[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Determination of the urinary corticoid-to-creatinine ratio (UCCR) is an important screening test in the diagnosis of hypercortisolism (HC). However, urinary cortisol metabolites interfere with cortisol measurement in immunoassays, leading to decreased specificity. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is considered the gold standard for steroid hormone analysis, because it provides a high level of selectivity and accuracy.Objectives
To prospectively compare the UCCR of healthy dogs and dogs with HC determined by 5 different immunoassays and by GC-MS and to evaluate the influence of veterinary care on UCCR.AnimalsTwenty healthy dogs; 18 dogs with HC.Methods
Urine was collected in the hospital and again after 6 days at home. Three chemiluminescence immunoassays (Access 2, Beckmann; Immulite 2000, DPC Siemens, with and without trichloromethane extraction) and 2 RIAs (Utrecht in house; Access Beckmann) were used. GC-MS analyses were performed with Agilent 6890N/5973N. Urinary corticoid concentrations were related to urinary creatinine concentrations.ResultsImmunoassay results were significantly higher compared to GC-MS results. Evaluation of bias plots and clinical assessment made on the basis of the assay results of each dog indicated substantial disagreement among the assays. Sensitivity varied from 37.5 to 75% and with selected assays was lower in samples from day 6 compared to day 0. GC-MS was not superior to the immunoassays in discriminating healthy from HC dogs.Conclusions and Clinical ImportanceConsiderable variation must be anticipated comparing different urinary cortisol assays. Establishing an assay- and laboratory-specific reference range is critical when using UCCR.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 07/2014; · 2.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus is a common disease in dogs and cats. Diabetes in dogs resembles type 1 diabetes in humans. Studies suggest that genetics, an immune-mediated component, and environmental factors are involved in the development of diabetes in dogs. A variant of gestational diabetes also occurs in dogs. The most common form of diabetes in cats resembles type 2 diabetes in humans. An important risk factor in cats is obesity. Obese cats have altered expression of several insulin signaling genes and glucose transporters and are leptin-resistant. Cats also form amyloid deposits within the islets of the pancreas and develop glucotoxicity when exposed to prolonged hyperglycemia . This review will briefly summarize our current knowledge of the etiology of diabetes in dogs and cats and illustrate the similarities between dogs, cats and humans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective-To investigate agreement of a feline pancreas-specific lipase assay and a colorimetric lipase assay with a 1,2-o-dilauryl-rac-glycero-3-glutaric acid-(6'-methylresorufin) ester (DGGR) substrate with results of pancreatic ultrasonography in cats with suspicion of pancreatitis. Design-Retrospective case series. Animals-161 client-owned cats with suspicion of pancreatitis. Procedures-Feline pancreas-specific lipase concentration and DGGR lipase activity were measured from the same blood sample in cats undergoing investigation for pancreatitis, with < 24 hours between ultrasonography and lipase determinations. Ultrasonographic variables evaluated were ultrasonographic diagnosis of pancreatitis, enlargement, margins, echogenicity, mesenteric echogenicity, peripancreatic free fluid, cysts, masses, and common bile and pancreatic duct dilation. Agreement was assessed by use of the Cohen κ coefficient. Results-Agreement between the lipase assays was substantial (κ = 0.703). An ultrasonographic diagnosis of pancreatitis had fair agreement with feline pancreas-specific lipase concentration > 5.4 μg/L (κ = 0.264) and DGGR lipase activity > 26 U/L (κ = 0.221). The greatest agreement between feline pancreas-specific lipase concentration > 5.4 μg/L and DGGR lipase activity > 26 U/L was found for a hypoechoic and mixed-echoic (κ = 0.270 and 0.266, respectively), hypoechoic (κ = 0.261 and 0.181, respectively), and enlarged (κ = 0.218 and 0.223, respectively) pancreas. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Agreement between pancreatic ultrasonography and lipase assay results was only fair. It remains unknown whether lipase results or pancreatic ultrasonography constitutes the more accurate test for diagnosing pancreatitis; therefore, results of both tests need to be interpreted with caution.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 05/2014; 244(9):1060-5. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective-To evaluate the effects of cisapride and metoclopramide hydrochloride administered orally on the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) resting pressure in awake healthy dogs. Animals-6 adult Beagles. Procedures-Each dog was evaluated after administration of a single dose of cisapride (0.5 mg/kg), metoclopramide (0.5 mg/kg), or placebo (empty gelatin-free capsule) in 3 experiments performed at 3-week intervals. To measure LES pressure, a high-resolution manometry catheter equipped with 40 pressure sensors spaced 10 mm apart was used. For each experiment, LES pressure was recorded during a 20-minute period with a virtual electronic sleeve emulation before treatment (baseline) and at 1, 4, and 7 hours after drug or placebo administration. A linear mixed-effects model was used to test whether the 3 treatments affected LES pressure differently. Results-In the cisapride, metoclopramide, and placebo experiments, median baseline LES pressures were 29.1, 30.5, and 29.0 mm Hg, respectively. For the cisapride, metoclopramide, and placebo treatments, median LES pressures at 1 hour after administration were 44.4, 37.8, and 36.6 mm Hg, respectively; median LES pressures at 4 hours after administration were 50.7, 30.6, and 31.1 mm Hg, respectively; and median LES pressures at 7 hours after administration were 44.3, 28.5, and 33.3 mm Hg, respectively. The LES pressures differed significantly only between the placebo and cisapride treatments. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results suggested that orally administered cisapride may be of benefit in canine patients for which an increase in LES pressure is desirable, whereas orally administered metoclopramide did not affect LES resting pressures in dogs.
American Journal of Veterinary Research 04/2014; 75(4):361-6. · 1.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Spec cPL is the most sensitive and specific test for diagnosing pancreatitis in dogs. Its results have not been compared to those of the 1,2-o-dilauryl-rac-glycero-3-glutaric acid-(6′-methylresorufin) ester (DGGR) lipase assay or those of abdominal ultrasonography. Objectives
To investigate agreement of Spec cPL with DGGR lipase activity and pancreatic ultrasonography in dogs with suspected pancreatitis. AnimalsOne hundred and forty-two dogs. MethodsDGGR lipase activity (reference range, 24–108 U/L) and Spec cPL were measured using the same sample. The time interval between ultrasonography and lipase determinations was <24 hours. The agreement of the 2 lipase assays at different cutoffs and the agreement between pancreatic ultrasonography and the 2 tests were assessed using Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ). ResultsDGGR lipase (>108, >216 U/L) and Spec cPL (>200 μg/L) had κ values of 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69–0.9) and 0.70 (CI, 0.58–0.82). DGGR lipase (>108, >216 U/L) and Spec cPL (>400 μg/L) had κ values of 0.55 (CI, 0.43–0.67) and κ of 0.80 (CI, 0.71–0.9). An ultrasonographic diagnosis of pancreatitis and DGGR lipase (>108, >216 U/L) had κ values of 0.29 (CI, 0.14–0.44) and 0.35 (CI, 0.18–0.52). Ultrasonographically diagnosed pancreatitis and Spec cPL (>200, >400 μg/L) had κ values of 0.25 (CI, 0.08–0.41) and 0.27 (CI, 0.09–0.45). Conclusions and Clinical ImportanceAlthough both lipase assays showed high agreement, agreement between ultrasonography and lipase assays results was only fair. Because lipase results are deemed more accurate, ultrasonography results should be interpreted carefully.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 03/2014; · 2.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In humans, diabetes mellitus (DM) is an important cause of renal damage, with glomerular lesions being predominant. In cats, although diabetes is a common endocrinopathy, it is yet unknown whether it leads to renal damage. The aim of the study was to compare renal histologic features and parameters of renal function in diabetic cats against a control population matched for age, gender, breed, and body weight. Thirty-two diabetic and 20 control cats were included. Kidney sections from paraffin-embedded kidney samples were stained and examined with optical microscopy to identify glomerular, tubulointerstitial, and vascular lesions and to assess their frequency and severity. Serum creatinine and urea concentrations were also compared. Glomerular lesions were observed in 29 cats overall, with mesangial matrix increase being more common (19 cats). Tubulointerstitial lesions were observed in 42 cats, including lymphocytic infiltration (29), fibrosis (22), or tubular necrosis (21). Vascular lesions were observed in 5 cases. The frequency and severity of histologic lesions did not differ between diabetic and control cats; however, among diabetics, those that survived longer after diagnosis had more glomerular and vascular lesions. Serum creatinine and urea concentrations were similar between groups; in diabetic cats median creatinine was 109 μmol/l (range, 51-1200) and urea was 12 mmol/l (range, 4-63), and in controls creatinine was 126 μmol/l (range, 50-875) and urea 11 mmol/l (range, 3-80). The results suggest that DM in cats does not lead to microscopically detectable kidney lesions or clinically relevant renal dysfunction. The authors hypothesize that the short life expectancy of diabetic cats may be the main reason for the difference from human diabetics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some dogs with primary hypoadrenocorticism (HA) have normal sodium and potassium concentrations, a phenomenon called atypical Addison's disease. The assumption that the zona glomerulosa and aldosterone secretion in these dogs are normal seems widely accepted; however, aldosterone measurements are missing in most published cases.
To measure aldosterone in dogs with HA with and without electrolyte abnormalities and to determine the time point of aldosterone peak concentrations during ACTH stimulation.
Seventy dogs with HA, 22 dogs with diseases mimicking HA, and 19 healthy dogs.
Prospective study. Blood samples were taken before and 60 minutes after injection of 250 μg ACTH in all dogs. Additional blood samples were taken 15, 30, and 45 minutes after ACTH in 7 dogs with HA and in 22 with diseases mimicking HA.
Baseline and ACTH-stimulated aldosterone was significantly lower in dogs with HA than in the other groups. Aldosterone was low or undetectable in 67/70 dogs with HA independently of sodium and potassium levels. In 3 dogs, sodium/potassium concentrations were normal; in 1 dog, sodium was normal and potassium decreased. In all 4, ACTH-stimulated aldosterone concentrations were below the detection limit of the assay. Aldosterone concentrations were not different at 30, 45, or 60 minutes after ACTH administration.
Cortisol and aldosterone secretion is compromised in dogs with HA with and without electrolyte abnormalities. The term atypical Addison's disease, used for dogs with primary HA and normal electrolytes, must be reconsidered; other mechanisms allowing normal electrolyte balance without aldosterone should be evaluated in these dogs.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 01/2014; 28(1):154-9. · 2.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transdermal methimazole is suggested as an alternative to oral therapy for hyperthyroid cats that are difficult to pill. However, no information on long-term management with this treatment is available. Our objective was therefore to retrospectively evaluate the efficacy and safety of long-term transdermal methimazole-treated hyperthyroid cats. Sixty cats with newly diagnosed hyperthyroidism and available long-term follow-up information were included. Methimazole was formulated in a pluronic lecithin organogel-based vehicle and was applied to the pinna of the inner ear. Cats were re-evaluated at regular intervals. Median (range) follow-up was 22.6 months (3.6-88.4 months). Clinical improvement was observed in all cats and side effects were rare (mild transient gastrointestinal signs: n = 3; erythema of the pinna: n = 2, necessitating a switch to oral medication). Despite a significant decrease, with median T4 concentrations within the reference interval during the follow-up period, several cats repeatedly had T4 concentrations in the thyrotoxic and hypothyroid range. Maximal and minimal daily doses during the follow-up period were 15.0 and 1.0 mg, respectively; they were significantly higher than the starting dose after 24-36 months of therapy. Although the majority of owners were highly satisfied with the treatment, several admitted not treating their cat regularly. Transdermal methimazole is a safe option for the long-term management of feline hyperthyroidism. However, it seems difficult to keep the T4 concentrations constantly within the reference interval: higher doses can be expected after prolonged treatment and, despite the convenience of transdermal application, owner compliance should be assessed regularly.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This report offers a consensus opinion on the diagnosis of spontaneous canine hyperadrenocorticism. The possibility that a patient has hyperadrenocorticism is based on the history and physical examination. Endocrine tests should be performed only when clinical signs consistent with HAC are present. None of the biochemical screening or differentiating tests for hyperadrenocorticism are perfect. Imaging can also play a role. Awareness of hyperadrenocorticism has heightened over time. Thus, case presentation is more subtle. Due to the changes in manifestations as well as test technology the Panel believes that references ranges should be reestablished. The role of cortisol precursors and sex hormones in causing a syndrome of occult hyperadrenocorticism remains unclear.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 09/2013; · 2.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serum lipase activities measured by catalytic assays are claimed to be of limited utility for diagnosing pancreatitis in cats. The Spec fPL assay currently is believed the most sensitive test; however, studies comparing different lipase assays are lacking. 1,2-o-dilauryl-rac-glycero-3-glutaric acid-(6'-methylresorufin) ester (DGGR) assay for the determination of lipase activity has been evaluated in dogs, but no information is available in cats.
To investigate the agreement of DGGR-lipase activity and Spec fPL concentration in cats with clinical signs consistent with pancreatitis.
Two hundred fifty-one client-owned cats.
DGGR-lipase activity and Spec fPL concentration measured from the same blood sample in cats undergoing investigation for pancreatitis. The agreement between DGGR-lipase and Spec fPL at different cutoffs was assessed using Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ). Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for 31 cases where pancreatic histopathology was available.
DGGR-lipase (cutoff, 26 U/L) and Spec fPL (cutoff, >5.3 μg/L) had a κ of 0.68 (standard error [SE] 0.046). DGGR-lipase (cutoff, 26 U/L) and Spec fPL (cutoff, >3.5 μg/L) had a κ of 0.60 (SE, 0.05). The maximum κ at a Spec fPL cutoff >5.3 μg/L was found when the DGGR-lipase cutoff was set >34 U/L and calculated as 0.755 (SE, 0.042). Sensitivity and specificity were 48% and 63% for DGGR-lipase (cut-off, 26 U/L) and 57% and 63% for Spec fPL (>5.3 μg/L), respectively.
Both lipase assays agreed substantially. DGGR assay seems a useful and cost-efficient method compared to the Spec fPL test.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 07/2013; · 2.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective-To determine overall survival time and identify prognostic factors associated with survival time in cats with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus. Design-Retrospective case series. Animals-114 cats with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus. Procedures-Data for analysis included history, signalment, physical examination findings, hematologic and serum biochemical data, presence of ketoacidosis, and diagnosis of concurrent diseases at initial evaluation. The effects of possible predictors on survival time were determined by calculating hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results-Median survival time of diabetic cats was 516 days (range, 1 to 3,468 days); 70%, 64%, and 46% lived longer than 3, 6, and 24 months, respectively. Survival time was significantly shorter for cats with higher creatinine concentrations, with a hazard of dying approximately 5% greater for each increase of 10 μg/dL in serum creatinine concentration (adjusted HR, 1.005; 95% CI, 1.003 to 1.007). Ketoacidosis was not significantly associated with survival time (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.590 to 1.78). Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Cats with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus had a fair to good prognosis. High serum creatinine concentration at diagnosis was associated with a poor outcome, likely because of the adverse effects of renal dysfunction. Ketoacidosis apparently was not associated with decreased survival time, suggesting that this complication should not necessarily be regarded as unfavorable.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 07/2013; 243(1):91-95. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective-To evaluate the use of high-resolution manometry (HRM) in awake and sedated dogs and to assess potential effects of a standard sedation protocol. Animals-22 Beagles. Procedures-An HRM catheter with 36 pressure sensors was inserted intranasally in each dog. After an adaption period of 5 minutes, each set of measurements included 5 swallows of a liquid and 5 swallows of a solid bolus. Measurements were repeated 30 minutes after IM administration of buprenorphine and acepromazine. Results-HRM was successfully performed in 14 dogs. Data sets of 8 dogs were adequate for analysis. For the upper esophageal sphincter, median values of baseline pressure, residual pressure, relaxation time to nadir, and relaxation duration were determined for awake and sedated dogs for liquid and solid swallows. For the tubular portion of the esophagus, median values of peristaltic contractile integral, bolus transit time, and contractile front velocity were determined for awake and sedated dogs for liquid and solid swallows. For the lower esophageal sphincter, median values of baseline pressure and residual pressure were determined for awake and sedated dogs for liquid and solid swallows. Significant differences (awake vs sedated) were found for the upper esophageal sphincter residual pressure (liquid swallows), relaxation time to nadir (liquid swallows), bolus transit time (solid swallows), and contractile front velocity (solid swallows). Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-HRM was feasible for evaluation of esophageal function in most awake dogs. Although sedation in uncooperative patients may minimally influence results of some variables, an overall assessment of swallowing should be possible.
American Journal of Veterinary Research 06/2013; 74(6):895-900. · 1.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of trilostane treatment is currently monitored by regular ACTH stimulation tests, which are time-consuming and expensive. Therefore, a monitoring system without a stimulation protocol and with less client expense would be preferable. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to evaluate if baseline cortisol, endogenous ACTH (ACTH) concentration or the baseline cortisol to ACTH ratio (cortisol/ACTH ratio) could replace the ACTH stimulation test. ANIMALS: Forty trilostane-treated dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism (PDH) were included in this prospective study. METHODS: A total of 148 ACTH stimulation tests and 77 ACTH concentrations and cortisol/ACTH ratios were analyzed. Control of cortisol release was classified according to cortisol concentration after ACTH administration as excessive (<1.5 μg/dL; group 1), adequate (1.5-5.4 μg/dL; group 2), or inadequate (>5.4 μg/dL; group 3). RESULTS: Baseline cortisol concentrations had considerable overlap between excessively, adequately, and inadequately controlled dogs. Only baseline cortisol >4.4 μg/dL (in 12% of tests) was a reliable diagnosis of inadequate control. Endogenous ACTH concentrations did not differ between groups. The overlap of the cortisol/ACTH ratio between groups was large. Correct classification was only possible if the cortisol/ACTH ratio was >15, which occurred in 4% of tests. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: To monitor trilostane treatment the ACTH stimulation test cannot be replaced by baseline cortisol, ACTH concentration, or the cortisol/ACTH ratio.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 05/2013; · 2.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Juvenile cobalamin deficiency is a rare disease in border collies and its diagnosis requires a high level of clinical suspicion. The goal of this study was to increase awareness of this disease by describing the clinical and laboratory findings in four young border collies with inherited cobalamin deficiency. The median age of the dogs was 11.5 mo (range, 8-42 mo), and two of the four dogs were full siblings. Clinical signs included intermittent lethargy (n = 4), poor body condition (n = 4), odynophagia (n = 2), glossitis (n = 1), and bradyarrhythmia (n = 1). Pertinent laboratory abnormalities were mild to moderate normocytic nonregenerative anemia (n = 3), increased aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity (n = 3), and mild proteinuria (n = 3). All of the dogs had serum cobalamin levels below the detection limit of the assay, marked methylmalonic aciduria, and hyperhomocysteinemia. Full clinical recovery was achieved in all dogs with regular parenteral cobalamin supplementation, and laboratory abnormalities resolved, except the proteinuria and elevated AST activity persisted. This case series demonstrates the diverse clinical picture of primary cobalamin deficiency in border collies. Young border collies presenting with ambiguous clinical signs should be screened for cobalamin deficiency.
Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 03/2013; · 0.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Incretins (gastric inhibitory polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1]) are hormones released from the gastrointestinal tract during food intake that potentiate insulin secretion. Native GLP-1 is quickly degraded by the enzyme dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4), which has led to the development of GLP-1 agonists with resistance to degradation and to inhibitors of DPP-4 activity as therapeutic agents in humans with type 2 diabetes. In healthy cats, GLP-1 agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors have produced a substantial increase in insulin secretion. Although results of clinical studies are not yet available, incretin-based therapy promises to become an important new research area in feline diabetes.
Veterinary Clinics of North America Small Animal Practice 03/2013; 43(2):417-33. · 1.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Transdermal methimazole is an acceptable alternative to oral treatment for hyperthyroid cats. There are, however, no studies evaluating the duration of T4 suppression after transdermal methimazole application. Such information would be valuable for therapeutic monitoring. OBJECTIVE: To assess variation in serum T4 concentration in hyperthyroid cats after once- and twice-daily transdermal methimazole administration. ANIMALS: Twenty client-owned cats with newly diagnosed hyperthyroidism. METHODS: Methimazole was formulated in a pluronic lecithin organogel-based vehicle and applied to the pinna of the inner ear at a starting dose of 2.5 mg/cat q12h (BID group, 10 cats) and 5 mg/cat q24h (SID group, 10 cats). One and 3 weeks after starting treatment, T4 concentrations were measured immediately before and every 2 hours after gel application over a period of up to 10 hours. RESULTS: Significantly decreased T4 concentrations were observed in week 1 and 3 compared with pretreatment concentrations in both groups. All cats showed sustained suppression of T4 concentration during the 10-hour period, and T4 concentrations immediately before the next methimazole treatment were not significantly different compared with any time point after application, either in the BID or SID groups. CONCLUSIONS: Because transdermal methimazole application led to prolonged T4 suppression in both the BID and SID groups, timing of blood sampling does not seem to be critical when assessing treatment response.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 02/2013; · 2.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The TSH stimulation test to confirm canine hypothyroidism is commonly performed using a recombinant human TSH (rhTSH), as up to date, canine TSH is not yet commercially available. Limiting factors for the use of rhTSH are its high costs and occasional difficulties in product availability. Less expensive bovine TSH preparations (bTSH) purified from bovine pituitary glands are readily commercially available. The aim of this study was to evaluate two different bTSH products as alternative to rhTSH using mass spectrometry.
More than 50 proteins, including other pituitary hormones, bovine albumin, hemoglobin, and tissue proteins were identified in the bTSH preparations. In contrast, rhTSH proved to be a highly pure product. Significantly higher endotoxin levels could be detected in all bTSH products compared to the rhTSH.
Both bTSH products are crude mixtures and therefore not an acceptable alternative to rhTSH. Their use should be discouraged to prevent unintended side effects.
BMC Veterinary Research 01/2013; 9:141. · 1.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrinopathy in humans and in cats. The general prevalence of diabetes mellitus, and in particular of type 2 diabetes, has risen dramatically in recent years. This increase has often been linked to the rise in the obesity pandemic because obesity and the ensuing metabolic consequences constitute major risk factors for human type 2 and for feline diabetes. Feline diabetes shares many features of human type 2 diabetes in respect to its pathophysiology, underlying risk factors and treatment strategies. This review will briefly summarize major characteristics in the human and the feline disease and where available, point out the current knowledge on similarities and differences.
General and Comparative Endocrinology 12/2012; · 2.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary hyperaldosteronism is a clinical syndrome characterized by an elevated aldosterone secretion by the adrenals. The present case series describes 7 cats with primary hyperaldosteronism, which were presented between 2002 and 2011. Common clinical symptoms were weakness, anorexia, cervical ventroflexion and blindness. All cats showed hypokalemia. In 6 cats, blood pressure was determined: 5 cats showed hypertension, of which 4 animals exhibited retinal detachment and blindness. In the ultrasonographic examination, unilateral adrenomegaly was present in 6 cats whereas one animal showed normal adrenals. In 4 cats, the serum aldosterone concentration was above the reference range. Five cats underwent unilateral adrenalectomy, which was accomplished uneventfully and returned the electrolytes back to normal. Histopathological examination of the adrenals revealed 2 carcinomas and 4 adenomas; one cat with ultrasonographic normal adrenals exhibited bilateral nodular hyperplasia.
SAT Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde 12/2012; 154(12):529-37. · 0.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective-To evaluate 4 methods used to measure plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 concentrations in healthy cats and cats with diabetes mellitus or other diseases. Animals-39 healthy cats, 7 cats with diabetes mellitus, and 33 cats with other diseases. Procedures-4 assays preceded by different sample preparation methods were evaluated, including acid chromatography followed by radioimmunoassay (AC-RIA), acid-ethanol extraction followed by immunoradiometry assay (AEE-IRMA), acidification followed by immunochemiluminescence assay (A-ICMA), and IGF-2 excess followed by RIA (IE-RIA). Validation of the methods included determination of precision, accuracy, and recovery. The concentration of IGF-1 was measured with all methods, and results were compared among cat groups. Results-The intra-assay coefficient of variation was < 10% for AC-RIA, A-ICMA, and AEE-IRMA and 14% to 22% for IE-RIA. The linearity of dilution was close to 1 for each method. Recovery rates ranged from 69% to 119%. Five healthy cats had IGF-1 concentrations > 1,000 ng/mLwith the AEE-IRMA, but < 1,000 ng/mL with the other methods. Compared with healthy cats, hyperthyroid cats had significantly higher concentrations of IGF-1 with the A-ICMA method, but lower concentrations with the IE-RIA method. Cats with lymphoma had lower IGF-1 concentrations than did healthy cats regardless of the method used. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Differences in the methodologies of assays for IGF-1 may explain, at least in part, the conflicting results previously reported in diabetic cats. Disorders such as hyperthyroidism and lymphoma affected IGF-1 concentrations, making interpretation of results more difficult if these conditions are present in cats with diabetes mellitus.
American Journal of Veterinary Research 12/2012; 73(12):1925-31. · 1.35 Impact Factor