[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aims were to investigate the prevalence of perceived sleep quality and insufficient sleep complaints, and to analyze whether self-reported bruxism was associated with perceptions of sleep, and awake consequences of disturbed sleep, while controlling confounding factors relative to poor sleep.
A standardized questionnaire was mailed to all employees of the Finnish Broadcasting Company with irregular shift work (n = 750) and to an equal number of randomly selected controls in the same company with regular eight-hour daytime work.
The response rate in the irregular shift work group was 82.3% (56.6% men) and in the regular daytime work group 34.3% (46.7% men). Self-reported bruxism occurred frequently (often or continually) in 10.6% of all subjects. Altogether 16.8% reported difficulties initiating sleep (DIS), 43.6% disrupted sleep (DS), and 10.3% early morning awakenings (EMA). The corresponding figures for non-restorative sleep (NRS), tiredness, and sleep deprivation (SLD) were 36.2%, 26.1%, and 23.7%, respectively. According to logistic regression, female gender was a significant independent factor for all insomnia symptoms, and older age for DS and EMA. Frequent bruxism was significantly associated with DIS (p = 0.019) and DS (p = 0.021). Dissatisfaction with current work shift schedule and frequent bruxism were both significant independent factors for all variables describing insufficient sleep consequences.
Self-reported bruxism may indicate sleep problems and their adherent awake consequences in non-patient populations.
Head & Face Medicine 02/2008; 4:4. · 0.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using a planimetric method, the size of horizontal wear facets on maxillary anterior teeth was studied longitudinally in the permanent dentition of 35 subjects at ages 14, 18, and 23?years. The study subjects had not previously undergone any orthodontic treatment and had Class I occlusion. We studied the association between the amount of wear and reported parafunctions and maximal bite force. Total wear areas in age groups 14, 18, and 23 years were 29.5 mm2 (SD 11.4), 39.1 mm2 (SD 12.7), and 45.0 mm2 (SD 13.0), respectively. The total wear area increased significantly both from 14 to 18 years of age and from 18 to 23 years of age (p <0.0001). Between 18 and 23?years of age, the maxillary canines showed strongest wear, although the central incisors had largest wear facets. It can be concluded that wear of permanent anterior teeth is a continuous phenomenon in adolescence and young adulthood.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several studies have reported that musculoskeletal disorders of the stomatognathic system, commonly known as temporomandibular disorders (TMD) resemble musculoskeletal disorders and chronic pain disorders in general. There is also general consensus that combined biomedical and biopsychosocial methods best support the assessment and management of the cardinal features of TMD, i.e., pain and dysfunction or physical (peripheral) and psychosocial (central) factors. This overview of the aetiology of TMD will outline conceptualizations of past models and present the current view that patients with TMD should be assessed according to both the physical disorder and the psychosocial illness impact factors. The conceptual theories outlined in this review include biomedical models related to temporomandibular joints, muscles of mastication and occlusal factors, psychological models and the biopsychosocial models. An integrated and multidimensional approach concerning physical and psychosocial factors in temporomandibular pain and dysfunction is presented as an example of how the biopsychosocial model and information processing theory may apply in the conceptualization and management of TMD for various health care professionals.
European Journal of Pain 01/2006; 9(6):613-33. · 3.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Body height is an alleged risk factor for low back pain in adulthood, but its importance regarding non-specific neck pain is obscure during childhood and adolescence. We studied anthropometric measurements for their associations with the incidence of neck pain in a population study of 430 children who were examined five times: at the age 11-14 and 22 years. Body height and weight and the degrees of trunk asymmetry, thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis were measured at every examination. The history of neck pain was obtained by a structured questionnaire at the final examination. The incidence of neck pain was defined as pain occurring in eight or more days during the past year. Short stature at 11 years of age predicted the incidence of neck pain. Adjusted for sex, the odds ratio (with 95% confidence interval) per an increment of one standard deviation of body height was 0.78 (0.62-0.97). At 22 years of age there was accordingly an inverse association between current body height and neck pain history, the odds ratio being 0.62 (0.45-0.86). Male sex was found to protect against neck pain; the odds ratio was 0.28 (0.18-0.44). Anthropometric measurements other than body height were not found to predict neck pain. The role of anthropometric factors in the development of neck pain at young adulthood seems only modest. Short stature may be a risk determinant of neck pain.
European Spine Journal 01/2006; 14(10):1033-6. · 2.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spinal posture and the resultant changes during the entire pubertal growth period have not been reported previously. No cohort study has focused on the development of spinal posture during both the ascending and the descending phase of peak growth of the spine. The growth and development of a population-based cohort of 1060 children was followed up for a period of 11 years. The children were examined 5 times, at the ages of 11, 12, 13, 14 and 22 years. A total of 430 subjects participated in the final examination. Sagittal spinal profiles were determined using spinal pantography by the same physician throughout the study. Thoracic kyphosis was more prominent in males at all examinations. The increasing tendency towards thoracic kyphosis continued in men, but not in women. The degree of lumbar lordosis was constant during puberty and young adulthood. Women were more lordotic at all ages. Thoracic hyperkyphosis of > or =45 degrees was as prevalent in boys as girls at 14 years, but significantly (P<0.0001) more prevalent in men (9.6%) than in women (0.9%) at 22 years. The degree of mean thoracic kyphosis and the prevalence of hyperkyphosis increased in men during the descending phase of peak growth of the spine, but decreased in women.
European Spine Journal 10/2005; 14(8):738-42. · 2.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Body height is an alleged risk factor for low-back pain (LBP) in adulthood, but its importance is obscure during childhood and adolescence. We studied growth for its association with the incidence of LBP in a population study of 430 children who were examined five times: at the age 11,12,13,14 and 22 years. Body height and weight and the degrees of trunk asymmetry, thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis were measured at every examination. The history of LBP was obtained by a structured questionnaire at the ages of 14 and 22 years. The incidence of LBP was defined as pain, which occurred on eight or more days during the past year among those 338 children who had been free from LBP until 14 years of age. Growth of body height between 11 years and 14 years of age predicted the incidence of LBP. Adjusted for sex, the odds ratio (with 95% confidence interval) per an increment of one SD (4.3 cm) was 1.32 (1.06--1.65), the P value for trend being 0.03. Growth after 14 years of age was inversely related to the incidence of LBP, but the association did not reach statistical significance (P for trend=0.06). Other anthropometric measurements or their changes were not found to predict LBP. Our results are not compatible with the old myth that spinal growth actually contributes to LBP. But abundant growth in early adolescence may be a risk factor for subsequent LBP.
European Spine Journal 09/2005; 14(6):595-8. · 2.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the oral cavity, Actinomyces form a fundamental component of the indigenous microflora, being among initial colonizers in polymicrobial biofilms. However, some differences may exist between different species in terms of their attachment not only to teeth but also to biomaterials. In this study we investigated the distribution of Actinomyces in 33 dental implant fixtures explanted from 17 patients. The identification was based on comprehensive biochemical testing and gas-liquid chromatography and when needed, 16S rRNA sequencing. Actinomyces was the most prevalent bacterial genus in these failed implants, colonizing 31/33 (94%) of the fixtures. Proportions of Actinomyces growth of the total bacterial growth in the Actinomyces-positive fixtures varied from 0.01% up to 75%. A. odontolyticus was the most common Actinomyces finding, present in 26/31 (84%) Actinomyces-positive fixtures. Actinomyces naeslundii and A. viscosus were both detected in 10/31 (32%) and A. israelii in 7/31 (23%) fixtures. Other Actinomyces species, including A. georgiae, A. gerencseriae and A. graevenitzii, were detected less frequently. Our results suggest that Actinomyces species are frequent colonizers on failed implant surfaces, where A. odontolyticus was the far most prominent Actinomyces species.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A standardized questionnaire was mailed to all employees of the Finnish Broadcasting Company with irregular shift work (n = 750) and to an equal number of randomly selected controls in the same company with regular 8-hour daytime work. The aims were to investigate the prevalence and severity of perceived orofacial pain (Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders Axis II) and to analyze whether current orofacial pain was associated with reported bruxism and insomnia symptoms (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV and the International Classification of Sleep Disorders Revised). The response rate in the irregular shift-work group was 82.3% (56.6% men) and in the regular daytime-work group 34.3% (46.7% men). Current orofacial pain was found overall in 19.6%, of which 88.3% had experienced the pain over 6 months. All claimed that their pain fluctuated. No subjects with chronic orofacial pain reported disabling pain, and grades III and IV were not found. Insomnia symptoms and frequent bruxism were significantly more prevalent in chronic pain grade II than in lower grades. According to logistic regression, current orofacial pain was significantly positively associated with frequent bruxism (p < 0.001), female gender (p < 0.001), and disrupted sleep (p < 0.01), and significantly negatively associated with age over 45 years (p < 0.01). Our results revealed a clear-cut association between perceived orofacial pain and reported bruxism. The association held with both chronic orofacial pain intensity and current pain. Based on the multivariate analyses, it can be concluded that disrupted sleep and bruxism may be concomitantly involved in the development of orofacial pain.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A standardized questionnaire was mailed to all employees of the Finnish Broadcasting Company with irregular shift work (n = 750) and to an equal number of randomly selected controls in the same company with regular 8-h daytime work. The questionnaire covered demographic items, employment details, general health experience, physical status, psychosocial status, stress, work satisfaction and performance, tobacco use, bruxism, and restless legs symptoms (RLS). The aim was to investigate among a multiprofessional media personnel the associations between reported bruxism and RLS, while simultaneously controlling the effects of gender, age, tobacco use, shift work, and dissatisfaction with current workshift schedule. The overall response rate was 58.3% (53.7% men). The response rate in the irregular shift work group was 82.3% (56.6% men) and in the regular daytime work group 34.3% (46.7% men). In the bivariate analyses, RLS was more prevalent in workers at either end of the studied age range (p < 0.05). Self-reported frequent bruxism was significantly associated with younger age (p < 0.05). Females reported RLS (11.4%) slightly more often than males (7.7%) (NS). In logistic regression, frequent bruxism (p < 0.05) and older age (p < 0.05) were significantly positively associated with RLS. Dissatisfaction with one's current workshift schedule (p < 0.05) and RLS (p < 0.05) were significantly positively associated with frequent bruxism, while age (p < 0.05) was significantly negatively associated. In conclusion, perceived bruxism may be a sign of a stressful situation or dissatisfaction, while RLS as a more stable trait may in itself negatively affect sleep quality and further enhance the problem.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate subjective, clinical and radiographic findings relating to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and spondyloarthropathy (SPA), and to compare the findings with those in age- and sex-matched control subjects.
Eighty patients (24 with RA, 16 with MCTD, 19 with AS, 21 with SPA) and 80 matched controls participated in the study. Replies to a questionnaire covering oral and TMJ symptoms were analysed in conjunction with medical histories, results of clinical examination of the stomatognathic system, and panoramic and lateral panoramic radiographs.
Patients with rheumatic disease reported severe TMJ symptoms significantly oftener than control subjects (P < .001). Patients with AS reported symptoms most frequently (7/19, 37%). Mean maximal opening of the mouth (SD) was significantly less in patients with rheumatic disease (46.3 mm (8.6 mm)) than in control subjects (55.0 mm (7.4 mm)) (P < .001). Marked erosions were observed in 4 RA patients (17%), 3 MCTD patients (19%), 8 SPA patients (38%), 7 AS patients (37%), and 1 control subject (1%) (P < .001). The existence of erosion was associated with evidence of restricted movement of condyle in panoramic radiographs (P < .001). There was correlation between radiographic findings relating to the TMJ and subjective and clinical stomatognathic-system symptoms in patients with rheumatic disease. Subjective TMJ symptoms were associated with evidence of restricted movement of condyle in panoramic radiographs (P < .001). Impairment of laterotrusion movement was significantly associated with erosion (P < .001).
The TMJ is commonly affected in patients with RA, and in patients with other forms of rheumatic disease. There are associations between radiographic findings and subjective symptoms, and between radiographic findings and restricted TMJ movement. In screening for suspected TMJ destruction, it would be appropriate to look for restricted maximal mouth opening, masticatory muscle tenderness and restricted laterotrusion.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine chronic groups of myofascial pain and chronic disk displacement with reduction over a 1-year period, and to study the relationship between psychological status and these chronic subgroups of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in non-patients. A total of 211 subjects (males 47%, mean age 46 years; standard deviation 6) attended examinations in 1999 and 2000 performed according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). Chronic myofascial pain was found in 7% and chronic disk displacement with reduction in 11% of subjects; new diagnoses were made in only 4% and 1% of the subjects, respectively. An increase in the level of somatization by 1 step increased the probability of having chronic myofascial pain by over 3 times (P = 0.006). Myofascial pain and disk displacement with reduction seem to be relatively common and fluctuating in nature in non-patients. As somatization associated significantly with myofascial pain, this should be borne in mind in the management of TMD. The results strengthen the rationale of the biopsychosocial orientation in health care.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to analyze whether previously emerged pain symptoms and painless temporomandibular disorder (TMD) symptoms are associated with alexithymia and self-rated depression among media personnel in or not in irregular shift work. A standardized questionnaire was mailed to all employees of the Finnish Broadcasting Company in irregular shift work (n = 750) and to an equal number of randomly selected controls in regular 8-h daytime work. The questionnaire covered demographic items, employment details, general health experience, physical status, psychosomatic symptoms, psychosocial status, stress, work satisfaction and performance, and health-care use. Studied age groups, marital status, gender or perceived health were not significantly associated with alexithymia in the bivariate analyses. Most studied painless TMD symptoms associated significantly with alexithymia. Alexithymia was also significantly more prevalent among those who reported having more often than average neck pain (P < 0.05), head pain (P < 0.05), and tender teeth (P < 0.01). According to logistic regression, the probability of alexithymia was significantly positively associated with pain symptoms (P < 0.05) and painless TMD-related symptoms (P < 0.01), and significantly negatively associated with female gender (P < 0.01). Additionally, depressive mood was significantly positively associated with dissatisfaction of one's work-shift schedule (P < 0.05), and poorer health experience (P < 0.01). Neither alexithymia nor depression was associated with irregular shift work in itself. In conclusion, depressive mood may be a sign of dissatisfaction and impaired well-being. In the case of perhaps less disabling but common physical symptoms alexithymia as a possible underlying factor may be relevant in the diagnosis and management of such disorders.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the prevalence of subjective symptoms of pain and/or temporomandibular disorder (TMD) dysfunction and their association with psychosomatic (PS) symptoms in a longitudinal follow-up study of Finnish young adults over an 8-year period.
One hundred twenty-eight Finnish young adults (60 men and 68 women) were assessed longitudinally at the ages of 15, 18, and 23 years using routine stomatognathic methods and a standardized questionnaire.
The prevalence of reported TMD symptoms ranged from 6% to 12% for pain symptoms, from 12% to 28% for dysfunctional symptoms, and from 4% to 7% for a combination of these 2 types of symptoms. The prevalence of PS symptoms, which were constantly present in many of the patients who reported them, ranged from 7% to 11%. A significant correlation (P < .05) was found between TMD pain and PS symptoms at the ages of 15 and 18 years. PS symptoms were not significantly correlated to TMD dysfunction symptoms or to experiencing no symptoms at any age. The majority of subjects in all age groups with both TMD and PS symptoms were female, in a ratio of approximately 2 to 1.
The prevalence of TMD and PS symptoms was low in adolescence and young adulthood, and there was a significant association, although relatively weak, between PS symptoms and reports of either TMD pain or a combination of TMD pain and dysfunction symptoms.
Journal of orofacial pain 01/2004; 18(2):126-30. · 2.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Attachment of bacteria to titanium may differ not only between bacterial species but also between strains within a species. The aim of the present in vitro study was to examine differences in bacterial attachment using 4 gram-negative anaerobic species of bacteria that are considered potential periodontal pathogens.
The attachment of clinical and laboratory strains (n = 23) representing 2 Fusobacterium nucleatum subspecies, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia to smooth, commercially pure titanium was examined using scanning electron microscopy.
All bacterial strains were attached to the smooth titanium surface by their outer membrane. F nucleatum cells were poorly attached to the titanium, unlike P gingivalis or P intermedia cells, but only slight differences were observed in the quantity of attached cells between the strains within each bacterial group.
In favorable conditions, some anaerobes can attach directly to an inert titanium surface. Microbial adhesion and subsequent colonization on the dental implant surface can lead to infection of the peri-implant tissue.
The results indicated that the avidity of bacterial attachment to a smooth titanium surface varies between species of oral gram-negative anaerobes but not between strains.
The International journal of oral & maxillofacial implants 01/2004; 19(6):803-9. · 1.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this population-based cohort was to measure maximal bite force (MBF) in the molar and incisal regions and to examine whether MBF was associated with TMD, gender, occlusion (in terms of overjet, overbite, and total number of occluding contacts), and body mass index (BMI). MBF in the molar and incisal regions was measured using a calibrated method in 384 (196 males, 188 females) and 357 (181 males, 176 females) subjects, respectively. Two attempts in each region (right molar, left molar, and incisal) were made in random order. The subjects completed a multiple-choice questionnaire including subjective symptoms of TMD and were subsequently clinically examined. Helkimo's clinical dysfunction index and BMI were calculated. The mean MBF value in the molar region was significantly higher in males (878 N, SD 194) than in females (690 N, SD 175) (p < 0.001). The incisal forces were 283 N (SD 95) and 226 N (SD 86) (p < 0.001), respectively. According to multiple linear regression, TMJ discomfort was significantly negatively associated with MBF in the molar region (p < 0.05) and overjet was significantly negatively associated with maximal incisal bite force (p < 0.05). No significant associations between MBFs and body mass were found. The results demonstrate that in a population-based cohort of young adults signs, and symptoms of TMD and studied occlusal factors, unlike body mass, associate independently with MBF.
Cranio: the journal of craniomandibular practice 11/2003; 21(4):248-52. · 1.11 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A standardized questionnaire was mailed to all employees of the Finnish Broadcasting Company with irregular shift work (n = 750) and to an equal number of randomly selected controls with regular 8-hour daytime work. The aim was to analyze whether irregular shift work, workload in terms of weekly working hours, dissatisfaction with current workshift schedule, health-care use, age and gender were associated with self-reported bruxism and experienced stress. The response rates were 58.3% (n = 874, 53.7% men) overall, 82.3% (n = 617, 56.6% men) for irregular shift workers and 34.3% (n = 257, 46.7% men) for the regular daytime work group. Those with irregular shifts were more often dissatisfied with their current workshift schedule than those in daytime work (25.1% versus 5.1%, P < 0.01). Irregular shift work was significantly associated with more frequent stress (P < 0.001), but not with self-reported bruxism. Workers dissatisfied with their current schedule reported both bruxism (P < 0.01) and stress (P < 0.001) more often than those who felt satisfied. In multivariate analyses, frequent bruxism was significantly associated with dissatisfaction with current workshift schedule (P < 0.05), number of dental visits (P < 0.05), and visits to a physician (P < 0.01), and negatively associated with age (P < 0.05), while severe stress was significantly positively associated with number of visits to a physician (P < 0.001). It was concluded that dissatisfaction with one's workshift schedule and not merely irregular shift work may aggravate stress and bruxism.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of temporomandibular joint related (TMJ) painless symptoms, orofacial pain, neck pain, and headache in a Finnish working population and to evaluate the association of the symptoms with psychosocial factors. A self-administered postal questionnaire concerning items on demographic background, employment details, perceived general state of health, medication, psychosocial status, and use of health-care services, was mailed to all employees with at least 5 years at their current job. The questionnaire was completed by 1339 subjects (75%). Frequent (often or continual) TMJ-related painless symptoms were found in 10%, orofacial pain in 7%, neck pain in 39%, and headache in 15% of subjects. Females reported all pain symptoms significantly more often than men (P < 0.001). Frequent pain and TMJ-related symptoms were significantly associated with self-reported stress, depression, and somatization (P < 0.001). Perceived poor general state of health (P < 0.001), health care visits (P < 0.001), overload at work (P < 0.001), life satisfaction (P < 0.05), and work satisfaction (P < 0.05) were also significantly associated with pain symptoms, but the work duty was not (P > 0.05). Our findings are in accordance with earlier studies and confirm the strong relationship between neck pain, headache, orofacial pain. TMJ-related painless symptoms, and psychosocial factors. Furthermore, TMJ-related symptoms and painful conditions seem to be more associated with work-related psychosocial factors than with type of work itself.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent research shows increasing rates of occupational stress and stress-related disorders.
To study self-reported stress and its association with work (work duty, working hours and shift work), sick leave and gender among multiprofessional media personnel.
We used a questionnaire study among 30- to 55-year-old radio and TV broadcasting employees (n = 1339).
Stress was felt 'rather much' by 18% and 'very much' by 6%. Females reported stress (P < 0.05) and absence from work (P < 0.05) more often than males. The probability of having 'rather much' or 'very much' stress was significantly associated with self-reported overtime (P < 0.01) and the amount of reported sick leave (P < 0.05)
Self-reported overtime and sick leave appear to be associated with higher level of self-reported stress, regardless of age, gender or work duty.
Occupational Medicine 09/2003; 53(6):403-5. · 1.45 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to detect possible associations between trunk and cervical asymmetry and facial symmetry. Frontal cephalograms prepared in the natural head position, representing 79 subjects (40 males, 39 females) with mild to moderate trunk asymmetry, were analyzed separately for thoracic humps, lumbar prominences, and cervical inclination by discriminating two groups: right-sided-dominant and left-sided-dominant. The differences between the groups were analyzed using an unpaired 2-group t test. The results showed that location of the thoracic humps and inclination of the cervical spine was predominantly right-sided, while the location of lumbar prominence was predominantly left-sided. Craniofacial morphological variables of the head and face were nearly equal for right-sided and left-sided thoracic humps and lumbar prominences, showing that moderate trunk asymmetry does not affect facial symmetry. Further, it was found that frontal head position in relation to the true vertical (VER/ORB) is stable in that the angle between the supraorbital and vertical lines is constantly maintained close to 90 degrees regardless of moderate trunk asymmetry, indicating that visual perception control is most important in orienting the head in frontal plane. Maintenance of the head position takes place by cervical spine adaptation.