[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caspofungin is an echinocandin antifungal agent administered once daily as an intravenous infusion. Relationships between caspofungin exposure and clinical efficacy and safety were investigated. End-of-infusion (CEOI) and trough (C24 hours) concentrations were obtained in 218 patients with mucosal (i.e., esophageal and/or oropharyngeal) candidiasis (MC) receiving caspofungin 35, 50, or 70 mg/day and 278 patients with invasive candidiasis (IC) receiving 50, 100, or 150 mg/day. Area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC0–24 hours) was obtained in a subset of MC patients (n = 99). Odds ratios were estimated for the association between log-transformed PK and efficacy response and the occurrence of common adverse events. No pharmacokinetic or hybrid parameter (ratio of AUC:MIC, CEOI:MIC, C24 hours:MIC) was significantly correlated with overall treatment outcome in either MC or IC, although this patient population may exhibit confounding factors which masked a potential pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship. An exploratory evaluation of MC identified significant pharmacokinetic correlations with endoscopic response, but not symptom response. Statistically significant associations were identified for IC patients with C. parapsilosis infections. Occurrence of clinical adverse events and/or laboratory abnormalities did not appear to be increased by higher caspofungin plasma concentrations. Caspofungin concentrations achieved with 50 mg/day are generally within the therapeutic window for the treatment of candidiasis.
Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development. 01/2014; 3(1).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus is a well-recognized, clinically important cause of nosocomial infections, and as such, a vaccine to prevent S. aureus infections would be an important achievement. A Phase IIB/III study of V710, a vaccine containing iron-regulated surface determinant B (IsdB), demonstrated significant sero-conversion rates in cardiovascular surgery patients following a single pre-surgery immunization. However, the vaccine was not efficacious in preventing bacteremia or deep sternal wound infection post-surgery, thus raising the possibility that IsdB might not be available for immune recognition during infection. The purpose of the work described herein was to evaluate and quantify the naturally occurring anti-IsdB levels at baseline and over time during infection, to understand whether IsdB is expressed during a S. aureus infection in hospitalized non-vaccinated patients. We evaluated baseline and follow-up titers in 3 populations: 1) healthy subjects, 2) hospitalized patients with non-S. aureus infections, and 3) hospitalized patients with S. aureus infections. Baseline anti-IsdB levels generally overlapped between the 3 groups, but were highly variable within each group. In healthy subjects, baseline and follow-up levels were highly correlated (Spearman's rho = 0.93), and the geometric mean fold-difference in anti-IsdB levels between study entry and last value was 0.9 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8 to 1.0 ; p-value:0.09), showing no trend over time. The convalescent fold-rise in anti-IsdB levels from baseline was 1.7-fold (95% CI: 1.3 to 2.2, p = 0.0008) during S. aureus infection, significantly different from a 1.0-fold (95% CI: 0.9-1.2, p = 0.60) in non-S. aureus infection, p = 0.005. Additionally, S. aureus isolates (51) obtained from the hospitalized patient group expressed the IsdB protein in vitro. Collectively, these data suggest that IsdB expression levels rise substantially following infection with S. aureus, but not with other pathogens, and IsdB is likely well-conserved across S. aureus strains.
Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics. 06/2013; 9(9).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infections due to Staphylococcus aureus are serious complications of cardiothoracic surgery. A novel vaccine candidate (V710) containing the highly conserved S. aureus iron surface determinant B is immunogenic and generally well tolerated in volunteers.
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of preoperative vaccination in preventing serious postoperative S. aureus infection in patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery.
Double-blind, randomized, event-driven trial conducted between December 2007 and August 2011 among 8031 patients aged 18 years or older who were scheduled for full median sternotomy within 14 to 60 days of vaccination at 165 sites in 26 countries.
Participants were randomly assigned to receive a single 0.5-mL intramuscular injection of either V710 vaccine, 60 μg (n = 4015), or placebo (n = 4016).
The primary efficacy end point was prevention of S. aureus bacteremia and/or deep sternal wound infection (including mediastinitis) through postoperative day 90. Secondary end points included all S. aureus surgical site and invasive infections through postoperative day 90. Three interim analyses with futility assessments were planned.
The independent data monitoring committee recommended termination of the study after the second interim analysis because of safety concerns and low efficacy. At the end of the study, the V710 vaccine was not significantly more efficacious than placebo in preventing either the primary end points (22/3528 V710 vaccine recipients [2.6 per 100 person-years] vs 27/3517 placebo recipients [3.2 per 100 person-years]; relative risk, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.44-1.48; P = .58) or secondary end points despite eliciting robust antibody responses. Compared with placebo, the V710 vaccine was associated with more adverse experiences during the first 14 days after vaccination (1219/3958 vaccine recipients [30.8%; 95% CI, 29.4%-32.3%] and 866/3967 placebo recipients [21.8%; 95% CI, 20.6%-23.1%], including 797 [20.1%; 95% CI, 18.9%-21.4%] and 378 [9.5%; 95% CI, 8.6%-10.5%] with injection site reactions and 66 [1.7%; 95% CI, 1.3%-2.1%] and 51 [1.3%; 95% CI, 1.0%-1.7%] with serious adverse events, respectively) and a significantly higher rate of multiorgan failure during the entire study (31 vs 17 events; 0.9 [95% CI, 0.6-1.2] vs 0.5 [95% CI, 0.3-0.8] events per 100 person-years; P = .04). Although the overall incidence of vaccine-related serious adverse events (1 in each group) and the all-cause mortality rate (201/3958 vs 177/3967; 5.7 [95% CI, 4.9-6.5] vs 5.0 [95% CI, 4.3-5.7] deaths per 100 person-years; P = .20) were not statistically different between groups, the mortality rate in patients with staphylococcal infections was significantly higher among V710 vaccine than placebo recipients (15/73 vs 4/96; 23.0 [95% CI, 12.9-37.9] vs 4.2 [95% CI, 1.2-10.8] per 100 person-years; difference, 18.8 [95% CI, 8.0-34.1] per 100 person-years).
Among patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery with median sternotomy, the use of a vaccine against S. aureus compared with placebo did not reduce the rate of serious postoperative S. aureus infections and was associated with increased mortality among patients who developed S. aureus infections. These findings do not support the use of the V710 vaccine for patients undergoing surgical interventions.
clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00518687.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 04/2013; 309(13):1368-78. · 29.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: S. aureus causes serious infections following cardiothoracic (CT) surgery. V710 is a novel vaccine containing the conserved S. aureus iron surface determinant B (IsdB) and was immunogenic & generally well-tolerated in volunteers. We studied preoperative vaccination to prevent serious S. aureus infections after CT surgery.
Methods: In a blinded, randomized, event-driven Phase 2b/3 study, eligible adult patients scheduled for median sternotomy within 14-60 days of entry received a single 0.5-mL injection of V710 (60 μg) or placebo. The primary efficacy outcome was prevention of S. aureus bacteremia & deep sternal wound infection (including mediastinitis) through postoperative Day 90. Death, S. aureus-associated, & vaccine-related serious adverse events were monitored for the duration of the study.
Results: An independent monitoring committee recommended study termination after the 2nd planned interim analysis due to safety concerns & low efficacy. Anti-IsdB IgG titers at the time of surgery in V710 recipients were consistently higher than prevaccination baseline levels & significantly higher than in placebo recipients. In V710 recipients, the geometric mean fold-rise [95% CI] in antibody titer with opsonophagocytic activity from baseline was 2.5 [2.2, 2.8] just prior to surgery & 1.9 [1.6, 2.2] on postoperative Day 90. However, V710 was not more efficacious than placebo in preventing primary endpoints (22 in 3528 V710 recipients vs 27 in 3517 placebo recipients; p = 0.584). Rates of vaccine-related serious adverse events (1 in each group) & all-cause mortality (5.7 vs 5.0 deaths per 100 person-yrs; p = 0.200) were not statistically different between groups, but V710 was associated with a higher rate of postoperative multi-organ failure than placebo (0.9 vs 0.5 events per 100 person-yrs; p=0.042). Mortality rates in patients who developed S. aureus infections were higher among V710 than placebo recipients (24.4 vs 4.2 per 100 person-yrs; D [95% CI] = 20.2 [9.2, 35.7]).
Conclusion: Despite eliciting opsonophagocytic antibody, preoperative administration of V710 did not reduce serious S. aureus infections after CT surgery. Postoperative multi-organ failure occurred more often in V710 than placebo recipients. Higher mortality was observed among S. aureus-infected V710 recipients than S. aureus-infected placebo recipients.
IDWeek 2012 Meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America; 10/2012
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The safety and efficacy profile of caspofungin and micafungin in Japanese patients with fungal infections were directly compared in this prospective, randomized, double-blind study. The proportion of patients who developed significant drug-related adverse event(s) (defined as a serious drug-related adverse event or a drug-related adverse event leading to study therapy discontinuation) was compared in 120 patients [caspofungin 50 mg, or 50 mg following a 70-mg loading dose on Day 1 (hereinafter, 70/50 mg) group: 60 patients; micafungin 150 mg: 60 patients]. The overall response rate was primarily evaluated in the per-protocol set (PPS) population. The proportion of patients who developed significant drug-related adverse events was 5.0 % (3/60) in the caspofungin group and 10.0 % (6/60) in the micafungin group [95 % confidence interval (CI) for the difference: -15.9 %, 5.2 %]. The favorable overall response in the PPS population for patients with esophageal candidiasis, invasive candidiasis, and chronic pulmonary aspergillosis including aspergilloma was 100.0 % (6/6), 100.0 % (3/3), and 46.7 % (14/30) in the caspofungin group, and 83.3 % (5/6), 100.0 % (1/1), and 42.4 % (14/33) in the micafungin group, respectively. In Japanese patients with Candida or Aspergillus infections, there was no statistical difference in the safety between caspofungin and micafungin. Consistent with other data on these two agents, the efficacy of caspofungin and micafungin was similar.
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 10/2012; · 3.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacteremia is the second leading cause of death in patients with end-stage renal disease who are on hemodialysis. A vaccine eliciting long-term immune responses against Staphylococcus aureus in patients on chronic hemodialysis may reduce the incidence of bacteremia and its complications in these patients. V710 is a vaccine containing iron surface determinant B (IsdB), a highly conserved S. aureus surface protein, which has been shown to be immunogenic in healthy subjects. In this blinded phase II immunogenicity study, 206 chronic hemodialysis patients between the ages of 18 and 80 years old were randomized to receive 60 μg V710 (with or without adjuvant), 90 μg V710 (with adjuvant), or a placebo in various combinations on days 1, 28, and 180. All 201 vaccinated patients were to be followed through day 360. The primary hypothesis was that at least 1 of the 3 groups receiving 2 V710 doses on days 1 and 28 would have a ≥2.5 geometric mean fold rise (GMFR) in anti-IsdB IgG titers over the baseline 28 days after the second vaccination (day 56). At day 56, all three groups receiving 2 doses of V710 achieved a ≥2.5 GMFR in anti-IsdB antibodies compared to the baseline (P values of <0.001 for all 3 groups), satisfying the primary immunogenicity hypothesis. None of the 33 reported serious adverse experiences were considered vaccine related by the investigators. V710 induced sustained antibody responses for at least 1 year postvaccination in patients on chronic hemodialysis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Merck V710 is a novel vaccine that contains the highly conserved Staphylococcus aureus iron surface determinant B (IsdB) protein. V710 has induced positive immune responses in healthy subjects. The purpose of the two studies described herein was to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of two different formulations of V710. Both studies were randomized, controlled, double-blind, parallel-group trials. Study 1 compared liquid, aluminum-adjuvanted V710 (30 μg) with liquid, non-adjuvanted V710 (30 μg) in a 1:1 ratio in 64 healthy adults (18-70 years). Study 2 compared non-adjuvanted lyophilized V710 (60 μg) with saline placebo in a 4:1 ratio in 51 healthy adults (18-80 years). Blood was collected at screening and up to Day 360 postvaccination in Study 1, and at screening and up to Day 84 postvaccination in Study 2. Sera were analyzed for IsdB-specific antibodies using a total IgG assay. The primary endpoints in Study 1 were the proportion of patients with a positive immune response (≥2-fold rise in IsdB-specific IgG antibody level) the geometric mean concentration (GMC), and the geometric mean-fold rise (GMFR), all from baseline at Day 14. The primary endpoint in Study 2 was the GMFR in IsdB-specific IgG antibody concentration from baseline at Day 14. In Study 1, 84.4% responded in the adjuvanted V710 group, and 71.9% in the non-adjuvanted V710 group. The GMC was 115.4 μg/mL in the adjuvanted group and 99.1 μg/mL in the nonadjuvanted group. The GMFR in antibody concentration in the group receiving aluminum-adjuvanted V710 was 4.5 and the GMFR in the group receiving non-adjuvanted V710 was 4.0. In Study 2, the GMFR in antibody concentration in the V710 group was 5.3, and 80.5% had a positive immune response. None responded in the placebo group. Positive immune response was seen in the active treatment groups over the full duration of each study. There were no serious adverse experiences (AE) in either study, and no patients discontinued due to an AE. There were no clinically meaningful differences in AEs between groups in either study. In conclusion, V710, both with and without aluminum adjuvant, and in both liquid and lyophilized formulations, was immunogenic within 14 days of vaccination. All treatments showed similar safety profiles.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Safety experience is available from 32 completed clinical studies (17 Phase I and 15 Phase II-III) of caspofungin (CAS) conducted between 1995 and 2010 in adult and paediatric patients. Clinical and laboratory adverse events (AEs) were collected from all enrolled subjects and patients. Investigators identified the seriousness, causality and result of all AEs noted during study therapy and for up to 28 days post therapy. Up to 31 December 2010, full safety data are available from 1951 individuals who have received at least one dose of CAS in Phase I-III clinical studies, including 171 paediatric patients, 394 volunteer adult subjects and 1386 adult patients (276 with oropharyngeal/oesophageal candidiasis, 366 with invasive candidiasis, 180 with invasive aspergillosis and 564 with persistent fever and neutropenia). CAS was administered for up to 196 days at daily doses ranging from 5mg to 210 mg. Overall, 41.8% of CAS recipients had an AE that was classified as drug-related. The most frequently reported drug-related AEs were fever (9.3%), chills (5.2%), increased alanine aminotransferase (6.5%), increased aspartate aminotransferase (6.0%) and increased alkaline phosphatase (5.2%). Serious AEs were reported in 27.3% of CAS recipients overall but were attributed to CAS in only 0.8%, and discontinuation of CAS due to a drug-related AE was infrequent (2.7%). Dose-related CAS toxicity was not observed. In conclusion, CAS has demonstrated a favourable safety profile in 1951 adult and paediatric patients enrolled in clinical trials.
International journal of antimicrobial agents 09/2011; 38(6):540-4. · 3.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Safety and efficacy outcomes were retrospectively compared for obese versus non-obese patients who received standard caspofungin doses for different clinical conditions in nine clinical trials within the Merck caspofungin database. Favorable outcomes were as defined in specific protocols. Safety was assessed based on drug-related adverse experiences (AEs). The proportion of obese patients in the esophageal candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis studies was lower than seen in the invasive candidiasis and empirical therapy studies. The proportions of patients with a favorable response were generally similar in non-obese and obese patients with invasive candidiasis (73% versus 77%) or patients receiving empirical therapy (33% versus 40%). The efficacy analysis in patients with invasive aspergillosis or esophageal candidiasis was limited due to the small number of obese patients. The proportion of favorable responses in these two infections was similar among normal/underweight patients as compared to obese/overweight patients, i.e., esophageal candidiasis 81% versus 88% and invasive aspergillosis 48% versus 44%, respectively. AEs related to caspofungin occurred in similar proportions with non-obese and obese patients across all and within the four clinical conditions. The proportion of obese patients with serious drug-related AEs (1%) or caspofungin discontinuations due to toxicity (5%) was low. In the post-hoc analysis, caspofungin appeared to be as efficacious and well-tolerated in obese patients as in non-obese patients.
Medical mycology: official publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology 04/2011; 49(7):748-54. · 2.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of caspofungin, an echinocandin antifungal, administered once daily as a 1-hour intravenous infusion in children and adolescents (ages, 3 months to 17 years), based on pooled data from four prospective pediatric studies. Caspofungin dosing was body-surface-area (BSA) based (50 mg/m2 daily after 70 mg/m2 on day 1). The area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to 24 h (AUC0-24), the concentration at the end of infusion (1 h after the start of infusion; C1), and the trough concentration (24 h after the start of infusion; C24) were obtained for 32 pediatric patients with invasive candidiasis, 10 with invasive aspergillosis, and 82 in the setting of empirical therapy with fever and neutropenia. Exposures were modestly higher (93 to 134% for C1, 45 to 78% for C24, ∼40% for AUC0-24) in pediatric patients than in adults receiving the standard 50-mg daily dose. The potential for covariates (age, gender, weight, race, renal status, serum albumin level, and disease state) to alter PKs was evaluated with a multiple-linear-regression model. Weight and disease state had statistically significant (P<0.05) yet small effects on caspofungin PKs in pediatric patients. Concomitant use of dexamethasone (a cytochrome p450 inducer) was associated with a statistically significant reduction (44%) in C24 in a limited number of patients (n=4). Odds ratios were estimated for the association between log-transformed PKs and treatment outcome or adverse events. No PK parameter or hybrid parameter (AUC/MIC, C1/MIC, and C24/MIC) was significantly correlated with treatment outcome or adverse events in the setting of similar response levels as adults, which suggests that the concentrations examined fall within the therapeutic window for caspofungin in pediatric patients. These results support a 50-mg/m2 daily dosing regimen (after a 70-mg/m2 loading dose) in children ages 3 months to 17 years.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 02/2011; 55(5):2098-105. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Merck V710 is a novel vaccine containing the conserved Staphylococcus aureus iron surface determinant B shown to be protective in animal models. A phase I, multicenter, double-blind study of the dose range was conducted to assess the immunogenicity and safety of an adjuvanted liquid formulation of V710. A total of 124 adults (18 to 55 years of age) were randomized 1:1:1:1 to receive one 0.5-ml intramuscular injection of V710 (5 μg, 30 μg, or 90 μg) or saline placebo. A positive immune response was defined as at least a 2-fold increase in IsdB-specific IgG levels from baseline levels. Local and systemic adverse events were assessed for 5 and 14 days, respectively, following vaccination. Positive immune responses were detected in 12 (67%) of the 18 subjects in the groups receiving 30 and 90 μg V710 tested at day 10. At day 14, a significantly greater proportion of subjects manifested a positive immune response with higher geometric mean concentrations in the V710 30-μg (86%; geometric mean concentration of 116 μg/ml) and 90-μg (87%; geometric mean concentration of 131 μg/ml) dose groups than in the V710 5-μg (29%; geometric mean concentration of 51 μg/ml) or placebo (4%; geometric mean concentration of 23 μg/ml) groups. Immune responses were durable through day 84. Subjects <40 and ≥40 years of age had comparable immune responses. The most common adverse events were injection-site pain, nausea, fatigue, and headache, usually of mild intensity. No immediate reactions or serious adverse events were reported. In this first study of V710 in humans, a single 30-μg or 90-μg dose was more immunogenic than the 5-μg dose or placebo. Immune responses were evident by 10 to 14 days after vaccination in most responders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Persistently febrile neutropenic children at risk for invasive fungal infections receive empiric antifungal therapy as a standard of care. However, little is known about the role of echinocandins and liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) for empiric antifungal therapy in pediatric patients.
Methods: Patients between the ages of 2 to 17 years with persistent fever and neutropenia were randomly assigned to receive caspofungin (70 mg/m2 loading dose on day 1, then 50 mg/m2 daily [maximum 70 mg/d]) or l-AmB (3 mg/kg daily) in a 2:1 ratio. Evaluation of safety was the primary objective of the study. Efficacy was also evaluated, with a successful outcome defined as fulfilling all components of a prespecified 5-part composite endpoint. Suspected invasive fungal infections were evaluated by an independent, treatment-blinded adjudication committee.
Results: Eighty-two patients received study therapy (caspofungin 56, l-AmB 26), and 81 were evaluated for efficacy (caspofungin 56; l-AmB 25). Outcomes for safety and efficacy endpoints were similar for both study arms. Adverse drug-related event rates [95% confidence interval] were similar between the caspofungin and l-AmB groups (clinical 48.2% [34.7–62.0] versus 46.2% [26.6–66.6]; laboratory 10.7% [4.0–21.9] versus 19.2% [6.6–39.4]). Serious drug-related adverse events occurred in 1 (1.8%) of caspofungin-treated patients and 3 (11.5%) of l-AmB-treated patients. Overall success rates [95% CI] were 46.4% [33.4–59.5] for caspofungin and 32.0% [13.7–50.3] for l-AmB.
Conclusions: Caspofungin and l-AmB were comparable in tolerability, safety, and efficacy as empiric antifungal therapy for persistently febrile neutropenic pediatric patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing rates of invasive candidiasis caused by non-albicans Candida species have been reported worldwide. Particular concerns have been raised for C. parapsilosis because of reduced in vitro susceptibility to echinocandins. We identified 212 patients with invasive candidiasis due to non-albicans Candida species (>or=5 cases per species) in 5 clinical trials of caspofungin monotherapy from the pharmaceutical sponsor's (Merck and Co., Inc.) database: 71 cases were caused by C. parapsilosis, 65 by C. tropicalis, 54 by C. glabrata, 10 by C. krusei, 9 by C. guilliermondii, and 5 by C. lusitaniae. One hundred sixty-seven cases caused by C. albicans were also identified. Efficacy was assessed at the end of caspofungin therapy. Success (favorable overall response) required favorable clinical and microbiological responses. The mean APACHE II scores were 16.5 in the non-albicans group and 15.7 in the C. albicans group. Neutropenia at study entry was more common in the non-albicans group (12%) than in the C. albicans group (5%). The median duration of caspofungin therapy was 14 days in both groups. The success rates were 77% in both groups and at least 70% for each non-albicans species: 74% for C. parapsilosis, 71% for C. tropicalis, 85% for C. glabrata, 70% for C. krusei, 89% for C. guilliermondii, and 100% for C. lusitaniae. The times to negative blood culture were similar for the various species. The overall mortality rates were 26% in the non-albicans group and 29% in the C. albicans group. Drug-related serious adverse events and discontinuations due to caspofungin toxicity were uncommon. Although the sample sizes were limited, caspofungin demonstrated favorable efficacy and safety profiles in the treatment of invasive candidiasis caused by the following non-albicans Candida species: C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. guilliermondii, and C. lusitaniae.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 03/2010; 54(5):1864-71. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyzed the caspofungin safety experience in 5 clinical registration studies in 171 pediatric patients, 1 week to 17 years of age. Caspofungin was administered for 1 to 87 (mean 12.1) days. The most common drug-related adverse events were fever, increased AST, increased ALT, and rash; few events were serious or required treatment discontinuation. Caspofungin was well tolerated in this pediatric population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The standard caspofungin treatment regimen (50 mg/day after a 70-mg dose on day 1) is effective and well tolerated for the treatment of invasive candidiasis, but experience with higher doses of caspofungin is limited. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of caspofungin at 3 times the standard dosing regimen.
Patients with proven invasive candidiasis were randomized to receive a standard or high-dose (150 mg/day) caspofungin treatment regimen. Safety was assessed in all patients as treated. Efficacy was assessed as a secondary objective in a full-analysis-set population. A favorable overall response was defined as symptom resolution and microbiological clearance at the end of caspofungin therapy.
A total of 204 patients were included in the safety analysis (104 received the standard regimen, and 100 received the high-dose regimen), and 197 were included in the efficacy analysis (102 and 95 in the standard and high-dose treatment groups, respectively). Patient demographic characteristics, neutropenia status (6.7% and 8.0% had neutropenia, respectively), and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores (mean, 16.5 and 17, respectively) were similar between treatment groups. Significant drug-related adverse events occurred in 1.9% of patients receiving the standard regimen and 3.0% of patients receiving the high-dose regimen (difference, 1.1%; 95% confidence interval, -4.1% to 6.8%). The most-common drug-related adverse events in the standard and high-dose treatment groups were phlebitis (3.8% and 2.0%, respectively), increased alkaline phosphatase level (6.9% and 2.0%, respectively), and increased aspartate transaminase level (4.0% and 2.0%, respectively). Overall, 71.6% of patients who received the standard regimen and 77.9% of patients who received the high-dose regimen had favorable overall responses (difference, 6.3%; 95% confidence interval, -5.9% to 18.4%; not statistically significant). Mortality at 8 weeks after therapy was similar between groups.
Both caspofungin dosing regimens were effective and well tolerated in patients with invasive candidiasis. No safety concerns were found for caspofungin at a dosage of 150 mg/day.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of caspofungin in pediatric patients with invasive aspergillosis, invasive candidiasis, or esophageal candidiasis.
This was a multicenter, prospective, open-label study in children 3 months to 17 years of age with proven or probable invasive aspergillosis, proven invasive candidiasis, or proven esophageal candidiasis. All of the patients received caspofungin 70 mg/m(2) on day 1, followed by 50 mg/m(2) per day (maximum: 70 mg/day), as primary or salvage monotherapy. Favorable response was defined as complete resolution of clinical findings and microbiologic (or radiographic/endoscopic) eradication (complete response) or significant improvement in these parameters (partial response). Efficacy was assessed at the end of caspofungin therapy in patients with a confirmed diagnosis who received >/=1 dose of caspofungin. The primary safety evaluation was the proportion of patients with clinical or laboratory drug-related adverse events.
Of the 49 patients enrolled, 3 were <2 years of age, 30 were 2 to 11 years of age, and 16 were 12 to 17 years of age. Forty-eight patients had confirmed disease: invasive aspergillosis (10), invasive candidiasis (37), and esophageal candidiasis (1). Eight of 10 patients with invasive aspergillosis had pulmonary involvement; 34 of 37 patients with invasive candidiasis had candidemia. Caspofungin was given for 2 to 87 days. Success at end of therapy was achieved in 5 of 10 patients with invasive aspergillosis, 30 of 37 with invasive candidiasis, and 1 of 1 with esophageal candidiasis. One patient (invasive candidiasis) relapsed during the 28-day follow-up period. Drug-related clinical or laboratory adverse events occurred in 27% and 35% of patients, respectively. There were no serious drug-related adverse events or discontinuations of caspofungin because of toxicity.
Caspofungin was generally well tolerated in pediatric patients aged 6 months through 17 years. Efficacy outcomes in patients with invasive aspergillosis or invasive candidiasis were consistent with previous adult studies in these indications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A direct binding Luminex assay has been developed and validated for the detection of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to the Staphylococcus aureus iron surface determinant B protein (IsdB) in serum following natural infection or immunization with investigational Saccharomyces cerevisiae-derived IsdB-based vaccines. To ensure that IsdB-specific IgG antibodies are measured following immunization with S. cerevisiae-derived IsdB, an Escherichia coli-produced IsdB antigen is used in the assay. The IsdB antigen is covalently conjugated to maleimide microspheres via an engineered carboxy-terminal cysteine residue. Antibody titers are determined in a direct binding format, where the phycoerythrin-labeled monoclonal antibody (HP6043) specific for IgG1 to IgG4 binds to human serum IgG antibodies. Fluorescent signal emitted from bound HP6043 is directly proportional to an individual's antibody levels. A pooled human reference serum from vaccinees with high titers to IsdB is used to generate a 12-point standard curve. The correlation of mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) units to microg/ml of IsdB-specific IgG is made by interpolating the MFI data through a four-parameter curve-fitting algorithm. The assay is sensitive to 1.06 microg/ml with a dynamic range of 2.1 to 10,625 microg/ml. The overall specificity of the assay is >96% and the linearity (parallelism) of the assay is -4% per 10-fold dilution. The total precision of the assay was 16.6% relative standard deviation across three different IsdB antigen lots, three different microsphere lots, two secondary antibody lots, and three different operators. The assay has proven useful for evaluating the immune response following the administration of different dosages and formulations of investigational IsdB-based vaccines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although information about the efficacy and safety experience with caspofungin at 50 mg/m(2) daily is available for children and adolescents, the dosing regimen in infants and toddlers 3 to 24 months of age has yet to be established. We studied the pharmacokinetics and safety of caspofungin at 50 mg/m(2) once daily in nine patients 10 to 22 months (median, 13 months) of age with fever and neutropenia who received caspofungin once daily for 2 to 21 (mean, 9.3) days. Plasma caspofungin concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography assay on days 1 and 4. On day 4, the area under the curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC(0-24)) was 130.3 microg-h/ml, the peak concentration (C(1)) was 17.2 microg/ml, and the trough concentration (C(24)) was 1.6 microg/ml. The day 4 geometric mean ratios (GMRs) and 90% confidence interval (CI) for these parameters in infants/toddlers relative to adults were 1.26 (1.06, 1.50), 1.83 (1.57, 2.14), and 0.81 (0.64, 1.04), respectively. Relative to children (2 to 11 years of age), the day 4 GMRs (and 90% CI) were 1.13 (0.89, 1.44), 1.10 (0.85, 1.42), and 1.12 (0.72, 1.76), respectively. The harmonic mean elimination phase t(1/2) in infants/toddlers (8.8 h) was reduced approximately 33% relative to adults (13.0 h) but was similar to that in children (8.2 h). Clinical adverse events occurred in seven patients (78%); none were considered drug related. Laboratory adverse events occurred in five patients (56%) and were considered drug related in three (33%). There were no infusion-related events or discontinuations due to toxicity. Caspofungin at 50 mg/m(2) daily was well tolerated in infants and toddlers; the AUC and caspofungin C(24) were generally comparable to those in adults receiving caspofungin at 50 mg daily.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 01/2009; 53(4):1450-6. · 4.57 Impact Factor