[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic inflammation has been considered as an important risk factor for development of prostate cancer. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize microbial moieties or endogenous molecules and have an important role in the triggering and promoting inflammation. In this study, we examined whether expression of TLR4 and TLR5 was associated with progression of prostate transformation in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. The expression of TLR4 and TLR5 was evaluated by immunohistochemisty (IHC) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded prostate tissue from wild-type (WT) and TRAMP mice. Normal prostate tissue from WT mice showed strong expression of TLR4 and TLR5. However, TLR4 expression in the prostate tissue from TRAMP mice gradually decreased as pathologic grade became more aggressive. TLR5 expression in the prostate tissue from TRAMP mice also decreased in low-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), high-grade PIN and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Our study suggests that decreased expression of TLR4 and TLR5 may contribute to prostate tumorigenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Corynebacterium (C.) bovis infection in nude mice causes hyperkeratosis and weight loss and has been reported worldwide but not in Korea. In 2011, nude mice from an animal facility in Korea were found to have white flakes on their dorsal skin. Histopathological testing revealed that the mice had hyperkeratosis and Gram-positive bacteria were found in the skin. We identified isolated bacteria from the skin lesions as C. bovis using PCR and 16S rRNA sequencing. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. bovis infection in nude mice from Korea.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study reports the first case of Capillaria hepatica infection in a nutria in Korea. Ten nutrias, captured near the Nakdong River, were submitted to our laboratory for necropsy. White-yellowish nodules were found in the liver of 1 of the nutrias at necropsy. Histologically, the lesions were granulomatous, and infiltrations of lipid-laden macrophages, eosinophils, and several multinucleated giant cells were observed. The lesions consisted of numerous eggs and necrotic hepatocytes. The eggs were lemon-shaped and had polar plugs at the ends of both long sides. The eggs were morphologically identified as those of C. hepatica. Worldwide, C. hepatica infection in nutrias is very rare. Nutrias are a kind of livestock, as well as wildlife; therefore, an epidemiological study for parasitic infections needs to be conducted.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology 10/2014; 52(5):527-9. DOI:10.3347/kjp.2014.52.5.527 · 1.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although various Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been associated with immune response and tumorigenesis in the prostate cells, little is known about the role of TLR7. Accordingly, we examined the expression of TLR7 during tumour progression of TRMAP (transgenic mouse model for prostate cancer) mice and its role on cell growth.
Toll-like receptor7 expression was examined by RT-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Cell growth was examined by MTT assay. Colony formation was investigated by crystal violet staining.
Strong expression of TLR7 was detected in the normal prostate epithelia of Wild-type (WT) mice, but not in TLR7-deficient mice. In contrast, TLR7 expression was weak in transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP)-C2 cells, as compared with murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). Moreover, TLR7 mRNA was markedly expressed in RWPE-1 cells (non-cancerous prostate epithelial cells), but not in PC3 and DU145 (prostate cancer cells). Immunohistochemically, TLR7 expression gradually decreased in TRAMP mice depending on the pathologic grade of the prostate cells. TLR7 agonists increased both the gene and protein expression of TLR7 and promoted production of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines and IFN-β gene expression in prostate cancer cell lines. Moreover, loxoribine inhibited the growth and colony formation of TRAMP-C2 cells dependent of TLR7.
These findings suggest that TLR7 may participate in tumour suppression in the prostate cells.
American Journal Of Reproductive Immunology 06/2013; 70(4). DOI:10.1111/aji.12146 · 2.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in men worldwide. In the present study, we examined in vitro and in vivo antitumor effect of the small molecule imiquimod, also known as a TLR7 agonist, against prostate cancer. Imiquimod inhibited the growth of mouse (TRAMP‑C2) and human (PC-3) prostate cancer cells. Treatment with imiquimod induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase in TRMPA-C2 cells, confirmed by the changes of G2/M checkpoint regulators such as reduction of cyclin B1 expression and increase of phospho-CDC2 and p21 in TRAMP-C2 cells treated with imiquimod. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis revealed that imiquimod induced direct apoptosis in TRAMP-C2 cells via a mitochondrial‑dependent pathway. Intratumoral injection with imiquimod reduced significantly tumor growth and increased apoptotic cells in mice subcutaneously implanted with TRAMP-C2 cells. Our results indicate that imiquimod can be an alternative therapeutic for locally generated prostate cancer.
International Journal of Oncology 04/2013; 42(6). DOI:10.3892/ijo.2013.1898 · 3.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 7-Diethylamino-4-methylcoumarin (DEMC) is a fluorescent whitening agent (FWAs). There have been some studies on DEMC's protective effects against biological activity but there are few papers about the in vivo toxicity of DEMC. In this study, we used wild-type zebrafish embryos 3 days post fertilization (dpf). Test solutions with DEMC concentrations were negative control (without vehicle), 0 (with vehicle, 0.01% v/v ethanol), 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, 1.5 and 2 ppm. Embryos and larvae were counted for survival rate and hatching rate. Heart rates were also counted at 2.5 and 3.0 dpf. At 3.0 dpf, quantitative RT-PCR was performed with some samples (0, 0.25, 0.75 and 1.25 ppm) to determine the toxic effect to DEMC by detecting the expression levels of toxic-responsive genes. We used 11 genes, which included oxidative stress-related genes [sod(Mn), sod(Cu,Zn) and hsp70], mitochondrial metabolism-related genes (coxI, pyc, cyt and cyclinG1) and apoptosis-related genes (c-jun, bcl2, bax and p53). High-concentration DEMC-treated groups showed significant different survival rate, hatching rate and heart rate compared with low-concentration DEMC-treated groups. The LC50 of this chemical, 0.959 ppm, was calculated. We also confirmed that some genes in the DEMC exposure groups showed significantly up-regulations in expression levels compared with control groups. We concluded that the fluorescence agent, DEMC, has possible developmental toxicities and alteration effect of gene expression, which are related to oxidative stress, mitochondrial metabolism and apoptosis in zebrafish embryos.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nod1 and Nod2 are cytosolic receptors which are responsible for sensing bacterial peptidoglycan derivatives. In this study, we determined whether Nod1 and Nod2 are involved in the innate immune responses of prostate epithelial cells.
The expression of Nod1 and Nod2 was examined by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. ELISA was performed to determine the production of cytokines/chemokines. Activation of NF-κB and MAPK was examined using western blot analysis.
The Nod1 gene was distinctly expressed in all tested cells including DU145, PC3, and TRAMP-C2 cells, whereas Nod2 expression was weak. Both Nod1 and Nod2 proteins were expressed in normal mouse prostate epithelia with difference of expression levels. Tri-DAP (Nod1 agonist), but not MDP (Nod2), increased the production of IL-8 (or KC) and IL-6 in prostate epithelial cells. Tri-DAP and MDP could upregulate the gene expression of COX-2 and activate NF-κB and MAPK. In addition, Tri-DAP and MDP synergized with TLR agonists to induce the production of IL-8/KC or IL-6 in PC3 and TRAMP-C2 cells. We finally showed that Nod1 and Nod2 were also expressed in a wide range of prostate lesions including prostate intraepithelial neoplasm (PIN), phyllodes-like tumor, and adenocarcinoma in TRAMP (transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate) mice, even though the expression level of Nod1 and Nod2 was different.
These results indicate that Nod1 and Nod2 may play important roles in the innate immune response of prostate epithelial cells and the development and progression of prostate cancer.
The Prostate 09/2012; 72(12):1351-8. DOI:10.1002/pros.22483 · 3.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Terahertz (THz) imaging is a nondestructive, label-free, rapid imaging technique which gives the possibility of a real-time tracing of drugs within the skin. We evaluated the feasibility of THz dynamic imaging for visualizing serial changes in the distribution and penetration of a topical agent, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) containing ketoprofen, using excised mouse skins. THz imaging was performed for 6 h after drug application to the skin and was compared with the results obtained using the Franz cell diffusion test, a standard in vitro skin absorption test. THz dynamic reflection imaging showed that the reflection signals decreased rapidly during the early time period, and remained constant through the late time period. The area of drug permeation within the skin layer on THz imaging increased with time. The dynamic pattern of THz reflection signal decrease was similar to that of DMSO absorption analyzed by the Franz cell diffusion test, which indicates that THz imaging mainly reflects the DMSO component. This study demonstrates that THz imaging technique can be used for imaging the spatial distribution and penetration of drug-applied sites.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adiaspiromycosis is caused by pulmonary infection with Emmonsia. Inhalated spores of Emmonsia cause asymptomatic infection to necrogranulomatous pneumonia, depending on the burden of adiaspore and host immunity. For disease monitoring of wild rodents captured on Jeju Island in Korea, we examined the lung tissue of wild rodents histopathologically. Spores composed of thick three-layered walls were found following histopathological examination and were diagnosed as adiaspiromycosis. Adiaspiromycosis has been found in mammals in many parts of the world. To our knowledge, this is the first report of adiaspiromycosis of an Apodemus agrarius captured in Korea.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sarcocystis spp is a causative agent of sarcocystosis. They have a characteristic life cycle infecting both prey and predator. Sarcocystis can cause myositis, atrophy of the adjacent cells and abortion in cattle. In mice, sarcocystosis causes mild cellular reactions without clinical disease. Severe haemorrhage and abortion were also reported. For monitoring the disease in wild rodents of the Korean peninsula, we captured Apodemus agrarius chejuensis on Jeju island and examined the specimen histopathologically. Intramuscular cysts were found and diagnosed as Sarcocystis. Sarcocystic infection has been reported in worldwide. There have been many reported infections in cattle and pigs in Korea. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Sarcocystis in Apodemus agrarius chejuensis captured in Korea.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Currently, murine noroviruses (MNV) are the most prevalent viral pathogens identified in laboratory animal facilities. While several reports exist concerning the prevalence of MNV in North American research facilities, very few reports are available for other parts of the world, including Korea. This study evaluated the prevalence of MNV infection in 745 murine sera collected from 15 animal facilities in Korea by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Positive cases were subcategorized by murine strain/genetics, housing environments and animal sources. In summary, 6.6% of inbred/outbred mice purchased from commercial vendors were seropositive, 9.6% of in-house colonies were seropositive and 27.0% of genetically modified mice (GMM) were seropositive. Partial gene amplification of fecal isolates from infected animals showed that they were homologous (100%) with MNV-4.
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 12/2010; 73(5):687-91. DOI:10.1292/jvms.10-0226 · 0.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many efforts are being made to develop new alternative in vitro test methods for the eye irritation test. Here we report a new reconstructed human corneal epithelial model (MCTT HCE model) prepared from primary-cultured human limbal epithelial cells as a new alternative in vitro eye irritation test method. In histological and immunohistochemical observation, MCTT HCE model displayed a morphology and biomarker expressions similar to intact human cornea. Moreover, the barrier function was well preserved as measured by high transepithelial electrical resistance, effective time-50 for Triton X-100, and corneal thickness. To employ the model as a new alternative method for eye irritation test, protocol refinement was performed and optimum assay condition was determined including treatment time, treatment volume, post-incubation time and rinsing method. Using the refined protocol, 25 reference chemicals with known eye irritation potentials were tested. With the viability cut-off value at 50%, chemicals were classified to irritant or non-irritant. When compared with GHS classification, the MCTT HCE model showed the accuracy of 88%, sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 77%. These results suggest that the MCTT HCE model might be useful as a new alternative eye irritation test method.
Toxicology in Vitro 10/2010; 25(1):403-10. DOI:10.1016/j.tiv.2010.10.019 · 2.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present work, we assessed the relationship between alkyl carbon chain length and ocular irritation potentials using the hen's egg test-chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM) and bovine corneal opacity and permeability (BCOP) assays using 5 commercial alkyl polyglucoside surfactants with different compositions of alkyl chain lengths (C(6)-C(16)). With HET-CAM, there was a good correlation between the proportion of C(10) alkyl polyglucoside and the eye irritation potential Q score (r(2) = 0.912, p = .011). There were no significant differences between the proportion of C(10) alkyl polyglucoside and corneal opacity in BCOP assays; however, there was a relatively high positive correlation between the proportion of C(10) alkyl carbon chain lengths and corneal permeability (r(2) = 0.736, p = .063).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ras proteins regulate signaling pathways that control many cellular responses, such as proliferation, survival, and differentiation. However, there are intriguing questions about the relationship between the developmental timing of specific mutations and the resultant phenotypes in individual cells. In this study, we used the Cre/loxP system for maintaining transgenic zebrafish lines harboring oncogenic Kras(V12) under the nestin promoter, and investigated the developmental effects of Ras activation in neural progenitor cells. Activated human Kras(V12) was induced within pDSNesLCherryLEGFPKRas(V12) transgenic fish by Cre mRNA injection. Cre-mediated gene excision was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction, and the injected embryos were investigated for Kras(V12) effects using the hemotoxylin-eosin staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated digoxigenin-dUTP nick-end labeling assay, and in situ hybridization. pDSNesLCherryLEGFPKRas(V12) transgenic embryos normally expressed mCherry in their central nervous system throughout the developmental stage. However, Cre mRNA injection efficiently excised the flanking stop sequence, and the injected embryos expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein in their brain with severe edema. Brain histology showed that neuronal cell differentiation could occur in spite of oncogenic Kras(V12) overexpression, but massive apoptosis and brain edema caused early embryonal death. In summary, the overexpression of Kras(V12) induces extensive apoptosis of neural progenitor cells followed by severe edema of the brain. However, some neural progenitor cells are resistant to Kras(V12) and can retain their ability to differentiate into neurons. Finally, our transgenic model demonstrates the inability of Kras(V12) alone to induce brain tumors at the early stage of development.
Cancer Science 10/2009; 101(1):149-54. DOI:10.1111/j.1349-7006.2009.01393.x · 3.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 7 counteracts physiological epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, a process that is indicative of epithelial plasticity in developmental stages. Because epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and its reversed process mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) are also involved in cancer progression, we investigated whether BMP7 plays a role in WM-266-4 melanoma cell growth and metastasis. An MTT assay was conducted in WM-266-4 and HEK293T cell lines to show the cell growth inhibition ability of BMP7 and cisplatin. Semiquantitative RT-PCR was used to determine MET in morphologically changed BMP7-treated melanoma cells. MET-induced cells expressed less a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor (TWIST) in western blot analysis, and we confirm that BMP receptor (Alk2) siRNA transduction could restore TWIST protein expression via blocking of Smad 1, 5 and 8 signaling. Matrigel invasion and cell migration assays were done to investigate the BMP7-induced metastasis inhibition ability. BMP7 treatment only slightly reduced cell growth rate, but induced apparent MET. BMP7 also reduced the invasion and migration ability. Furthermore, BMP7 reduced the resistance of WM-266-4 cells to cisplatin. Collectively, our findings indicate that the metastatis inhibition ability of BMP7 is involved in MET, and that BMP7 could be used as a potential metastasis inhibitor in human melanoma cells.
Cancer Science 08/2009; 100(11):2218-25. DOI:10.1111/j.1349-7006.2009.01301.x · 3.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sphere-forming abilities in culture condition are considered a hallmark of cancer stem-like cells, which represents tumor cell invasiveness and stem-like characteristics. We aimed to show that the sphere-forming subpopulation of human malignant melanoma cell line WM-266-4 acts differently to zebrafish embryo extracts compared with their bulk counterpart. Spheres were maintained in neural stem cell culture conditions. The embryos of zebrafish at specific developmental stages were collected and the extracts were purified under 100 kDa. Spheres were treated with embyo extracts and proliferation assay and immunocytochemistry were conducted. Spheroid cells expressed nestin and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) but not melanoma antigen recognized by T-cells (MART)1, indicating their stem-like character. Zebrafish embryo extracts at 50% epiboly stage inhibited melanoma bulk cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. However, sphere-forming abilities were significantly enhanced under 1 microg/mL concentration of 50% epiboly stage embryo extract treatment. Our findings implicate that we should consider cell subsets of a different character from the tumor origin that can respond differently to exogenous substances or tumor microenvironments. We suggest that cancer research should consider both minor stem-like subpopulations and the other major bulk tumor cells.
Cancer Science 06/2009; 100(8):1429-33. DOI:10.1111/j.1349-7006.2009.01218.x · 3.52 Impact Factor