Predrag Sikiric

University of Zagreb, Zagrabia, Grad Zagreb, Croatia

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Publications (139)328.56 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Anesthetized mice or rats received intravenously 6%, 10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 90% dextran and/or white egg (1ml/rat or 0.15ml/mouse) into their tails. Medication (/kg b.w., 5ml/kg) was given intraperitoneally (BPC 157 10µg, 1µg, 10ng, 10pg/kg, chloropyramine 20mg/kg, cimetidine 10mg/kg intraperitoneally, alone or in combination while controls received an equivolume of saline), immediately after challenge or, alternatively, at 5min after or 24 or 48h before challenge. The effect was assessed at 5, 10, 20 and 30min after dextran and/or white egg challenge. We commonly noted prominent edema involving the face, upper and lower lip, snout, paws and scrotum (presented with extreme cyanosis), poor respiration and the number of fatalities after dextran and/or white egg application. Contrary, BPC 157 regimens (10µg, 1µg, 10ng, 10pg/kg) effectively, may both prevent anaphylactoid reactions that may arise from dextran and/or white egg application and furthermore, rescue already advanced reactions when given after the challenge. Chloropyramine and cimetidine given alone were only moderately effective. When given together with BPC 157, the observed effect correlates with the strong effect of BPC 157 given alone.
    European journal of pharmacology 01/2014; · 2.59 Impact Factor
  • Predrag Sikiric
    Current pharmaceutical design 01/2014; 20(7):1039-1040. · 4.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 was suggested to link inflammatory bowel disease and multiple sclerosis, and thereby, shown to equally counteract the models of both of those diseases. For colitis, cysteamine (400 mg/kg intrarectally (1 ml/rat)) and colon-colon anastomosis (sacrifice at day 3, 5, 7, and 14) were used. BPC 157 (10 μg/kg, 10 ng/kg) was applied either intraperitoneally once time daily (first application immediately after surgery, last at 24 hours before sacrifice) or per-orally in drinking water (0.16 μg/ml/12 ml/day till the sacrifice) while controls simultaneously received an equivolume of saline (5 ml/kg) intraperitoneally or drinking water only (12 ml/day). A multiple sclerosis suited toxic rat model, cuprizone (compared with standard, a several times higher regimen, 2.5% of diet regimen + 1 g/kg intragastrically/day) was combined with BPC 157 (in drinking water 0.16 μg or 0.16 ng/ml/12 ml/day/rat + 10 μg or 10 ng/kg intragastrically/day) till the sacrifice at day 4. In general, the controls could not heal cysteamine colitis and colon-colon anastomosis. BPC 157 induced an efficient healing of both at the same time. Likewise, cuprizone-controls clearly exhibited an exaggerated and accelerated damaging process; nerve damage appeared in various brain areas, with most prominent damage in corpus callosum, laterodorsal thalamus, nucleus reunions, anterior horn motor neurons. BPC 157-cuprizone rats had consistently less nerve damage in all damaged areas, especially in those areas that otherwise were most affected. Consistently, BPC 157 counteracted cerebellar ataxia and impaired forelimb function. Thereby, this experimental evidence advocates BPC 157 in both inflammatory bowel disease and multiple sclerosis therapy.
    Journal of physiology and pharmacology: an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society 10/2013; 64(5):597-612. · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The healing effect of BPC 157 on rat femoral head osteonecrosis was monitored by Raman spectroscopy. Three groups of rats were defined: an injured group treated with BPC 157 (10 μg/kg/daily ip), an injured control group (treated with saline, 5 ml/kg/daily ip), and an uninjured healthy group. The spectra were recorded and the healing effect assessed on samples harvested from animals which were sacrificed 3 and 6 weeks after being injured. The statistical analysis of the recorded spectra showed statistical differences between the BPC 157-treated, control, and healthy groups of animals. In particular, after 6 weeks the spectral resemblance between the healthy and BPC 157 samples indicated a positive BPC 157 influence on the healing process of rat femoral head.
    Journal of Molecular Structure 07/2013; 1044:308–313. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We reviewed stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157-NO-system-relation, its close participation in Moncada's (maintained vascular integrity, platelets control) homeostatic healing response of NO-system to injury. Namely, BPC 157 particular healing effect also affects all events after vascular integrity loss (dependent on circumstances, it reduces either thrombosis (abdominal aorta anastomosis) or bleeding/thrombocytopenia (amputation, heparin, warfarin, aspirin)) and in a series of different injurious models, acute and chronic, BPC 157 consistently advances healing after severe injuries in various tissues spontaneously unable to heal; stimulates egr-1 and naB2 genes; exhibits high safety (LD1 not achieved)). Hypothesis, that BPC 157 (since formed constitutively in the gastric mucosa, stable in human gastric juice, along with significance of NO-synthase and the basal formation of NO in stomach mucosa, greater than that seen in other tissues) exhibits a general, effective competing both with L-arginine analogues (i. e. , L-NAME) and L-arginine, and that this has some physiologic importance (NO-generation), later, practically supports its beneficial effects illustrating BPC 157 and NO-system mutual (with L-NAME/L-arginine; alone and together) relations in (i) gastric mucosa and mucosal protection, following alcohol lesions, in cytoprotection course, NO-generation, and blood pressure regulation; (ii) alcohol acute/chronic intoxication, and withdrawal; (iii) cardiovascular disturbances, chronic heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, and arrhythmias; (iv) disturbances after hypokalemia and hyperkalemia, and potassium-cell membrane dysfunction; and finally, in (v) complex healing failure, proved by the fistulas healing, colocutaneous and esophagocutaneous. However, how this advantage of modulating NO-system (i. e. , particular effect on eNOS gene), may be practically translated into an enhanced clinical performance remains to be determined.
    Current pharmaceutical design 06/2013; · 4.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This review focuses on the described effects of BPC 157 on blood vessels after different types of damage, and elucidates by investigating different aspects of vascular response to injury (endothelium damage, clotting, thrombosis, vasoconstriction, vasodilatation, vasculoneogenesis and edema formation) especially in connection to the healing processes. In this respect, BPC 157 was concluded to be the most potent angiomodulatory agent, acting through different vasoactive pathways and systems (e.g. NO, VEGF, FAK) and leading to optimization of the vascular response followed, as it has to be expected, by optimization of the healing process.
    Current pharmaceutical design 06/2013; · 4.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We demonstrate the full counteracting ability of stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 against KCl-overdose (intraperitoneal (i), intragastric (ii), in vitro (iii)), NO-system related. (i) We demonstrated potential (/kg) of: BPC 157 (10ng, 10μg ip, complete counteraction), L-arginine (100mg ip, attenuation) vs. L-NAME (5mg ip, deadly aggravation), given alone and/or combined, before or after intraperitoneal KCl-solution application (9mEq/kg). Therapy was confronted with promptly unrelenting hyperkalemia (>12mmol/L), arrhythmias (and muscular weakness, hypertension, low pressure in lower esophageal and pyloric sphincter) with an ultimate and a regularly inevitable lethal outcome within 30minutes. Previously, we established BPC 157-NO-system interaction; now, a huge life-saving potential. Given 30min before KCl, all BPC 157 regimens regain sinus rhythm, less prolongation of QRS, no asystolic pause. BPC 157 therapy, given 10min after KCl-application, starts the rescue within 5-10minutes, completely restoring normal sinus rhythm at 1h. Likewise, other hyperkalemia-disturbances (muscular weakness, hypertension, low sphincteric pressure) were also counteracted. Accordingly with NO-system relation, deadly aggravation by L-NAME: L-arginine brings to the controls values while BPC 157 always completely nullified lesions, markedly below those of controls. Combined with L-arginine, BPC 157 exhibited no additive effect. (ii) Intragastric KCl-solution application (27mEq/kg)-(hyperkalemia 7mmol/L): severe stomach mucosal lesions, sphincters failure and peaked T waves were fully counteracted by intragastric BPC 157 (10ng, 10μg) application, given 30min before or 10min after KCl. (iii). In HEK293 cells, hyperkalemic conditions (18.6mM potassium concentrations), BPC 157 directly affects potassium conductance, counteracting the effect on membrane potential and depolarizations caused by hyperkalemic conditions.
    Regulatory Peptides 01/2013; · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Since an originally anti-ulcer stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (PL 14736) was shown to promote healing of injured striated muscle and smooth muscle in the gastrointestinal tract, we explored its therapeutic potentials for leak point pressure (LPP) recovery in rat stress urinary incontinence (SUI) after transabdominal urethrolysis (TU) and prolonged vaginal dilatation (VD). Material and Methods During a 7-day period, TU-rats and VD-rats (or healthy rats) received BPC 157, either (i) intraperitoneally, 10 µg/kg or 10 ng/kg, once daily (first administration 30 min after surgery, last 24 h before LPP-testing and sacrifice), or (ii) per-orally, 10 µg/kg in drinking water (0.16 µg/mL, 12 mL/rat/day). Vesicourethral segments were harvested for immunohistochemical evaluation. Results All BPC 157 regimens counteracted decrease of LPP values in TU-rats and VD-rats. Additionally, BPC 157-TU rats (µg-intraperitoneally or per-orally) and BPC 157-VD rats (µg intraperitoneally) reached LPP values originally noted in healthy rats. Conversely, in healthy rats, BPC 157 did not alter LPP. Immunohistochemical studies revealed higher desmin (delineates striated organization of skeletal muscle), smooth muscle actin, and CD34 (angiogenic marker) positivity within the urethral wall in BPC 157-treated rats vs. controls, as well as overall preserved muscle/connective tissue ratio assessed with Mallory's trichrome staining. Conclusions Pentadecapeptide BPC 157, applied parenterally or per-orally, appears to ameliorate the SUI in rat models, improving the otherwise detrimental course of healing after VD and TU, which may be analogous to human injury. These beneficial effects may possibly be selectively used in future strategies for treatment of SUI.
    Medical science monitor basic research. 01/2013; 19:93-102.
  • Predrag Sikiric
    Current pharmaceutical design 08/2012; · 4.41 Impact Factor
  • Source
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    ABSTRACT: Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 is an anti-ulcer peptidergic agent, proven in clinical trials to be both safe in inflammatory bowel disease (PL-10, PLD-116, PL 14736) and wound healing, stable in human gastric juice, with no toxicity being reported. Recently, we claim that BPC 157 may be used as an antidote against NSAIDs. We focused on BPC 157 beneficial effects on stomach, duodenum, intestine, liver and brain injuries, adjuvant arthritis, pain, hyper/hypothermia, obstructive thrombus formation and thrombolysis, blood vessel function, counteraction of prolonged bleeding and thrombocytopenia after application of various anticoagulants and anti-platelet agents and wound healing improvement. The arguments for BPC 157 antidote activity (i.e., the role of BPC 157 in cytoprotection, being a novel mediator of Roberts cytoprotection and BPC 157 beneficial effects on NSAID mediated lesions in the gastrointestinal tract, liver and brain and finally, counteraction of aspirin-induced prolonged bleeding and thrombocytopenia) obviously have a counteracting effect on several established side-effects of NSAID use. The mentioned variety of the beneficial effects portrayed by BPC 157 may well be a foundation for establishing BPC 157 as a NSAID antidote since no other single agent has portrayed a similar array of effects. Unlike NSAIDs, a very high safety (no reported toxicity (LD1 could be not achieved)) profile is reported for BPC 157. Also, unlike the different dosage levels of aspirin, as a NSAID prototype, which differ by a factor of about ten, all these beneficial and counteracting effects of BPC 157 were obtained using the equipotent dosage (µg, ng/kg) in parenteral or peroral regimens.
    Current pharmaceutical design 08/2012; · 4.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W. 1419) may be the new drug stable in human gastric juice, effective both in the upper and lower GI tract, and free of side effects. BPC 157, in addition to an antiulcer effect efficient in therapy of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (PL 14736) so far only tested in clinical phase II, has a very safe profile, and exhibited a particular wound healing effect. It also has shown to interact with the NO-system, providing endothelium protection and angiogenic effect, even in severely impaired conditions (i.e., it stimulated expression of early growth response 1 gene responsible for cytokine and growth factor generation and early extracellular matrix (collagen) formation (but also its repressor nerve growth factor 1-A binding protein-2)), important to counteract severe complications of advanced and poorly controlled IBD. Hopefully, the lessons from animal studies, particularly advanced intestinal anastomosis healing, reversed short bowel syndrome and fistula healing indicate BPC 157's high significance in further IBD therapy. Also, this supportive evidence (i.e., no toxic effect, limit test negative, LD1 not achieved, no side effect in trials) may counteract the problems commonly exercised in the use of peptidergic agents, particularly those used on a long-term basis.
    Current Medicinal Chemistry 01/2012; 19(1):126-32. · 3.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Possibly, acute esophagitis and pancreatitis cause each other, and we focused on sphincteric failure as the common causative key able to induce either esophagitis and acute pancreatitis or both of them, and thereby investigate the presence of a common therapy nominator. This may be an anti-ulcer pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (tested for inflammatory bowel disease, wound treatment) affecting esophagitis, lower esophageal and pyloric sphincters failure and acute pancreatitis (10 μg/kg, 10 ng/kg intraperitoneally or in drinking water). The esophagitis-sphincter failure procedure (i.e., insertion of the tubes into the sphincters, lower esophageal and pyloric) and acute pancreatitis procedure (i.e., bile duct ligation) were combined in rats. Esophageal manometry was done in acute pancreatitis patients. In rats acute pancreatitis procedure produced also esophagitis and both sphincter failure, decreased pressure 24 h post-surgery. Furthermore, bile duct ligation alone immediately declines the pressure in both sphincters. Vice versa, the esophagitis-sphincter failure procedure alone produced acute pancreatitis. What's more, these lesions (esophagitis, sphincter failure, acute pancreatitis when combined) aggravate each other (tubes into sphincters and ligated bile duct). Counteraction occurred by BPC 157 therapies. In acute pancreatitis patients lower pressure at rest was in both esophageal sphincters in acute pancreatitis patients. We conclude that BPC 157 could cure esophagitis/sphincter/acute pancreatitis healing failure.
    Journal of physiology and pharmacology: an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society 10/2011; 62(5):527-34. · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, in rat abdominal aorta terminoterminal-anastomosis the stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 prevents obstructive thrombus formation and rapidly destroys already formed obstructive thrombus. Also, BPC 157 wound healing may signify the clot as conductive matrix or "scaffold" to speed up wound healing process, and decrease bleeding. Here, in rats, BPC 157 (10 μg/kg, 10 ng/kg) improved always reduced bleeding time and amount of bleeding after (tail) amputation only, heparin (250 mg/kg, 25mg/kg, 10mg/kg i.v.), warfarin (1.5mg/kg i.g. once daily for 3 consecutive days), aspirin (0.1g/kg i.g. (once daily/3 consecutive days) or 1.0 g/kg i.p. once), and amputation associated with those agents application. BPC 157 counteracting regimens (i.v., i.p., i.g. (immediately after any challenge)) correspondingly follow the route of bleeding-agents application. All heparin-, warfarin-, and aspirin-rats and normal-rats that received BPC 157 exhibited lesser fall in platelets count. BPC 157 attenuated over-increased APTT-, TT-values in 10mg/kg heparin-rats, but did not influence heparin activity (anti-Xa test). Indicatively, unless counteracted in BPC 157 rats, excessive bleeding-acute thrombocytopenia (<20% of initial values in heparin-rats) approaches substantial fall in platelets count known in type II HIT. Also, BPC 157 markedly prolongs the survival time (heparin-rats, 25mg/kg, right foot amputation).
    Thrombosis Research 08/2011; 129(5):652-9. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic ibuprofen (0.4 g/kg intraperitoneally, once daily for 4 weeks) evidenced a series of pathologies, not previously reported in ibuprofen-dosed rats, namely hepatic encephalopathy, gastric lesions, hepatomegaly, increased AST and ALT serum values with prolonged sedation/unconsciousness, and weight loss. In particular, ibuprofen toxicity was brain edema, particularly in the cerebellum, with the white matter being more affected than in gray matter. In addition, damaged and red neurons, in the absence of anti-inflammatory reaction was observed, particularly in the cerebral cortex and cerebellar nuclei, but was also present although to a lesser extent in the hippocampus, dentate nucleus and Purkinje cells. An anti-ulcer peptide shown to have no toxicity, the stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, MW 1419, 10 μg, 10 ng/kg) inhibited the pathology seen with ibuprofen (i) when given intraperitoneally, immediately after ibuprofen daily or (ii) when given in drinking water (0.16 μg, 0.16 ng/ml). Counteracted were all adverse effects, such as hepatic encephalopathy, the gastric lesions, hepatomegaly, increased liver serum values. In addition, BPC 157 treated rats showed no behavioral disturbances and maintained normal weight gain. Thus, apart from efficacy in inflammatory bowel disease and various wound treatments, BPC 157 was also effective when given after ibuprofen.
    European journal of pharmacology 05/2011; 667(1-3):322-9. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 is an anti-ulcer peptidergic agent, safe in inflammatory bowel disease clinical trials (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W. 1419, PL 14736) and wound healing, stable in human gastric juice and has no reported toxicity. We focused on BPC 157 as a therapy in peridontitis, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, intestine, liver and pancreas lesions. Particularly, it has a prominent effect on alcohol-lesions (i.e., acute, chronic) and NSAIDs-lesions (interestingly, BPC 157 both prevents and reverses adjuvant arthritis). In rat esophagitis and failed function of both lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and pyloric sphincters (PS), BPC 157 increased pressure in both sphincters till normal and reduced esophagitis. However, in healthy rats, it may decrease (PS) or increase (LES) the pressure in sphincters. It has strong angiogenic potential, it acts protectively on endothelium, prevents and reverses thrombus formation after abdominal aorta anastomosis, affects many central disturbances (i.e., dopamine and 5-HT system), the NO-system (either L-arginine and L-NAME effects), endothelin, acts as a free radical scavenger (counteracting CCl4-, paracetamol-, diclofenac-injuries) and exhibits neuroprotective properties. BPC 157 successfully heals the intestinal anastomosis, gastrocutaneous, duodenocutaneous and colocutaneous fistulas in rats, as well as interacting with the NO-system. Interestingly, the fistula closure was achieved even when the BPC 157 therapy was postponed for one month. In short-bowel syndrome escalating throughout 4 weeks, the constant weight gain above preoperative values started immediately with peroral and parental BPC 157 therapy and the villus height, crypth depth and muscle thickness (inner (circular) muscular layer) additionally increased. Thus, BPC 157 may improve gastrointestinal tract therapy.
    Current pharmaceutical design 05/2011; 17(16):1612-32. · 4.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We attempted to fully antagonize the extensive toxicity caused by NSAIDs (using diclofenac as a prototype). Herein, we used the stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, MW 1419), an anti-ulcer peptide shown to be efficient in inflammatory bowel disease clinical trials (PL 14736) and various wound treatments with no toxicity reported. This peptide was given to antagonize combined gastrointestinal, liver, and brain toxicity induced by diclofenac (12.5mg/kg intraperitoneally, once daily for 3 days) in rats. Already considered a drug that can reverse the toxic side effects of NSAIDs, BPC 157 (10 μg/kg, 10 ng/kg) was strongly effective throughout the entire experiment when given (i) intraperitoneally immediately after diclofenac or (ii) per-orally in drinking water (0.16 μg/mL, 0.16 ng/mL). Without BPC 157 treatment, at 3h following the last diclofenac challenge, we encountered a complex deleterious circuit of diclofenac toxicity characterized by severe gastric, intestinal and liver lesions, increased bilirubin, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) serum values, increased liver weight, prolonged sedation/unconsciousness (after any diclofenac challenge) and finally hepatic encephalopathy (brain edema particularly located in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum, more in white than in gray matter, damaged red neurons, particularly in the cerebral cortex and cerebellar nuclei, Purkinje cells and less commonly in the hippocampal neurons). The very extensive antagonization of diclofenac toxicity achieved with BPC 157 (μg-/ng-regimen, intraperitoneally, per-orally) may encourage its further use as a therapy to counteract diclofenac- and other NSAID-induced toxicity.
    Life sciences 02/2011; 88(11-12):535-42. · 2.56 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 01/2011; 140(5). · 12.82 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 01/2011; 140(5). · 12.82 Impact Factor
  • Miroslav Scap, MD, Pavle Miklic, Tomislav Kukin, Predrag Sikiric PhD
    SNACC Anual Meeting, San Diego, USA; 10/2010
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    ABSTRACT: We focused on stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, MW 1419, an anti-ulcer peptide efficient in inflammatory bowel disease trials (PL 14736), no toxicity reported) because of its hepatoprotective effects. We investigate a particular aspect of the sudden onset of encephalopathy with extreme paracetamol overdose (5 g/kg intraperitoneally) so far not reported: rapidly induced progressive hepatic encephalopathy with generalized convulsions in rats. BPC 157 therapy (10 microg, 10 ng, 10 pg/kg, intraperitoneally or intragastrically) was effective (microg-ng range) against paracetamol toxicity, given in early (BPC 157 immediately after paracetamol, prophylactically) or advanced stage (BPC 157 at 3 hours after paracetamol, therapeutically). At 25 min post-paracetamol increased ALT, AST and ammonium serum values precede liver lesion while in several brain areas, significant damage became apparent, accompanied by generalized convulsions. Through the next 5 hour seizure period and thereafter, the brain damage, liver damage enzyme values and hyperammonemia increased, particularly throughout the 3-24 h post-paracetamol period. BPC 157 demonstrated clinical (no convulsions (prophylactic application) or convulsions rapidly disappeared (therapeutic effect within 25 min)), microscopical (markedly less liver and brain lesions) and biochemical (enzyme and ammonium serum levels decreased) counteraction. Both, the prophylactic and therapeutic benefits (intraperitoneally and intragastrically) clearly imply BPC 157 (microg-ng range) as a highly effective paracetamol antidote even against highly advanced damaging processes induced by an extreme paracetamol over-dose.
    Journal of physiology and pharmacology: an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society 04/2010; 61(2):241-50. · 2.48 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

949 Citations
328.56 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1988–2014
    • University of Zagreb
      • • Department of Pharmacology
      • • School of Medicine (MEF)
      • • Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (VEF)
      • • Department of Pathology
      Zagrabia, Grad Zagreb, Croatia
  • 2013
    • General Hospital Slavonski Brod
      Brod, Brodsko-Posavska, Croatia
  • 2008
    • University Hospital Centre Zagreb
      • Department of Surgery
      Zagreb, Grad Zagreb, Croatia
  • 1993
    • Croatian Veterinary Institute
      Zagrabia, Grad Zagreb, Croatia
  • 1992
    • University Clinical Hospital Center "Sestre Milosrdnice"
      Zagrabia, Grad Zagreb, Croatia