C E Reusch

University of Zurich, Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland

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Publications (237)298.08 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test is the gold standard for diagnosing hypoadrenocorticism (HA) in dogs. However, problems with the availability of synthetic ACTH (tetracosactrin/cosyntropin) and increased costs have prompted the need for alternative methods. To prospectively evaluate the cortisol-to-ACTH ratio (CAR) as a screening test for diagnosing canine HA. Twenty three dogs with newly diagnosed HA; 79 dogs with diseases mimicking HA; 30 healthy dogs. Plasma ACTH and baseline cortisol concentrations were measured before IV administration of 5 μg/kg ACTH in all dogs. CAR was calculated and the diagnostic performance of ACTH, baseline cortisol, CAR and sodium-to-potassium ratios (SPRs) was assessed based on receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves calculating the area under the ROC curve. The CAR was significantly lower in dogs with HA compared to that in healthy dogs and in those with diseases mimicking HA (P < .0001). There was an overlap between HA dogs and those with HA mimicking diseases, but CAR still was the best parameter for diagnosing HA (ROC AUC 0.998), followed by the ACTH concentration (ROC AUC 0.97), baseline cortisol concentration (ROC AUC 0.96), and SPR (ROC AUC 0.86). With a CAR of >0.01 the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 99%, respectively. Calculation of the CAR is a useful screening test for diagnosing primary HA. As a consequence of the observed overlap between the groups, however, misdiagnosis cannot be completely excluded. Moreover, additional studies are needed to evaluate the diagnostic reliability of CAR in more dogs with secondary HA. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 08/2015; DOI:10.1111/jvim.13593 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective-To investigate the effects of insulin detemir in dogs with diabetes mellitus. Design-Prospective, uncontrolled clinical trial. Animals-10 client-owned dogs with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus. Procedures-Dogs were treated with insulin detemir SC every 12 hours for 6 months. Follow-up evaluations were done at 1, 2, 4, 12, and 24 weeks and included evaluation of clinical signs and measurement of blood glucose concentration curves and serum fructosamine concentrations. Results-Insulin detemir administration resulted in a significant decrease in blood glucose and serum fructosamine concentrations at 6 months, compared with pretreatment values. Median insulin dosage at the end of the study was 0.12 U/kg (0.055 U/lb; range, 0.05 to 0.34 U/kg [0.023 to 0.155 U/lb], SC, q 12 h). Hypoglycemia was identified in 22% (10/45) of the blood glucose concentration curves, and 6 episodes of clinical hypoglycemia in 4 dogs were recorded. A subjective improvement in clinical signs was observed in all dogs during the 6-month study period. On the basis of clinical signs and blood glucose concentration curves, efficacy of insulin detemir at the end of the study was considered good in 5 dogs, moderate in 3, and poor in 2. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results suggested that SC injection of insulin detemir every 12 hours may be a viable treatment for diabetes mellitus in dogs. Insulin detemir dosages were lower than reported dosages of other insulin types needed to maintain glycemic control, suggesting that insulin detemir should be used with caution, especially in small dogs.
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 07/2015; 247(1):73-8. DOI:10.2460/javma.247.1.73 · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic amyloidosis and loss of α and β cells have been shown to occur in cats with diabetes mellitus, although the number of studies currently available is very limited. Furthermore, it is not known whether pancreatic islet inflammation is a common feature. The aims of the present study were to characterize islet lesions and to investigate whether diabetic cats have inflammation of the pancreatic islets. Samples of pancreas were collected postmortem from 37 diabetic and 20 control cats matched for age, sex, breed, and body weight. Histologic sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Congo red; double labeled for insulin/CD3, insulin/CD20, insulin/myeloperoxidase, insulin/proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and glucagon/Ki67; and single labeled for amylin and Iba1. Mean insulin-positive cross-sectional area was approximately 65% lower in diabetic than control cats (P = .009), while that of amylin and glucagon was similar. Surprisingly, amyloid deposition was similar between groups (P = .408). Proliferation of insulin- and glucagon-positive cells and the number of neutrophils, macrophages, and T (CD3) and B (CD20) lymphocytes in the islets did not differ. The presence of T and B lymphocytes combined tended to be more frequent in diabetic cats (n = 8 of 37; 21.6%) than control cats (n = 1 of 20; 5.0%). The results confirm previous observations that loss of β cells but not α cells occurs in diabetic cats. Islet amyloidosis was present in diabetic cats but was not greater than in controls. A subset of diabetic cats had lymphocytic infiltration of the islets, which might be associated with β-cell loss. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Veterinary Pathology 06/2015; DOI:10.1177/0300985815591078 · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    S Šutalo · M Ruetten · S Hartnack · C E Reusch · P H Kook
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    ABSTRACT: Gastric acid suppressants frequently are used in cats with acid-related gastric disorders. However, it is not known if these drugs effectively increase intragastric pH in cats. To examine the effects of PO administered ranitidine and omeprazole on intragastric pH in cats and to compare the efficacy of once-daily versus twice-daily dosage regimens for omeprazole. Eight domestic shorthair cats. Using a randomized 4-way cross-over design, cats were given enteric-coated omeprazole granules (1.1-1.3 mg/kg q24h and q12h), ranitidine (1.5-2.3 mg/kg q12h), and placebo. Intragastric pH was monitored continuously for 96 hours using the Bravo(™) system, starting on day 4 of treatment, followed by a median washout period of 12 days. Mean percentage of time pH was ≥3 and ≥4 was compared among groups using repeated measures ANOVA. Mean ± SD percentage of time intragastric pH was ≥3 and ≥4 was 67.0 ± 24.0% and 54.6 ± 26.4% for twice-daily omeprazole, 24.4 ± 22.8% and 16.8 ± 19.3% for once-daily omeprazole, 16.5 ± 9.0% and 9.6 ± 5.9% for ranitidine, and 9.4 ± 8.0% and 7.0 ± 6.6% for placebo administration. Twice-daily omeprazole treatment significantly increased intragastric pH, whereas pH after once-daily omeprazole and ranitidine treatments did not differ from that of placebo-treated cats. Only twice-daily PO administered omeprazole significantly suppressed gastric acidity in healthy cats, whereas once-daily omeprazole and standard dosages of ranitidine were not effective acid suppressants in cats. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 05/2015; 29(3). DOI:10.1111/jvim.12580 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    E. Zini · M. Hafner · P. Kook · T.A. Lutz · S. Ohlerth · C.E. Reusch
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    ABSTRACT: Background Cats with diabetes mellitus can have subclinical pancreatitis but prospective studies to confirm this are lacking. Metabolic control of diabetic cats with pancreatitis is difficult.HypothesisSubclinical pancreatitis occurs in diabetic cats at the time diabetes is diagnosed or might develop during the follow-up period, hampering diabetic remission.AnimalsThirty cats with newly diagnosed diabetes without clinical signs of pancreatitis on admission.Methods Prospective study. On admission and 2 and 6 months later, serum Spec fPL and DGGR-lipase were measured and the pancreas underwent ultrasonographic examination. Pancreatitis was suspected if serum markers were increased or ≥2 ultrasonographic abnormalities were detected. Cats were treated with insulin glargine and diabetic remission was defined as euglycemia ≥4 weeks after discontinuation of insulin. Nonparametric statistical tests were used for analysis.ResultsSubclinical pancreatitis at the time of diagnosis was suspected in 33, 50, and 31% of cats based on Spec fPL, DGGR-lipase and ultrasonography, respectively; and in 60% when diagnostic criteria were combined. During the follow-up period, suspected pancreatitis developed in additional 17–30% cats. Only 1 cat had transient clinical signs compatible with pancreatitis. Seventeen of the 30 cats (57%) achieved remission. Frequency of abnormal Spec fPL and DGGR-lipase and abnormal ultrasonographic findings did not differ in cats achieving remission and those who did not. Cats achieving remission had significantly lower Spec fPL at 2 months (P < .001).Conclusions and Clinical ImportanceBased on laboratory and ultrasonographic measurements, many cats with diabetes might have pancreatitis, although without clinical signs. Cats with high Spec fPL might have a reduced chance of diabetic remission; however, this topic needs further studies in large cohorts of diabetic cats.
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 03/2015; 29(2). DOI:10.1111/jvim.12565 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Diagnosis of pheochromocytoma (PC) is based on a combination of clinical suspicion, finding an adrenal mass, increased plasma, and urine concentrations of catecholamine metabolites and is finally confirmed with histopathology. In human medicine, it is controversial whether biochemically testing plasma is superior to testing urine.Objectives To measure urinary and plasma catecholamines and metanephrines in healthy dogs, dogs with PC, hypercortisolism (HC), and nonadrenal diseases (NAD) and to determine the test with the best diagnostic performance for dogs with PC.AnimalsSeven PC dogs, 10 dogs with HC, 14 dogs with NAD, 10 healthy dogs.Methods Prospective diagnostic clinical study. Urine and heparin plasma samples were collected and stored at −80°C before analysis using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to electrochemical detection or tandem mass spectrometry were performed. Urinary variables were expressed as ratios to urinary creatinine concentration.ResultsDogs with PC had significantly higher urinary normetanephrine and metanephrine : creatinine ratios and significantly higher plasma-total and free normetanephrine and plasma-free metanephrine concentrations compared to the 3 other groups. There were no overlapping results of urinary normetanephrine concentrations between PC and all other groups, and only one PC dog with a plasma normetanephrine concentration in the range of the dogs with HC and NAD disease. Performances of total and free plasma variables were similar. Overlap of epinephrine and norepinephrine results between the groups was large with both urine and plasma.Conclusion and clinical importanceMeasurement of normetanephrine is the preferred biochemical test for PC and urine was superior to plasma.
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 03/2015; 29(2). DOI:10.1111/jvim.12569 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common endocrinopathy in cats that appears to be increasing in prevalence. The prognosis for affected cats can be good when the disease is well managed, but clinical management presents challenges, both for the veterinary team and for the owner. These ISFM Guidelines have been developed by an independent, international expert panel of clinicians and academics to provide practical advice on the management of routine (uncomplicated) diabetic cats. Although the diagnosis of diabetes is usually straightforward, optimal management can be challenging. Clinical goals should be to limit or eliminate clinical signs of the disease using a treatment regimen suitable for the owner, and to avoid insulin-induced hypoglycaemia or other complications. Optimising bodyweight, feeding an appropriate diet and using a longer acting insulin preparation (eg, protamine zinc insulin, insulin glargine or insulin detemir) are all factors that are likely to result in improved glycaemic control in the majority of cats. There is also some evidence that improved glycaemic control and reversal of glucose toxicity may promote the chances of diabetic remission. Owner considerations and owner involvement are an important aspect of management. Provided adequate support is given, and owners are able to take an active role in monitoring blood glucose concentrations in the home environment, glycaemic control may be improved. Monitoring of other parameters is also vitally important in assessing the response to insulin. Insulin adjustments should always be made cautiously and not too frequently - unless hypoglycaemia is encountered. The Panel has produced these Guidelines after careful review of the existing literature and of the quality of the published studies. They represent a consensus view on practical management of cats with DM based on available clinical data and experience. However, in many areas, substantial data are lacking and there is a need for better studies in the future to help inform and refine recommendations for the clinical management of this common disease. © ISFM and AAFP 2015.
    Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery 03/2015; 17(3):in press. DOI:10.1177/1098612X15571880 · 1.22 Impact Factor
  • I. Padrutt · T.A. Lutz · C.E. Reusch · E. Zini
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    ABSTRACT: Incretin analogues and inhibitors of the breakdown of endogenous incretins are antidiabetic drugs that increase β-cell proliferation and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in rodents and humans. Objectives were to test whether exenatide, exenatide extended-release, and sitagliptin can be safely used in cats, to identify the most effective drug, and to test the effects of prolonged exenatide extended-release administration. Three cats each were given exenatide (0.2-2µg/kg, q12h, subcutaneously, 5 days), exenatide extended-release (40-400µg/kg, subcutaneously, once), and sitagliptin (1-10mg/kg, q24h, orally, 5 days). Before and after treatment, glucose, insulin and glucagon areas under the curve (AUC) were assessed by meal response tests (MRT). Exenatide increased insulin AUC by 224%, 258%, 331% and 93%, exenatide extended-release by 127%, 169%, 178% and 95%, and sitagliptin by 32%, 69%, 62%, and 43%, respectively. The tested drugs are safe to use in cats and enhance insulin secretion. Incretin-based therapy may be beneficial in cats with diabetes mellitus.
    Research in Veterinary Science 01/2015; 99. DOI:10.1016/j.rvsc.2014.12.001 · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Information on composition of uroliths collected between 2003 and 2009 from dogs in Switzerland and epidemiologic data of affected dogs are summarised in this paper. Of 490 stones analysed 44% were composed of calcium oxalate, 33% of struvite, 8% of silica, 7% of urate, 3% of cystine, 3% were mixed stones and 1% each were calcium phosphate and xanthine stones. Compared to other dogs, Norwich Terriers, Norfolk Terriers, Miniature Schnauzers, Miniature Pinscher and Yorkshire Terriers had a significantly increased risk to suffer from calcium oxalate stones, Dalmatians and Continental Bulldogs from urate stones and English Bulldogs from cystine stones. No breed had an increased risk of struvite or silica stones. Stones composed of silica were more prevalent in Switzerland compared to other countries and were more common in the eastern part than in the western part of Switzerland. This study shows that there are differences in occurrence and prevalence of uroliths between Switzerland and surveys of other countries.
    SAT Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde 01/2015; 157(1):41-48. DOI:10.17236/sat00003 · 0.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Remission occurs in 10–50% of cats with diabetes mellitus (DM). It is assumed that intensive treatment improves β-cell function and increases remission rates.HypothesisInitial intravenous infusion of insulin that achieves tight glycemic control decreases subsequent insulin requirements and increases remission rate in diabetic cats.AnimalsThirty cats with newly diagnosed DM.Methods Prospective study. Cats were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups. Cats in group 1 (n = 15) received intravenous infusion of insulin with the goal of maintaining blood glucose concentrations at 90–180 mg/dL, for 6 days. Cats in group 2 (n = 15) received subcutaneous injections of insulin glargine (cats ≤4 kg: 0.5–1.0 IU, q12h; >4 kg 1.5–2.0 IU, q12h), for 6 days. Thereafter, all cats were treated with subcutaneous injections of insulin glargine and followed up for 6 months. Cats were considered in remission when euglycemia occurred for ≥4 weeks without the administration of insulin. Nonparametric tests were used for statistical analysis.ResultsIn groups 1 and 2, remission was achieved in 10/15 and in 7/14 cats (P = .46), and good metabolic control was achieved in 3/5 and in 1/7 cats (P = .22), respectively. Overall, good metabolic control or remission occurred in 13/15 cats of group 1 and in 8/14 cats of group 2. In group 1, the median insulin dosage given during the 6-month follow-up was significantly lower than in group 2 (group 1: 0.32 IU/kg/day, group 2: 0.51 IU/kg/day; P = .013).Conclusions and Clinical ImportanceInitial intravenous infusion of insulin for tight glycemic control in cats with DM decreases insulin requirements during the subsequent 6 months.
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 10/2014; 28(6). DOI:10.1111/jvim.12449 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    P.H. Kook · J. Kempf · M. Ruetten · C.E. Reusch
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    ABSTRACT: Background Although gastroesophageal reflux (GER) often is assumed to be causative for upper gastrointestinal and respiratory signs in dogs, no attempts have been made to verify this assumption.Objectives To monitor esophageal pH with the Bravo pH system in healthy dogs and client-owned dogs displaying signs commonly attributed to GER.AnimalsSeven healthy and 22 client-owned dogs.Methods After routine esophagogastroduodenoscopy, radiotelemetric pH capsules were placed in distal esophagus for continuous pH recording. Reflux was defined as single pH measurement <4. At discharge, owners were instructed to press individually predefined clinical sign-buttons on the receiver whenever indicated. Results between groups were compared using Mann–Whitney U-test.ResultsThe median (range) number of refluxes in client-owned and healthy dogs, respectively, was 17 (1–205) and 10 (1–65), the number of refluxes >5 minutes in duration was 1 (0–14), and 1 (0–4), duration of longest reflux (min) was 10 (0–65) and 8 (0–27), and fractional time pH <4 (%) was 0.76% (0.01–6.28), and 0.3% (0–3.1). No differences were found between groups. The median of 7 (1–35) clinical sign-button pushes were recorded in 21 dogs. Median of 12.5% (2.8% [1/35]–50% [2/4]) reflux-positive clinical sign-button pushes was found in 10 dogs with reflux-positive pushes. Five (22.7%) dogs had increased esophageal acid exposure, and mild esophagitis was noted in 1 dog.Conclusion and Clinical ImportanceDespite evidence of increased GER in some dogs, the clinical sign-reflux association remained poor. Future investigation should focus on dogs with esophagitis.
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 09/2014; 28(6). DOI:10.1111/jvim.12461 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Measurement of plasma renin activity (PRA) is the gold standard for monitoring mineralocorticoid treatment in humans with primary hypoadrenocorticism (PH).Objectives To compare PRA in dogs with newly diagnosed PH, dogs with diseases mimicking PH, and healthy dogs, and evaluate measurement of PRA to monitor therapeutic effects in dogs with PH treated with different mineralocorticoids.AnimalsEleven dogs with newly diagnosed PH (group 1), 10 dogs with diseases mimicking PH (group 2), 21 healthy dogs (group 3), 17 dogs with treated PH (group 4).Methods In group 1, PRA was measured before treatment and at different times after initiating treatment. In groups 2 and 3, PRA was measured at initial presentation only. In group 4, no baseline PRA was obtained but PRA was measured once or every 1–6 months during treatment. Mineralocorticoid treatment consisted of fludrocortisone acetate (FC) or desoxycorticosterone pivalate (DOCP).ResultsPlasma renin activity before treatment was increased in dogs with PH compared to normal dogs and dogs with diseases mimicking PH with median activity of 27, 0.8, and 1.0 ng/mL/h, respectively. In dogs with PH, PRA decreased and normalized with mineralocorticoid treatment using DOCP but not with FC. In dogs treated with DOCP, PRA was lower than in dogs treated with FC. Plasma sodium concentrations were higher and potassium concentrations were lower with DOCP treatment compared to FC treatment.Conclusion and Clinical ImportancePlasma renin activity is a reliable tool for monitoring mineralocorticoid treatment. DOCP treatment more effectively suppresses PRA compared to FC in dogs with PH.
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 09/2014; 28(5). DOI:10.1111/jvim.12426 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Determination of the urinary corticoid-to-creatinine ratio (UCCR) is an important screening test in the diagnosis of hypercortisolism (HC). However, urinary cortisol metabolites interfere with cortisol measurement in immunoassays, leading to decreased specificity. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is considered the gold standard for steroid hormone analysis, because it provides a high level of selectivity and accuracy.Objectives To prospectively compare the UCCR of healthy dogs and dogs with HC determined by 5 different immunoassays and by GC-MS and to evaluate the influence of veterinary care on UCCR.AnimalsTwenty healthy dogs; 18 dogs with HC.Methods Urine was collected in the hospital and again after 6 days at home. Three chemiluminescence immunoassays (Access 2, Beckmann; Immulite 2000, DPC Siemens, with and without trichloromethane extraction) and 2 RIAs (Utrecht in house; Access Beckmann) were used. GC-MS analyses were performed with Agilent 6890N/5973N. Urinary corticoid concentrations were related to urinary creatinine concentrations.ResultsImmunoassay results were significantly higher compared to GC-MS results. Evaluation of bias plots and clinical assessment made on the basis of the assay results of each dog indicated substantial disagreement among the assays. Sensitivity varied from 37.5 to 75% and with selected assays was lower in samples from day 6 compared to day 0. GC-MS was not superior to the immunoassays in discriminating healthy from HC dogs.Conclusions and Clinical ImportanceConsiderable variation must be anticipated comparing different urinary cortisol assays. Establishing an assay- and laboratory-specific reference range is critical when using UCCR.
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 07/2014; 28(5). DOI:10.1111/jvim.12399 · 2.22 Impact Factor
  • Richard W. Nelson · Claudia E. Reusch
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus is a common disease in dogs and cats. Diabetes in dogs resembles type 1 diabetes in humans. Studies suggest that genetics, an immune-mediated component, and environmental factors are involved in the development of diabetes in dogs. A variant of gestational diabetes also occurs in dogs. The most common form of diabetes in cats resembles type 2 diabetes in humans. An important risk factor in cats is obesity. Obese cats have altered expression of several insulin signaling genes and glucose transporters and are leptin-resistant. Cats also form amyloid deposits within the islets of the pancreas and develop glucotoxicity when exposed to prolonged hyperglycemia . This review will briefly summarize our current knowledge of the etiology of diabetes in dogs and cats and illustrate the similarities between dogs, cats and humans.
    Journal of Endocrinology 06/2014; 222(3). DOI:10.1530/JOE-14-0202 · 3.59 Impact Factor
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    Samuel Oppliger · Sonja Hartnack · Claudia E Reusch · Peter H Kook
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To investigate agreement of a feline pancreas-specific lipase assay and a colorimetric lipase assay with a 1,2-o-dilauryl-rac-glycero-3-glutaric acid-(6'-methylresorufin) ester (DGGR) substrate with results of pancreatic ultrasonography in cats with suspicion of pancreatitis. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. ANIMALS: 161 client-owned cats with suspicion of pancreatitis. PROCEDURES: Feline pancreas-specific lipase concentration and DGGR lipase activity were measured from the same blood sample in cats undergoing investigation for pancreatitis, with < 24 hours between ultrasonography and lipase determinations. Ultrasonographic variables evaluated were ultrasonographic diagnosis of pancreatitis, enlargement, margins, echogenicity, mesenteric echogenicity, peripancreatic free fluid, cysts, masses, and common bile and pancreatic duct dilation. Agreement was assessed by use of the Cohen κ coefficient. RESULTS: Agreement between the lipase assays was substantial (κ = 0.703). An ultrasonographic diagnosis of pancreatitis had fair agreement with feline pancreas-specific lipase concentration > 5.4 μg/L (κ = 0.264) and DGGR lipase activity > 26 U/L (κ = 0.221). The greatest agreement between feline pancreas-specific lipase concentration > 5.4 μg/L and DGGR lipase activity > 26 U/L was found for a hypoechoic and mixed-echoic (κ = 0.270 and 0.266, respectively), hypoechoic (κ = 0.261 and 0.181, respectively), and enlarged (κ = 0.218 and 0.223, respectively) pancreas. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Agreement between pancreatic ultrasonography and lipase assay results was only fair. It remains unknown whether lipase results or pancreatic ultrasonography constitutes the more accurate test for diagnosing pancreatitis; therefore, results of both tests need to be interpreted with caution.
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 05/2014; 244(9):1060-5. DOI:10.2460/javma.244.9.1060 · 1.67 Impact Factor
  • Jennifer Kempf · Fraser Lewis · Claudia E Reusch · Peter H Kook
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    ABSTRACT: Objective-To evaluate the effects of cisapride and metoclopramide hydrochloride administered orally on the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) resting pressure in awake healthy dogs. Animals-6 adult Beagles. Procedures-Each dog was evaluated after administration of a single dose of cisapride (0.5 mg/kg), metoclopramide (0.5 mg/kg), or placebo (empty gelatin-free capsule) in 3 experiments performed at 3-week intervals. To measure LES pressure, a high-resolution manometry catheter equipped with 40 pressure sensors spaced 10 mm apart was used. For each experiment, LES pressure was recorded during a 20-minute period with a virtual electronic sleeve emulation before treatment (baseline) and at 1, 4, and 7 hours after drug or placebo administration. A linear mixed-effects model was used to test whether the 3 treatments affected LES pressure differently. Results-In the cisapride, metoclopramide, and placebo experiments, median baseline LES pressures were 29.1, 30.5, and 29.0 mm Hg, respectively. For the cisapride, metoclopramide, and placebo treatments, median LES pressures at 1 hour after administration were 44.4, 37.8, and 36.6 mm Hg, respectively; median LES pressures at 4 hours after administration were 50.7, 30.6, and 31.1 mm Hg, respectively; and median LES pressures at 7 hours after administration were 44.3, 28.5, and 33.3 mm Hg, respectively. The LES pressures differed significantly only between the placebo and cisapride treatments. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results suggested that orally administered cisapride may be of benefit in canine patients for which an increase in LES pressure is desirable, whereas orally administered metoclopramide did not affect LES resting pressures in dogs.
    American Journal of Veterinary Research 04/2014; 75(4):361-6. DOI:10.2460/ajvr.75.4.361 · 1.21 Impact Factor
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    P.H. Kook · N. Kohler · S. Hartnack · B. Riond · C.E. Reusch
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    ABSTRACT: Background Spec cPL is the most sensitive and specific test for diagnosing pancreatitis in dogs. Its results have not been compared to those of the 1,2-o-dilauryl-rac-glycero-3-glutaric acid-(6′-methylresorufin) ester (DGGR) lipase assay or those of abdominal ultrasonography. Objectives To investigate agreement of Spec cPL with DGGR lipase activity and pancreatic ultrasonography in dogs with suspected pancreatitis. AnimalsOne hundred and forty-two dogs. MethodsDGGR lipase activity (reference range, 24–108 U/L) and Spec cPL were measured using the same sample. The time interval between ultrasonography and lipase determinations was <24 hours. The agreement of the 2 lipase assays at different cutoffs and the agreement between pancreatic ultrasonography and the 2 tests were assessed using Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ). ResultsDGGR lipase (>108, >216 U/L) and Spec cPL (>200 μg/L) had κ values of 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69–0.9) and 0.70 (CI, 0.58–0.82). DGGR lipase (>108, >216 U/L) and Spec cPL (>400 μg/L) had κ values of 0.55 (CI, 0.43–0.67) and κ of 0.80 (CI, 0.71–0.9). An ultrasonographic diagnosis of pancreatitis and DGGR lipase (>108, >216 U/L) had κ values of 0.29 (CI, 0.14–0.44) and 0.35 (CI, 0.18–0.52). Ultrasonographically diagnosed pancreatitis and Spec cPL (>200, >400 μg/L) had κ values of 0.25 (CI, 0.08–0.41) and 0.27 (CI, 0.09–0.45). Conclusions and Clinical ImportanceAlthough both lipase assays showed high agreement, agreement between ultrasonography and lipase assays results was only fair. Because lipase results are deemed more accurate, ultrasonography results should be interpreted carefully.
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 03/2014; 28(3). DOI:10.1111/jvim.12334 · 2.22 Impact Factor
  • E Zini · S Benali · L Coppola · F Guscetti · M Ackermann · T A Lutz · C E Reusch · L Aresu
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    ABSTRACT: In humans, diabetes mellitus (DM) is an important cause of renal damage, with glomerular lesions being predominant. In cats, although diabetes is a common endocrinopathy, it is yet unknown whether it leads to renal damage. The aim of the study was to compare renal histologic features and parameters of renal function in diabetic cats against a control population matched for age, gender, breed, and body weight. Thirty-two diabetic and 20 control cats were included. Kidney sections from paraffin-embedded kidney samples were stained and examined with optical microscopy to identify glomerular, tubulointerstitial, and vascular lesions and to assess their frequency and severity. Serum creatinine and urea concentrations were also compared. Glomerular lesions were observed in 29 cats overall, with mesangial matrix increase being more common (19 cats). Tubulointerstitial lesions were observed in 42 cats, including lymphocytic infiltration (29), fibrosis (22), or tubular necrosis (21). Vascular lesions were observed in 5 cases. The frequency and severity of histologic lesions did not differ between diabetic and control cats; however, among diabetics, those that survived longer after diagnosis had more glomerular and vascular lesions. Serum creatinine and urea concentrations were similar between groups; in diabetic cats median creatinine was 109 μmol/l (range, 51-1200) and urea was 12 mmol/l (range, 4-63), and in controls creatinine was 126 μmol/l (range, 50-875) and urea 11 mmol/l (range, 3-80). The results suggest that DM in cats does not lead to microscopically detectable kidney lesions or clinically relevant renal dysfunction. The authors hypothesize that the short life expectancy of diabetic cats may be the main reason for the difference from human diabetics.
    Veterinary Pathology 02/2014; 51(6). DOI:10.1177/0300985813516645 · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Some dogs with primary hypoadrenocorticism (HA) have normal sodium and potassium concentrations, a phenomenon called atypical Addison's disease. The assumption that the zona glomerulosa and aldosterone secretion in these dogs are normal seems widely accepted; however, aldosterone measurements are missing in most published cases. To measure aldosterone in dogs with HA with and without electrolyte abnormalities and to determine the time point of aldosterone peak concentrations during ACTH stimulation. Seventy dogs with HA, 22 dogs with diseases mimicking HA, and 19 healthy dogs. Prospective study. Blood samples were taken before and 60 minutes after injection of 250 μg ACTH in all dogs. Additional blood samples were taken 15, 30, and 45 minutes after ACTH in 7 dogs with HA and in 22 with diseases mimicking HA. Baseline and ACTH-stimulated aldosterone was significantly lower in dogs with HA than in the other groups. Aldosterone was low or undetectable in 67/70 dogs with HA independently of sodium and potassium levels. In 3 dogs, sodium/potassium concentrations were normal; in 1 dog, sodium was normal and potassium decreased. In all 4, ACTH-stimulated aldosterone concentrations were below the detection limit of the assay. Aldosterone concentrations were not different at 30, 45, or 60 minutes after ACTH administration. Cortisol and aldosterone secretion is compromised in dogs with HA with and without electrolyte abnormalities. The term atypical Addison's disease, used for dogs with primary HA and normal electrolytes, must be reconsidered; other mechanisms allowing normal electrolyte balance without aldosterone should be evaluated in these dogs.
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 01/2014; 28(1):154-9. DOI:10.1111/jvim.12243 · 2.22 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
298.08 Total Impact Points


  • 1998–2015
    • University of Zurich
      • • Vetsuisse-Faculty
      • • Clinic for Small Animal Medicine
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 2009
    • St. Luke's Hospital
      CID, Iowa, United States
    • Szent István University, Godollo
      • Department of Parasitology and Zoology
      Gödölö, Pest, Hungary
  • 1999
    • Schulthess Klinik, Zürich
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 1990–1998
    • Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich
      München, Bavaria, Germany