L E Adinolfi

University of Naples Federico II, Napoli, Campania, Italy

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Publications (135)661.79 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The impact of the cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) rs35761398 polymorphism on chronic hepatitis B (CHB) was evaluated in 106 consecutive biopsy proven CHB patients naive for antiviral therapy. A histological activity index (HAI) >9 (Ishak scoring) was more frequent in patients with CB2-63 RR than in those with CB2-63 QR or QQ (37% vs.16.7%, p<0.05). The logistic regression analysis identified CB2-63 RR (p<0.05) and a fibrosis score > 4 (p<0.005) as independently associated with an HAI >9. The observation that the CB2-63 RR variant is an independent predictor of extensive necroinflammation opens up new prospects in the study of CHB. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Clinical Microbiology and Infection 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.cmi.2015.02.021 · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is considered a systemic disease because of involvement of other organs and tissues concomitantly with liver disease. Among the extrahepatic manifestations, neuropsychiatric disorders have been reported in up to 50% of chronic HCV infected patients. Both the central and peripheral nervous system may be involved with a wide variety of clinical manifestations. Main HCV-associated neurological conditions include cerebrovascular events, encephalopathy, myelitis, encephalomyelitis, and cognitive impairment, whereas "brain fog", depression, anxiety, and fatigue are at the top of the list of psychiatric disorders. Moreover, HCV infection is known to cause both motor and sensory peripheral neuropathy in the context of mixed cryoglobulinemia, and has also been recently recognized as an independent risk factor for stroke. These extrahepatic manifestations are independent of severity of the underlying chronic liver disease and hepatic encephalopathy. The brain is a suitable site for HCV replication, where the virus may directly exert neurotoxicity; other mechanisms proposed to explain the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders in chronic HCV infection include derangement of metabolic pathways of infected cells, alterations in neurotransmitter circuits, autoimmune disorders, and cerebral or systemic inflammation. A pathogenic role for HCV is also suggested by improvement of neurological and psychiatric symptoms in patients achieving a sustained virologic response following interferon treatment; however, further ad hoc trials are needed to fully assess the impact of HCV infection and specific antiviral treatments on associated neuropsychiatric disorders.
  • Digestive and Liver Disease 02/2015; 47:e46. DOI:10.1016/j.dld.2015.01.101 · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background & AimA common non-synonymous polymorphism, E167K, in transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2) gene has been recently associated with an increased hepatic triglyceride content, dyslipidemia and liver fibrosis in NAFLD patients. We investigated possible associations between the TM6SF2 variants and liver lesions in chronic hepatitis C.Patients and Methods148 consecutive patients with biopsy proven anti-HCV/HCV-RNA-positive chronic hepatitis, naive for antiviral therapy, were genotyped for TM6SF2 E167K and PNAPL3 I148M variants.ResultsThe score of liver steatosis was higher in the 18 patients with TM6SF2 E167K variant (mean 1.9+1.3) than in the 130 homozygotes for TM6SF2 167E allele (1.1+1.1, p=0.02), and the prevalence of a steatosis score>3 was 33.3% vs. 12.3%, respectively (p=0.02). No difference in necroinflammatory or fibrosis scores was found between the two groups. A general linear model identified as independent predictors of steatosis TM6SF2 E167K and PNAPL3 M148M variants and waist circumference (p=0.0376, p=0.0069 and p=0.0273, respectively).Conclusions This is the first demonstration that TM6SF2 E167K variant is an independent predictor of liver steatosis in chronic hepatitis C.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver 01/2015; DOI:10.1111/liv.12781 · 4.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a development of severe liver disease frequently due to HBV and/or HCV infection. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the development of HCC in patients with HBV-HCV chronic infection compared with patients with single HBV or HCV infection and the viral and host factors correlated to HCC in co-infected patients. We studied 268 patients with histology proven chronic hepatitis: 56 had HBV-HCV co-infection (HBV-HCV group), 46 had HBV infection (HBV group) and 166 had HCV infection (HCV group). Patients were followed up for at least 3 years. Viral and host factors were studied. HCC was more frequent in HBV-HCV group (14%) compared with HBV (2%, p = 0.006) and HCV monoinfected (4%, p = 0.006). The Mantel-Haenszel test used to investigate the relationship between HBV-HCV co-infection and development of HCC indicated an association between development of HCC and HBV-HCV co-infection (p < 0.001). In the HBV-HCV group, patients with HCC were significantly older (p = 0.000), had longer disease duration (p = 0.001), higher blood glucose levels (p = 0.001), lower levels of steatosis (p = 0.02), higher levels of fibrosis (p = 0.000), higher HCV RNA (p = 0.01) than those without HCC. ALT, lipid profile, PNPLA3 variant distribution and HBV viral load did not differ among co-infected patients with or without HCC. In conclusion HCC was more frequent in our patients with HBV-HCV co-infection, than in those with HBV or HCV mono-infection; possible associated risk factors for HCC development seem a long duration of disease, high levels of fibrosis and carbohydrate intolerance.
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    ABSTRACT: Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and multiple sclerosis (MS) are considered autoimmune diseases with a multifactorial aetiology which is thought to be due to a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental triggers. An association of both diseases has been previously described in sporadic case reports. Fingolimod, an antagonist of the sphingosine 1 phosphate receptor family (S1P1 3 4 5), is a promising and effective drug in the treatment of MS. Here we describe a case of PBC like syndrome that was unmasked, concomitantly or consequently to Epstein Barr virus (EBV) infection reactivation, in a 34 year old male patient with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis who was receiving fingolimod treatment.
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate steatosis, insulin resistance (IR) and patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) and their relation to disease progression in hepatitis B and C viruses (HCV-HBV) co-infected patients.
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a successful pathogen on the grounds that it exploits its host's metabolism to build up viral particles; moreover it favours its own survival by inducing chronic disease and the development of specific anatomic changes in the infected organ. Steatosis, therefore, is associated with HCV infection by necessity rather than by chance alone. Approximately 6% of HCV patients have steatohepatitis. Interestingly, HCV steatosis occurs in the setting of multiple metabolic abnormalities (hyperuricemia, reversible hypocholesterolemia, insulin resistance, arterial hypertension and expansion of visceral adipose tissue) collectively referred to as "hepatitis C-associated dysmetabolic syndrome" (HCADS). General, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)-like, mechanisms of steatogenesis (including increased availability of lipogenic substrates and de novo lipogenesis; decreased oxidation of fatty substrates and export of fatty substrates) are shared by all HCV genotypes. However, genotype 3 seemingly amplifies such steatogenic molecular mechanisms reported to occur in NAFLD via more profound changes in microsomal triglyceride transfer protein; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha; sterol regulatory element-binding proteins and phosphatase and tensin homologue. HCV steatosis has a remarkable clinical impact in as much as it is an acknowledged risk factor for accelerated fibrogenesis; for impaired treatment response to interferon and ribavirin; and development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Recent data, moreover, suggest that HCV-steatosis contributes to premature atherogenesis via both direct and indirect mechanisms. In conclusion, HCV steatosis fulfills all expected requirements necessary to perpetuate the HCV life cycle. A better understanding of the physiology of HCADS will likely result in a more successful handling of disease with improved antiviral success rates.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 06/2014; 20(23):7089-7103. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v20.i23.7089 · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents a major health issue worldwide due to its burden of chronic liver disease and extrahepatic manifestations including cardiovascular diseases, which are associated with excess mortality. Analysis of published studies supports the view that HCV infection should be considered a risk factor for the development of carotid atherosclerosis, heart failure and stroke. In contrast, findings from studies addressing coronary artery disease and HCV have yielded conflicting results. Therefore, meta-analytic reviews and prospective studies are warranted. The pathogenic mechanisms connecting HCV infection, chronic liver disease, and atherogenesis are not completely understood. However, it has been hypothesized that HCV may promote atherogenesis and its complications through several direct and indirect biological mechanisms involving HCV colonization and replication within arterial walls, liver steatosis and fibrosis, enhanced and imbalanced secretion of inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, endotoxemia, mixed cryoglobulinemia, perturbed cellular and humoral immunity, hyperhomocysteinemia, hypo-adiponectinaemia, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and other components of the metabolic syndrome. Understanding these complex mechanisms is of fundamental importance for the development of novel therapeutic approaches to prevent and to treat vascular complications in patients with chronic HCV infection. Currently, it seems that HCV clearance by interferon and ribavirin treatment significantly reduces non-liver-related mortality; moreover, interferon-based treatment appears to decrease the risk of ischemic stroke.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 04/2014; 20(13):3410-3417. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v20.i13.3410 · 2.43 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Hepatology 04/2014; 60(1):S288. DOI:10.1016/S0168-8278(14)60822-9 · 10.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and AimTo evaluate in anti-HCV-positive patients the clinical impact of the rs35761398 variant of the CNR2 gene leading to the substitution of Gln (Q) of codon 63 of the cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) with Arg (R).Patients and Methods253 consecutive anti-HCV-/HCV-RNA-positive patients were enrolled, of whom 53 were HCV carriers with persistently normal ALT (PNALT group) and 200 had a history of steadily abnormal serum ALT values (abnormal ALT group). All patients were naive for antiviral therapy and were screened for the CNR2 rs35761398 polymorphism by a TaqMan assay.ResultsSubjects in the PNALT group, compared with those in the abnormal ALT group were older (58.5±12 vs. 50.7±12.4 years, p = 0.001), more frequently female (66% vs. 42%, p = 0.003), with lower body massindex (BMI) (24.5±3.1 vs. 26.6±4.6, p = 0.003), and more frequently with HCV genotype 2 (43.1% vs 17.7%, p = 0.0002) and CB2-63 QQ variant (34% vs. 11%, p = 0.0001). Considering all 253 patients, no difference in the demographic, biochemical, or virological data was observed between patients in the different CB2-63 variants. The logistic regression analysis identified CB2-63 QQ, HCV genotype 2, older age and lower BMI as independent predictors of PNALT (p<0.00001).DiscussionThe CB2-63 QQ variant in HCV patients was independently associated with the PNALT status.
    PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(6):e99450. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0099450 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • International journal of cardiology 01/2014; 172(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2013.12.231 · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebrovascular diseases are leading cause of death worldwide. Plaque rupture and embolization account for one-third of ischemic stroke. The causes are not fully known, but inflammation plays a pathogenic role. Recently, HCV infection has been identify as risk of atherosclerosis. HCV replicates within carotid plaques and brain endothelia cells; moreover, HCV patients showed higher levels of inflammation. Thus, we hypothesized that subjects carrying HCV are at higher risk of stroke. Accordingly, we evaluated prevalence and role of HCV infection in patients with stroke. A priori sample size was calculated. Overall, 820 consecutive patients were enrolled, 123 with stroke and, as control, 697 age- and gender-matched (295 with COPD; 402 with diseases other than HCV-associated). Patients were evaluated for HCV and conventional risk of stroke. Prevalence of HCV was higher in patients with stroke than that observed in control (26.8% vs. 6.6%, p = 0.0001). An analysis of stroke patients showed that those HCV positive were younger (p = 0.017) had lower serum levels of cholesterol (p = 0.001), triglycerides (p = 0.045), and higher serum levels of inflammation markers (ESR, p = 0.001; CRP, p = 0.0001; fibrinogen, p = 0.012). A multivariate analysis showed that HCV infection was an independent risk factor of stroke (O.R. 2.04, 95% C.I. 1.69-2.46; p = 0.0001). A secondary analysis showed that HCV patients had higher (p = 0.031) prevalence of past ischemic heart disease. HCV infected patients are at higher and earlier risk of stroke. Inflammation is a key mediator. Clinicians in clinical practice and researchers in future trials should take into account these new findings.
    Atherosclerosis 11/2013; 231(1):22-26. DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2013.08.003 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus core antigen (HCVcoreAg) may be measured in serum with a sensitive, recently validated assay. Beyond its value as a marker of viral infection, there are little data on its relation with clinical, histological, and virological parameters. In this study, the significance of HCVcoreAg levels was studied in a prospective cohort of 114 patients with chronic hepatitis C. HCVcoreAg was measured by a commercial chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Clinical and virological data included quantitative HCV-RNA, HCV genotype, ALT, GGT, IL28B rs12979860 polymorphism as well as liver histology parameters. HCVcoreAg levels were correlated significantly with HCV-RNA (r = 0.56; P < 0.0001) but also with ALT levels (r = 0.258; P < 0.01) and liver necroinflammatory activity (r = 0.205; P < 0.04). Patients harbouring HCV genotype 3 showed lower levels of HCVcoreAg than both genotype 1 and two patients. In genotype 3, a direct correlation between steatosis and HCVcoreAg was found. Levels of HCVcoreAg also varied according to the IL28B genotype. These data suggest that the evaluation of HCVcoreAg serum levels may provide relevant data for the baseline clinical evaluation of chronic hepatitis C patients. HCVcoreAg serum levels may be a useful tool to further the understanding of chronic hepatitis C pathobiology. J. Med. Virol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Medical Virology 11/2013; 85(11). DOI:10.1002/jmv.23672 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The liver has a central role in regulating inflammation by its capacity to secrete a number of proteins that control both local and systemic inflammatory responses. Chronic inflammation or an exaggerated inflammatory response can produce detrimental effects on target organs. Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes liver inflammation by complex and not yet well-understood molecular pathways, including direct viral effects and indirect mechanisms involving cytokine pathways, oxidative stress and steatosis induction. An increasing body of evidence recognizes the inflammatory response in chronic hepatitis C as pathogenically linked to the development of both liver-limited injury (fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma) and extrahepatic HCV-related diseases (lymphoproliferative disease, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular and brain disease). Defining the complex mechanisms of HCV-induced inflammation could be crucial to determine the global impact of infection, to estimate progression of the disease, and to explore novel therapeutic approaches to avert HCV-related diseases. This review focuses on HCV-related clinical conditions as a result of chronic liver and systemic inflammatory states.
    10/2013; 5(10):528-540. DOI:10.4254/wjh.v5.i10.528
  • Ultraschall in der Medizin 10/2013; 34(S 01). DOI:10.1055/s-0033-1354999 · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the role of IL28-B polymorphism in the clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)/HCV coinfection during a long-term follow-up. Thirty-four consecutive patients with HBV surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive/anti-HCV-positive chronic hepatitis were retrospectively enrolled at their first liver biopsy (LB). For all patients, a documented clinical, serological and virological follow-up of at least 3 years (range 3-16 years) after LB and a sample of whole blood for genetic evaluation were available. Of the 24 patients with detectable serum HBV-DNA and HCV-RNA at their first observation, three cleared both HBV-DNA and HCV-RNA, 12 HCV-RNA and five HBV-DNA. Of the seven HBV DNA-positive/HCV RNA-negative patients at enrolment, three cleared HBV-DNA and one remained HBV DNA-positive and became HCV RNA-positive. All three HBV DNA-negative/HCV RNA-positive patients remained unchanged. Compared with the 12 patients with HCV persistence, the 15 patients who cleared HCV were younger, had lower serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), HCV load, and histological activity index (HAI) and fibrosis score, more frequently had IL28-B CC variant, had been receiving an interferon-based treatment and less frequently cleared serum HBV-DNA. To investigate the relationship between the IL28-B variants and clearance of HCV, excluding the confounding effect of interferon-based treatment, the Mantel-Haenszel test was used, which indicated an association between HCV clearance and IL28-B variants (p = 0.009). In chronic HBV/HCV coinfection, a long-term follow-up showed a frequent spontaneous or treatment-related clearance of active replication of one or both viruses and identified the IL28-B CC genotype as an independent predictor of HCV clearance.
    European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 10/2013; 33(4). DOI:10.1007/s10096-013-1985-7 · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 gene (PNPLA3) and the apolipoprotein C3 gene (APOC3) have been studied in relation to liver steatosis and liver disease outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of PNPLA3 p.I148M and APOC3 rs2854116 and rs2854117 polymorphisms on the clinical and histological presentation of chronic hepatitis C in an Italian population and their relationship with viral and anthropometric parameters. Patients with hepatitis C (n = 166) entered the study receiving a clinical, histological, virological and biochemical evaluation. APOC3 (rs2854116 and rs2854117) and PNPLA3 (p.I148M) variants were genotyped. PNPLA3 polymorphisms were associated with liver steatosis, which was significantly higher in patients with p.148I/M (P = 0.034) and p.148M/M (P = 0.004) variants than those homozygous for the PNPLA3 wild type. Excluding patients with HCV genotype 3, the association with liver steatosis and PNPLA3 variants was more marked (p.148I/I genotype vs p.148I/M, P = 0.02, and vs p.148M/M, P = 0.005). The APOC3 polymorphism was not associated with any of the evaluated parameters. Among the interacting factors, BMI and waist circumference correlated with liver steatosis (P = 0.008 and 0.004, respectively). Relationship between waist circumference and liver steatosis was analysed for the different PNPLA3 genotypes. Homozygous 148M patients showed a stronger correlation between waist circumference and steatosis than those carrying the other genotypes (P = 0.0047). In our hepatitis C-infected population, the PNPLA3 polymorphism influenced the development of liver steatosis, but not fibrosis progression. APOC3 polymorphisms had no effect on the development of steatosis and no influence on the PNPLA3 polymorphism. The amount of abdominal fat can increase the association of PNPLA3 p.I148M with liver steatosis.
    Journal of Viral Hepatitis 08/2013; 20(8):517-23. DOI:10.1111/jvh.12053 · 3.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: & Aims: The cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) has been implicated in liver disease. The single nucleotide polymorphism rs35761398 in CNR2, which encodes the CB2, substitutes glutamine (Q) 63 with arginine (R) and reduces the function of the gene product. We investigated the effects of CNR2 rs35761398 in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS: We studied 169 consecutive patients with asymptomatic chronic hepatitis (tested positive for anti-HCV and HCV-RNA) at 2 liver units in southern Italy; first liver biopsy samples were collected from July 2009 through December 2011. All patients were naive to antiviral therapy; CNR2 genotype was determined by PCR analysis. RESULTS: Patients with CB2-63 QQ variant had higher serum levels of aminotransferase than those with CB2-63 QR or RR variants; they also had higher histologic activity index (HAI) scores (8.6±3.8) than patients without the CB2-63 RR variant (5.3±3.6; P0.005) or those with the CB2-63 QR variant (5.8±3.3, P<.001). Patients with the different variants of CNR2 did not differ in fibrosis stage or steatosis score. Moderate or severe chronic hepatitis (HAI>8) was identified more frequently (55.5%) in patients with the CB2-63 QQ variant than in those with the 63 QR (20%; P<.005) or RR variant (17.4%; P<.005). In logistic regression analysis, the CB2-63 QQ variant and fibrosis score were independent predictors of moderate or severe chronic hepatitis (HAI >8; P<.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The CB2-63 QQ variant of CNR2 is associated with more severe inflammation and hepatocellular necrosis in patients with HCV infection.
    Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association 05/2013; 12(2). DOI:10.1016/j.cgh.2013.05.008 · 6.53 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Hepatology 04/2013; 45:S14. DOI:10.1016/S1590-8658(13)60041-9 · 10.40 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
661.79 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • University of Naples Federico II
      • Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery
      Napoli, Campania, Italy
  • 1984–2015
    • Second University of Naples
      • Faculty of Medicine and Surgery
      Caserta, Campania, Italy
  • 2003–2014
    • Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
      • Department of Biomedical, Metabolical and Neurosciences
      Modène, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 2006–2009
    • Università degli Studi di Napoli L'Orientale
      Napoli, Campania, Italy
  • 2000–2009
    • Naples Eastern University
      Napoli, Campania, Italy
  • 1989
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 1988–1989
    • Georgia Health Sciences University
      Augusta, Georgia, United States