p < 0.001; ANCOVA). There were no differences in graft or patient survival. The 12-month incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR) was 27.5% (n = 28) with everolimus and 11.0% (n = 11) in controls (p = 0.004). All but two episodes of BPAR in each group were mild. Adverse events occurred in 95.1% of everolimus patients and 90.0% controls (p = 0.19), with serious adverse events in 53.9% and 38.0%, respectively (p = 0.025). Discontinuation because of adverse events was more frequent with everolimus (25.5%) than controls (3.0%; p = 0.030). In conclusion, conversion from CsA to everolimus at week 7 after kidney transplantation was associated with a greater improvement in mGFR at month 12 versus CNI-treated controls but discontinuations and BPAR were more frequent.
American Journal of Transplantation 07/2012; 12(10):2744-2753. · 6.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The limiting factor in organ transplantation is the availability of organs. Ongoing work to improve donation rates both at the public and the organizational level in donating hospitals is essential. We also think that encouragement of live donation is important, and the possibility of ABO incompatible transplantation has increased the number of LD transplantations. The one-year graft survival rate is excellent and focus has shifted towards achieving long-term results to reduce the attrition rate. There is also an increasing interest in studying and working to reduce comorbidities on a long-term basis and thus, improve survival rates and recipient quality of life.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cold ischemia time (CIT) influences long-term graft survival after deceased donor (DD) kidney transplantation. The aim of the present study was to identify factors that influenced CIT at our institution, seeking to lay ground for improvement.
Patients who underwent DD kidney transplantations from November 2008 to April 2009 were included in the study. In a prospective protocol the times for various events were registered. The 40 DD kidney transplantations included 26 "paired" kidneys from the same donor and 14 "single" kidneys.
The mean CIT was 15.2 hours ± 4.2 hours (range, 7.0-23.9). "First kidney" was 13.3 hours ± 3.4 versus 19.2 ± 2.8 hours for the "second kidney" (P < .001). The waiting time for the operating room (OR) was 2.4 hours (range, 0-12 hours). Twenty-five percent of the patients waited more than 4 hours. Patients arriving at the hospital at the same time as or before the kidney retrieval showed a CIT of 13.4 ± 3.9 hours compared with 17.4 ± 3.4 hours for patients that arrived after the retrieved kidney (P < .01).
We identified factors influencing CIT that could lay the foundation for improvement. An extended cooperation and exchange with another transplantation unit for the "second kidney" could reduce the CIT. To reduce the waiting time for OR at the hospital to less than 2 hours and to get the recipient into the hospital before the kidney arrives are efforts that could reduce CIT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reducing side effects of immunosuppressive regimens has become a priority in transplantation medicine because of the large number of patients and grafts that succumb to infection in the short term and cardiovascular disease in the long term. The Symphony study was a 12-month prospective, randomized, open-label, multi-centre, four parallel arm study that aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of low-dose immunosuppressive regimens compared with a standard-dose regimen in renal transplant recipients. This sub-analysis focuses on specific toxicities observed with the low-dose regimens.
Adult patients (n = 1645) scheduled to undergo renal transplantation received low-dose cyclosporine (CsA), tacrolimus (Tac) or sirolimus (SRL) in addition to daclizumab induction or standard-dose cyclosporine without induction. All patients received mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids. We evaluated the incidence of adverse events (AEs), tested specific group differences and assessed the relationship of selected AEs with drug levels.
The four arms had similar incidences of AEs, but serious AEs were more common with low-dose SRL and led to more discontinuations. Infections were the most common AEs, with the highest incidence in the standard-dose CsA group, in particular, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. Low-dose Tac had the most reports of new-onset diabetes, leucopenia and diarrhoea. Low-dose SRL negatively influenced triglycerides, wound healing, lymphocele and anaemia. We found only weak relationships between specific AEs and drug levels.
Despite the low doses, CsA, Tac and SRL retained distinct and different toxicity profiles. These findings may be of relevance for tailoring specific immunosuppressive regimens to patients with particular needs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed a prospective, double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled multicenter study on the efficacy and safety of rituximab as induction therapy, together with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids. The primary endpoint was defined as acute rejection, graft loss, or death during the first 6 months. Secondary endpoints were creatinine clearance, incidence of infections, and incidence of rituximab-related adverse event. RESULTS: We enrolled 140 patients (44 living donor and 96 deceased donor), and of those, 68 rituximab and 68 placebo patients fulfilled the study. In all the patients receiving rituximab, there was a complete depletion of CD19/CD20 cells, whereas there was no change in the number of CD19/CD20 cells in the placebo group. There were 10 treatment failures in the rituximab group versus 14 in the placebo group (P=0.348). There were eight rejection episodes in the rituximab group versus 12 in the placebo group (P=0.317) Creatinine clearance was 66+/-22 mL/min in the study group and 67+/-23 mL/min in the placebo group. There was no difference in the number of bacterial infections, cytomegalovirus infections, and BK virus infections or fungal infections. CONCLUSION: We performed a placebo-controlled study of rituximab induction in renal transplantation. There was a tendency toward fewer and milder rejections during the first 6 months in the rituximab group. Although induction with one dose of rituximab induced a complete depletion B cells, there was no increase in the incidence of infectious complications or leukopenia and it seems safe, therefore, to conduct further studies on the use of rituximab in transplantation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Combined liver and renal transplantations can be performed against a positive cross-match, indicating that the liver protects the kidney from the harmful HLA antibodies. This led us to the hypothesis that a partial auxiliary liver graft may have a similar protective effect when performed together with the kidney in highly sensitized patients. Seven patients, with broadly reacting HLA antibodies and positive crossmatches, were transplanted with a partial liver and a kidney from the same donor. In one of the cases a living donor was used. We performed lymphocytotoxic and flow cross-matches before and after the transplantation. Cross-matches turned negative after grafting in five of seven cases. The kidney function was excellent, without rejections, during the follow-up (24-60 months) in these patients. In two cases the cross-match remained positive after transplantation, one with a never-functioning renal graft and the other with an early graft failure, probably due to humoral rejection. A simultaneous transplantation of a partial auxiliary liver graft from the same donor, with the sole purpose of protecting the kidney from harmful lymphocytotoxic antibodies, can be performed successfully despite a positive cross-match and may thus be a new option of treatment for highly sensitized patients waiting for a kidney transplant.
American Journal of Transplantation 02/2007; 7(1):130-6. · 6.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The increasing use of living kidney donors requires knowledge about long-term effects, especially number and causes of donors with end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
A retrospective data analysis of 1,112 consecutive living kidney donors who underwent nephrectomy from 1965 until 2005 at Sahlgrenska University Hospital. Case reports were sought with help from nephrologists in the region and data from Swedish Registry of Active Uremic Treatment (SRAU).
The number of cases with end stage kidney failure among living kidney donors was 6/1112, that is 0.5%. The donors had reached ESRD during the years 2001-2006, that means 36-41 years after start of the living donor program. The donors were 45-89 years old, median 77 years, and five of six were males. Time since donation was 14-27 years, median 20 years, for the donors developing ESRD. The diagnoses were nephrosclerosis (4 cases), postrenal failure (1 case), and renal carcinoma (1 case). The expected incidence for development of ESRD according to incidence in the general population would have been two donors but we found six. However, considering the high age of the donors in this follow up, the age-matched incidence is calculated to be closer to six donors due to higher incidence in the aged.
In all 0.5% of the donors developed ESRD. Due to high age of the uremic donors, there seems to be no increased incidence.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the Swedish Västra Götaland region (1.65 million inhabitants), we have implemented, as from January 1, 2006, a new concept to improve the organ donation rate, which in 2005 was 13.9 per million population (PMP). There are two cornerstones in the project: a new, active role for the transplant coordinators and the establishment of a uniform policy for the care of potential donors as well as criteria for the decision to offer intensive care in various critical conditions. The coordinator is now contacted at an early stage and is in place when the brain death diagnosis is underway or completed. The coordinator is thereafter a resource for all aspects of the care of the potential donor/donor, and also in the contact with the relatives. To date (May 2006) the donation rate has reached 23.6 PMP annually (a 70% increase).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The longer waiting time for a liver graft among patients with blood group O makes it necessary to expand the donor pool for these patients. We herein have reported our experience with ABO-incompatible liver transplantation using A(2) donors to blood group O recipients.
Between 1996 to 2005, 10 adult blood group O recipients received 10 A(2) cadaveric grafts. Mean recipient age was 52 +/- 7.7 years (mean +/- SD). The initial immunosuppression was induction with antithymocyte globulin (n = 2), interleukin-2-receptor antagonists (n = 3), or anti-CD20 antibody (rituximab, n = 1), followed by a tacrolimus-based protocol. No preoperative plasmapheresis, immunoadsorption, or splenectomies were performed.
Patient and graft survival was 10/10 and 8/10, respectively, at 8.5 months median follow-up (range 10 days to 109 months). Two patients were retransplanted because of bacterial arteritis (n = 1) and portal vein thrombosis (n = 1). The six acute rejections, which occurred in four patients, were all reversed by steroids or increased tacrolimus dosages. The pretransplant anti-A titers against A(1) red blood cells were 1:128 (NaCl technique) and 1:8 to 1024 (IAT technique). The maximum postoperative titers were 1:64 to 4000 (NaCl) and 1:256 to 32000 (IAT).
The favorable outcome of A(2) to O grafting, with a patient survival of 10/10 and graft survival of 8/10, makes it possible to consider this blood group combination also in nonurgent situations. There was no hyperacute rejection or increased rate of rejections. Anti-A/B titer changes seem to not play a significant role in the monitoring of A(2) to O liver transplantation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In contrast to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, which is well known to recur early in a renal graft, there are only few cases described with recurrence of immunoglobulin M (IgM) nephropathy after transplantation. We herein describe a patient with early recurrence of IgM nephropathy. A 15-year-old boy with nephrotic syndrome (IgM nephropathy) proceeding to end-stage renal disease was on dialysis before living related renal transplantation. Native kidneys were not removed. Standard immunosuppression including steroids, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate mofetil yielded initially good graft function with the s-creatinine falling to 73 micromol/L. Proteinuria was present on day 1, increasing to 20 g/L after 3 days. S-creatinine increased to 158 micromol/L and urine production diminished. A graft biopsy showed no rejection or glomerulopathy but protein vacuoles were seen within tubular cells indicating massive proteinuria. Treatment with plasma exchanges, immunoglobulin, and steroids was started. Hemodialysis was necessary. Proteinuria improved to 3.5 g/L, but s-creatinine continued to rise and a second graft biopsy showed vascular rejection (Banff type IIA). The patient was treated with antithymocyte globulin and further plasma exchanges. A single dose of rituximab was given. Five months after transplantation the s-creatinine was 67 micromol/L and there was no proteinuria. In this case early recurrence of nephrotic syndrome occurred on the first posttransplant day in combination with later occurring vascular rejection. Successful treatment included a combination of plasma exchanges, rituximab, immunoglobulin, and antithymocyte globulin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liver transplantation (OLT) is an established treatment with excellent early outcome. However, the long-term results are hampered by side effects of immunosuppression, cardiovascular morbidity, recurrent disease, and chronic rejection. We analyzed causes of late death (>/=2 years post-OLT) in 679 consecutive primary recipients in our institution.
A total of 679 primary OLT recipients including those retransplanted within 3 months between January 1985 and August 2005 were identified; 460 (67.7%) patients survived >/=2 years. The indications were cholestatic disease (35.1%), postviral (11.4%), alcoholic (12.9%), fulminant hepatic failure (7.0%), cryptogenic (3.1%), autoimmune hepatitis (4.8%), malignancy (7.7%), and others (18.0%). Sixty three patients (9.3%) died >/=2 years post-OLT. For 51 patients, sufficient records were present to establish the cause of death.
Four hundred sixty (67.7%) patients survived >/=2 years. Their median age was 58 years with, 43.7% older than 60 and 11.1% older than 70 years. Sixty three patients (9.3%) died at a median time of 69 +/- 4.8 months post-primary OLT; 49.1% died of malignancy and 13.7% of vascular complications and infectious complications respectively.
Late mortality in our material is mainly due to malignant disease. Compared to other published reports on late mortality, the proportion of malignancy, especially recurrent, as cause of late death is higher. This might reflect a more generous approach toward accepting older patients and a higher proportion of patients with various malignant diseases accepted for OLT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report 12 cases of pseudoaneurysm hepatic artery (PA) among 825 liver transplantations (OLT) performed between January 1985 and December 2005. In the early period (1985 to 1995), the incidence was 2.6% and in the later period (1996 to 2005), 0.9%. Median time to onset was 39.5 days post-OLT (range 14 days to 5 years). Six patients presented with rupture into the peritoneum (n = 4) or gastrointestinal tract (n = 2), while five patients presented with gastrointestinal bleed due arteriobiliary fistulation with hemobilia. The twelfth PA was found incidentally during retransplantation. PAs were detected with radiological imaging (n = 4), exploratory laparotomy (n = 6), at autopsy (n = 1) or at retransplantation (n = 1). We performed immediate revascularization, after surgical excision was performed in three and endovascular embolization in one patient. In six patients hepatic artery ligation without revascularization was inevitable with subsequent successful retransplantation in four patients. No PA-specific treatment was attempted in two cases due to the poor prognosis or diagnostic ambiguity. In 10 cases microbial pathogens were cultured in the blood, subhepatic abscesses, or from the wall of the hepatic artery. A hepaticojejunostomy was performed for biliary reconstruction in six patients and two had a hepaticojejunostomy conversion due to biliary leak. Survival in the early period (1985 to 1995) was 14%, whereas during the later period (1996 to 2005), the survival increased to 100% with a 4.2-year median follow-up (range 7.4 months to 6.9 years). Infrequently PA complicates OLT, becoming evident primarily after rupture with hemoperitoneum or a gastrointestinal bleed. Early recognition with angiography is important but acute hemorrhage often requires immediate exploration with ligation of the PA, although surgical or endovascular exclusion of the PA followed by revascularization provides a feasible treatment option.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blood group ABO-incompatible live donor (LD) renal transplantation may provide a significant source of organs. We report the results of our first 14 cases of ABO-incompatible LD renal transplantation using specific anti-A/B antibody (Ab) immunoadsorption (IA) and anti-CD20 monoclonal Ab (mAb) treatment. PATIENTS AND TREATMENT PROTOCOL: Recipients were blood group O (n = 12), A (n = 1) and B (n = 1). Donors were A1 (n = 2), A2 (n = 3), A2B (n = 1) and B (n = 8), and all were secretor positive. Anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) Ab panel reactivity was negative in all recipients except one. All recipients were pre-treated with 3 to 6 IA sessions, using A or B carbohydrate antigen columns, until their anti-A1/B RBC panel indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) titers were < or =8. CDC crossmatch was negative in all cases. Recipients received preoperative mycophenolic acid, and steroids/tacrolimus were started at transplantation. No splenectomy was performed. Eight recipients received one dose of anti-CD20 mAb (rituximab, 375 mg/m2) pre-operatively and 11 recipients had postoperative protocol IA.
In the initial protocol, anti-CD20 mAbs were used only for recipients receiving A1 grafts. One B graft (HLA-identical donor, 84% panel reactivity) was lost in a severe anti-B Ab-mediated acute rejection. Subsequently, the protocol included anti-CD20 for recipients of both A1 and B grafts and postoperative protocol IA to all recipients. The subsequent 10 grafts had excellent function, giving a total graft survival of 13/14 (observation range 2 to 41 months). At 1 yr, mean serum creatinine was 113 micromol/l (n = 8) and mean glomerular filtration rate was 55 ml/min/1.73 m2 (range 24 to 77). In the remaining five cases, with less than 1 yr follow up, mean serum creatinine was 145 micromol/l at 2 to 9 months follow up. Pre-IA anti-A/B titers were in the range of 2 to 32 (NaCl technique) and 16 to 512 (IAT). More than 90 IA sessions were performed in 14 recipients without any significant side effects. Recipient anti-A/B titers returned after transplantation to pre-IA levels or slightly lower. Postoperative renal biopsies were performed in 10 patients. In the 13 patients with long-term function, one patient experienced cellular rejection (Banff IIB) at 3 months without anti-B titer rise. This rejection was concomitant with low tacrolimus plasma levels and was easily reversed by steroids. In 8 of 10 cases, C4d staining was positive in peritubular capillaries.
Blood group ABO-incompatible LD renal transplantation using A and B carbohydrate-specific IA and anti-CD20 mAbs has excellent graft survival and function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The longer waiting time for a liver graft in patients with blood group O makes it necessary to expand the donor pool for these patients. This applies in both urgent situations and for elective patients. We report on our experience with ABO-incompatible liver transplantation using A2 and B non-secretor donors here.
Between 1996 and 2005, 12 adult blood group O recipients (seven male/five female) received ABO-incompatible cadaveric liver grafts (10 A2 donors, two B non-secretor donors). The indications were either rapid deterioration of liver function or hepatocellular cancer, in blood group O recipients, where an ABO-identical/compatible graft was not available. Mean recipient age was 54+/-8 (mean+/-SD) yr. All pre-operative CDC crossmatches were negative. The initial immunosuppression was induction therapy with antithymocyte globulin (n = 3), interleukin 2 receptor antagonists (n = 3) or anti-CD20 antibody (rituximab) (n = 1), followed by a tacrolimus-based protocol. Three patients underwent plasmapheresis post-transplantation. Baseline biopsies were taken before or immediately after reperfusion of the graft and after grafting when clinically indicated. No pre-operative plasmapheresis, immunoadsorption or splenectomies were performed.
Patient and graft survival was 10/12 (83%) and 8/12 (67%), respectively, with a 6.5-month median follow-up (range 10 days to 109 months). Two patients (B non-secretor grafts) died of multiorgan failure probably because of a poor condition before transplantation. Three patients were retransplanted. Causes of graft loss were bacterial arteritis (n = 1), death with a functioning graft (n = 1) and portal vein thrombosis (n = 2). In one of the patients with portal vein thrombosis, an anti-A titer increase occurred concomitantly, and ABO incompatibility as the cause of the thrombosis cannot be excluded. Seven acute rejections occurred in five patients and all were reversed by steroids or increased tacrolimus dosage. The pre-transplant anti-A titers tested against A1 red blood cells were 1 to 128 (NaCl technique) and 4 to 1024 (indirect antiglobulin technique, IAT); the maximum postoperative titers were 16 to 2048 (NaCl) and 256 to 32,000 (IAT).
The favorable outcome of A2 to O grafting, with a patient survival of 10/10 and a graft survival of 8/10, makes it possible to also consider this blood group combination in non-urgent situations. The use of non-secretor donor grafts is interesting but has to be further documented. There was no hyperacute rejection or increased rate of rejection. Anti-A/B titer changes seem not to play a significant role in the monitoring of ABO-incompatible liver transplantation.