Dori L Borjesson

University of California, Davis, Davis, California, United States

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Publications (75)211.58 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: SUMOylation, the covalent attachment of a member of the SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) family of proteins to lysines in target substrates, is an essential post-translational modification in eukaryotes. Microbial manipulation of SUMOylation recently emerged as a key virulence strategy for viruses and facultative intracellular bacteria, the latter of which only have been shown to deploy effectors that negatively regulate SUMOylation. Here, we demonstrate that the obligate intracellular bacterium, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, utilizes an effector, AmpA (A. phagocytophilum post-translationally modified protein A) that becomes SUMOylated in host cells and this is important for the pathogen's survival. We previously discovered that AmpA (formerly APH1387) localizes to the A. phagocytophilum-occupied vacuolar membrane (AVM). Algorithmic prediction analyses denoted AmpA as a candidate for SUMOylation. We verified this phenomenon using a SUMO-affinity matrix to precipitate both native AmpA and ectopically expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged AmpA. SUMOylation of AmpA was lysine-dependent, as SUMO-affinity beads failed to precipitate a GFP-AmpA protein when its lysine residues were substituted with arginine. Ectopically expressed and endogenous AmpA were poly-SUMOylated, which was consistent with the observation that AmpA colocalizes with SUMO2/3 at the AVM. Only late during the infection cycle did AmpA colocalize with SUMO1, which terminally caps poly-SUMO2/3 chains. AmpA was also detected in the cytosol of infected host cells, further supporting its secretion and likely participation in interactions that aid pathogen survival. Indeed, whereas siRNA-mediated knockdown of Ubc9 – a necessary enzyme for SUMOylation – slightly bolstered A. phagocytophilum infection, pharmacologically inhibiting SUMOylation in infected cells significantly reduced the bacterial load. Ectopically expressed GFP-AmpA served as a competitive agonist against native AmpA in infected cells, while lysine-deficient GFP-AmpA was less effective, implying that modification of AmpA lysines is important for infection. Collectively, these data show that AmpA becomes directly SUMOylated during infection, representing a novel tactic for A. phagocytophilum survival.
    Cellular Microbiology 10/2014; · 4.81 Impact Factor
  • Andrew G. Burton, Dori L. Borjesson, William Vernau
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    ABSTRACT: A 9-year-old female spayed English Springer Spaniel was evaluated for a cranial mediastinal mass and lymphocytosis. Flow cytometric immunophenotyping of peripheral blood lymphocytes revealed 97% as CD3 positive, confirming a T-cell lineage. Additionally, T-cell subset assessment showed 53.2% to be double-negative T-lymphocytes, expressing neither CD4 nor CD8 surface markers. The number of double-negative lymphocytes in circulation coincided with the number of T-cell receptor (TCR) γδ-expressing T-cells in circulation. Molecular T-cell clonality analysis of TCR Gamma (TCRG) gene rearrangement showed a polyclonal expansion of T-lymphocytes. Histopathology confirmed the mass to be a thymoma, supporting the diagnosis of thymoma-associated T-cell lymphocytosis. Resolution of the lymphocytosis after removal of the thymoma provided further evidence for this diagnosis. To the authors' knowledge, this case is only the second report of thymoma-associated peripheral lymphocytosis in the veterinary literature, and is the first to report a confirmed thymoma-associated peripheral γδ T-cell lymphocytosis in a dog.
    Veterinary Clinical Pathology 10/2014; · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Veterinary adult stem cell therapy is an emerging area of basic and clinical research. Like their human counterparts, veterinary mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) offer many potential therapeutic benefits. The characterization of canine-derived MSCs, however, is poorly defined compared to human MSCs. Furthermore, little consensus exists regarding the expression of canine MSC cell surface markers. To address this issue, this study investigated characteristics of cultured canine MSCs derived from both adipose tissue and bone marrow. The canine MSCs were obtained from donors of various breeds and ages. A panel of cell surface markers for canine MSCs was selected based on current human and canine literature and the availability of canine-reactive antibodies. Using flow cytometry, canine MSCs were defined to be CD90(+)CD44(+)MHC I(+)CD14(-)CD29(-)CD34(-)MHC II(-). Canine MSCs were further characterized using real-time RT-PCR as CD105(+)CD73(+)CD14(+)CD29(+)MHC II(+)CD45(-) at the mRNA level. Among these markers, canine MSCs differed from canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by the absence of CD45 expression at the mRNA level. A novel high-throughput canine-specific PCR array was developed and used to identify changes in the gene expression profiles of canine MSCs. Genes including PTPRC, TNF, β2M, TGFβ1, and PDGFRβ, were identified as unique to canine MSCs as compared to canine PBMCs. Our findings will facilitate characterization of canine MSCs for use in research and clinical trials. Moreover, the high-throughput PCR array is a novel tool for characterizing canine MSCs isolated from different tissues and potentially from different laboratories.
    Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 07/2014; · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are somatic, multipotent stromal cells with potent immunomodulatory and regenerative properties. Although MSCs have pattern recognition receptors and are modulated by Toll-like receptors (TLR) ligands, MSC-microbial interactions are poorly defined. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of bacterial association on MSC function. We hypothesized that gastrointestinal (GI) bacteria associate with MSCs and alter their immunomodulatory properties. The effect of MSC-microbial interactions on MSC morphology, viability, proliferation, migration, and immunomodulatory functions were investigated. MSCs associated with a remarkable array of enteric pathogens and commensal bacteria. MSC interactions with two model organisms, the pathogen Salmonella typhimurium (ST) and the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus (LB) were further investigated. While ST readily invaded MSCs, LB adhered to the MSC plasma membrane. Neither microbe induced MSC death, degeneration or diminished proliferation. Microbial association did not upregulate MHC-II, CD80/86 or CD1 expression. MSC-microbial interaction significantly increased transcription of key immunomodulatory genes including COX2, IL6 and IL8 coupled with significantly increased PGE2, IL6 and IL8 secretion. MSC-ST co-incubation resulted in increased MSC expression of CD54, and significant augmentation of MSC inhibition of mitogen-induced T-cell proliferation. T-cell proliferation was partially restored when PGE2 secretion was blocked from ST-primed MSCs. MSC-microbe interactions have a profound effect on MSC function and may be pivotal in a variety of clinical settings where MSCs are being explored as potential therapeutics in the context of microbial communities such as Crohn's disease, chronic non-healing wounds and sepsis.
    Stem cells and development 05/2014; · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which causes granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans and animals, is a tick-transmitted obligate intracellular bacterium that mediates its own uptake into neutrophils and non-phagocytic cells. Invasins of obligate intracellular pathogens are attractive targets for protecting against or curing infection because blocking the internalization step prevents survival of these organisms. The complement of A. phagocytophilum invasins is incompletely defined. Here, we report the significance of a novel A. phagocytophilum invasion protein, AipA. A. phagocytophilum induced aipA expression during transmission feeding of infected ticks on mice. The bacterium upregulated aipA transcription when it transitioned from its non-infectious reticulate cell morphotype to its infectious dense-cored morphotype during infection of HL-60 cells. AipA localized to the bacterial surface and was expressed during in vivo infection. Of the AipA regions predicted to be surface-exposed, only residues 1 to 87 (AipA1-87 ) were found to be essential for host cell invasion. Recombinant AipA1-87 protein bound to and competitively inhibited A. phagocytophilum infection of mammalian cells. Antiserum specific for AipA1-87 , but not other AipA regions, antagonized infection. Additional blocking experiments using peptide-specific antisera narrowed down the AipA invasion domain to residues 9 to 21. An antisera combination targeting AipA1-87 together with two other A. phagocytophilum invasins, OmpA and Asp14, nearly abolished infection of host cells. This study identifies AipA as an A. phagocytophilum surface protein that is critical for infection, demarcates its invasion domain, and establishes a rationale for targeting multiple invasins to protect against granulocytic anaplasmosis.
    Cellular Microbiology 02/2014; · 4.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To support the growing promise of regenerative medicine in glaucoma, we characterized the similarities and differences between human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Methods: HTM cells and hMSCs were phenotypically characterized by flow cytometry. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, the expression of myoc, angptl7, sox2, pou5f1, and notch1 was determined in both cell types with and without dexamethasone (Dex). Immunosuppressive behavior of HTM cells and hMSCs was determined using T cells activated with phytohemagglutinin. T-cell proliferation was determined using BrdU incorporation and flow cytometry. Multipotency of HTM cells and hMSCs was determined using adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation media as well as aqueous humor (AH). Alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) expression was determined in HTM cells, hMSCs, and HTM tissue. Results: Phenotypically, HTM and hMSCs expressed CD73, CD90, CD105, and CD146 but not CD31, CD34, and CD45 and similar sox2, pou5f1, and notch1 expression. Both cell types suppressed T-cell proliferation. However, HTM cells, but not hMSCs, upregulated myoc and angptl7 in response to Dex. Additionally, HTM cells did not differentiate into adipocytes or osteocytes. Culture of hMSCs in 20%, but not 100%, AH potently induced alkaline phosphatase activity. HTM cells in culture possessed uniformly strong expression of αSMA, which contrasted with the limited expression in hMSCs and spatially discrete expression in HTM tissue. Conclusions: HTM cells possess a number of important similarities with hMSCs but lack multipotency, one of the defining characteristics of stem cells. Further work is needed to explore the molecular mechanisms and functional implications underlying the phenotypic similarities.
    Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics: the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 01/2014; · 1.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are used in both human clinical trials and veterinary medicine for the treatment of inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases. MSCs modulate inflammation by decreasing the cells and products of the inflammatory response. Stimulated equine MSCs from bone marrow (BM), adipose tissue (AT), cord blood (CB) and umbilical cord tissue (CT) all inhibit lymphocyte proliferation and decrease inflammatory cytokine production. We hypothesized that equine MSCs inhibit T cell proliferation through secreted mediators and that MSCs from different tissue sources decrease T cell proliferation through different mechanisms. To test our hypotheses, we inhibited interleukin-6 (IL-6), nitric oxide (NO), and prostaglandin E<sub>2</sub> (PGE<sub>2</sub>) to determine their impact on stimulated T cell proliferation. We also determined how equine MSCs modulate lymphocyte proliferation either via cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Inhibition IL-6 or NO did not reverse the immunomodulatory effect of MSCs on activated T cells. In contrast, inhibition of PGE2 restored T cell proliferation, restored the secretion of TNF-α and IFN-γ, and increased IL-10 levels. MSCs from solid tissue-derived sources, AT and CT, inhibited T cell proliferation through induction of lymphocyte apoptosis while blood-derived MSCs, BM and CB, induced lymphocyte cell cycle arrest. Equine MSCs from different tissue sources modulated immune cell function by both overlapping and unique mechanisms. MSC tissue source may determine immunomodulatory properties of MSCs and may have very practical implications for MSC selection in the application of MSC therapy.
    Stem cells and development 01/2014; · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been extensively studied as a cellular therapeutic for various pathologic conditions. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding regional and systemic safety of MSC transplantations, particularly with multiple deliveries of allogeneic cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety and systemic immunomodulatory effects of repeated local delivery of allogeneic MSCs into the region of the lacrimal gland, the gland of the third eyelid and the knee joint in dogs. Allogeneic adipose tissue-derived canine MSCs were delivered to the regions of the lacrimal gland and the third eyelid gland as well as in the knee joints of six healthy laboratory beagles as follows: six times with 1-week intervals for delivery to the lacrimal gland and the third eyelid gland regions and three to four times with 1- to 2-week intervals for intra-articular transplantations. Dogs were sequentially evaluated by clinical examination. At the conclusion of the study, dogs were humanely euthanized, and a complete gross and histopathologic examination of all organ systems was performed. Mixed leukocyte reactions were also performed before the first transplantation and after the final transplantation. Clinical and pathologic examinations found no severe consequences after repeated MSC transplantations. Results of mixed leukocyte reactions demonstrated suppression of T-cell proliferation after MSC transplantations. This is the first study to demonstrate regional and systemic safety and systemic immunomodulatory effects of repeated local delivery of allogeneic MSCs in vivo.
    Cytotherapy 08/2013; · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During bacterial infection, hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) differentiate into polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in the bone marrow (BM). We reported that HSPCs recruited to S. aureus-infected skin wounds in mice, undergo granulopoiesis, while others have demonstrated their differentiation in vitro after TLR2/MyD88 stimulation. Here, we examined this pathway in HSPC trafficking and granulopoiesis within S. aureus-infected wounds. Lineage(-) HSPCs from TLR2- or MyD88-deficient mice injected into infected wounds of wild type (WT) mice exhibited impaired granulopoiesis. However, HSPCs from WT mice produced similar numbers of PMN whether transferred into wounds of TLR2-, MyD88-deficient or WT mice. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which stimulates HSPC survival and proliferation, was produced by HSPCs after TLR2 stimulation, suggesting that TLR2/MyD88 activation promotes granulopoiesis in part by production and autocrine activity of PGE2. Pretreatment of TLR2- or MyD88-deficient HSPCs with PGE2 rescued granulocytic differentiation in vivo. Finally, we demonstrate that BM-derived lin(-)/Sca-1(+)/c-kit(+) (LSK) cells produced PGE2 and underwent granulopoiesis after TLR2 stimulation. LSK cells deficient in TLR2 or MyD88 produced PMN after PGE2 treatment when transferred into uninfected wounds. We conclude that granulopoiesis in S. aureus-infected wounds is induced by TLR2/MyD88 activation of HSPCs through a mechanism that involves autocrine production and activity of PGE2.
    Blood 07/2013; · 9.78 Impact Factor
  • A Kol, R W Nelson, R C Gosselin, D L Borjesson
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    ABSTRACT: Canine hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) is a common endocrinopathy often associated with hypercoagulability, thrombosis and thromboembolism and it can contribute to increased morbidity and mortality. The condition results in increased, unregulated secretion of glucocorticoids (GCs). While prospective identification of hypercoagulability is challenging, thrombelastography (TEG) is a diagnostic tool that enables the detection of hypercoagulability in a clinical setting. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to serially assess coagulation in dogs with HAC using TEG to test the hypothesis that dogs with HAC have increased TEG maximal amplitude (MA) and that the MA would normalize once clinical control was achieved. Twenty-three dogs with naturally occurring HAC were enrolled and hemostatic (including TEG, platelet function, thrombin-antithrombin complexes and coagulation panel) and hematological variables were measured at presentation. TEG was serially monitored until clinical resolution of HAC was attained. At presentation, most dogs with HAC had increased MA values, increased thrombin-antithrombin complexes and many were hyperfibrinogenemic. Platelet function analyzer-100 (PFA-100) closure times were significantly prolonged. TEG tracings did not normalize in either medically- or surgically-managed dogs, but fibrinogen concentrations decreased. It seems that dogs with HAC have a complex coagulopathy in which hypercoagulability and platelet hyporeactivity or dysfunction might occur simultaneously. As TEG tracings did not normalize in well-controlled dogs, it is unlikely that increased blood GCs are solely responsible for TEG alterations seen in dogs with HAC.
    The Veterinary Journal 07/2013; · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Delivery of bone marrow-derived stem and progenitor cells to the site of injury is an effective strategy to enhance bone healing. An alternate approach is to mobilize endogenous, heterogeneous stem cells that will home to the site of injury. AMD3100 is an antagonist of the chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) that rapidly mobilizes stem cell populations into peripheral blood. Our hypothesis was that increasing circulating numbers of stem and progenitor cells using AMD3100 will improve bone fracture healing. A transverse femoral fracture was induced in C57BL/6 mice, after which they were subcutaneously injected for 3 d with AMD3100 or saline control. Mesenchymal stromal cells, hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and endothelial progenitor cells in the peripheral blood and bone marrow were evaluated by means of flow cytometry, automated hematology analysis and cell culture 24 h after injection and/or fracture. Healing was assessed up to 84 d after fracture by histomorphometry and micro-computed tomography. AMD3100 injection resulted in higher numbers of circulating mesenchymal stromal cells, hematopoietic stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells. Micro-computed tomography data demonstrated that the fracture callus was significantly larger compared with the saline controls at day 21 and significantly smaller (remodeled) at day 84. AMD3100-treated mice have a significantly higher bone mineral density than do saline-treated counterparts at day 84. Our data demonstrate that early cell mobilization had significant positive effects on healing throughout the regenerative process. Rapid mobilization of endogenous stem cells could provide an effective alternative strategy to cell transplantation for enhancing tissue regeneration.
    Cytotherapy 07/2013; · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lymphoma is the most common haematopoietic malignancy in dogs and it has been associated with hypercoagulability and subsequent thromboembolism. The objectives of this study were to serially characterize the haemostatic status of dogs with multicentric lymphoma. Thromboelastography, thrombin-antithrombin complex concentration and routine haematology and coagulation panels were measured. Twenty-seven dogs were included in the study and 15 completed the study in remission. At presentation, 81% (22/27) of dogs with multicentric lymphoma had altered haemostatic profiles consistent with hypercoagulability. Laboratory evidence of hypercoagulability did not resolve during treatment or for up to 1 month following attainment of clinical remission. Accelerated rate of clot formation at the time of chemotherapeutic protocol completion was associated with decreased survival time. We concluded that dogs with multicentric lymphoma were frequently hypercoagulable from presentation through 4 weeks after the completion of chemotherapy. Increased angle and shortened K in dogs that have successfully completed their chemotherapeutic protocol may be associated with shorter survival times.
    Veterinary and Comparative Oncology 05/2013; · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Intralesional (i.l.) injection is currently the most commonly used technique for stem cell therapy in equine tendon injury. A comparison of different techniques of injection of mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of tendon lesions is required. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesised that vascular perfusion of the equine distal limb with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) would result in preferential distribution of MSCs to acute tendon injuries. STUDY DESIGN: In vivo experimental study. METHODS: Lesions were surgically induced in forelimb superficial digital flexor tendons of 8 horses. Three or 10 days after lesion induction, technetium-99 hexamethyl propylene amine oxime-labelled MSCs were injected via i.v. or intra-arterial (i.a.) regional limb perfusion (RLP) at the level of the distal antebrachium and compared to i.l. injection. Mesenchymal stem cell persistence and distribution within the forelimb and tendon lesions was assessed with scintigraphy for 24 h. RESULTS: Lesion uptake was higher with i.l. injection than with RLP, but MSC persistence decreased similarly over time in all 3 techniques. Intra-arterial RLP resulted in a better distribution of MSCs and a higher uptake at the lesion site than i.v. RLP. Limbs perfused i.a. on Day 10 showed greater accumulation of MSCs in the lesion than limbs perfused on Day 3. Arterial thrombosis occurred in 50% of the i.v. RLP limbs and in 100% of the i.a. RLP limbs, which led to clinical complications in one horse. CONCLUSIONS AND POTENTIAL RELEVANCE: Compared with i.l. injection, RLP results in lower uptake but similar persistence of MSCs at the site of tendon lesions. A time dependent accumulation of MSCs was identified with i.a. RLP. The i.a. RLP appears more advantageous than the i.v. RLP in terms of distribution and uptake. However, the described i.a. technique produced arterial thrombosis and thus cannot currently be recommended for clinical use. The Summary is available in Chinese - see Supporting information.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 02/2013; · 2.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Joint inflammation and septic arthritis are both potential complications of intra-articular injections of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). Clinicians may prophylactically co-inject BM-MSCs admixed with either antimicrobials or hyaluronic acid; however, the effect of these agents on cultured BM-MSCs is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of therapeutic levels of gentamicin, amikacin and hyaluronic acid on cultured equine BM-MSCs in vitro. STUDY DESIGN: In vitro experimental study. METHODS: Equine BM-MSCs from 4 healthy mature horses were isolated. Cultured BM-MSCs from each donor were incubated with gentamicin (150 mg), amikacin (250 mg), hyaluronic acid (22 mg) or 1% penicillin/streptomycin (control) under sterile conditions. Mesenchymal stem cells viability, proliferation, mediator secretion and culture media pH were measured. RESULTS: Incubation of BM-MSCs with gentamicin resulted in >95% MSC death after 45 min, and incubation of BM-MSCs with amikacin resulted in >95% MSC death after 2 h. Incubation of BM-MSCs with hyaluronic acid or penicillin/streptomycin (control) for up to 6 h resulted in sustained BM-MSC viability of 80% and >93%, respectively. All additives resulted in decreased media pH in the first minute; however, the pH then remained constant over the 6 h incubation period. No significant differences in BM-MSC proliferation or mediator secretion between the penicillin/streptomycin (control) and cells treated with hyaluronic acid were observed. CONCLUSION: Therapeutic concentrations of aminoglycoside antimicrobials are toxic to cultured equine BM-MSCs. The effects of hyaluronic acid on cultured MSC viability, proliferation and mediator secretion are minimal. POTENTIAL RELEVANCE: Based on these findings, the mixing of aminoglycoside antimicrobials and cultured equine BM-MSCs prior to therapeutic use is not recommended.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 01/2013; · 2.29 Impact Factor
  • Danielle D Carrade, Dori L Borjesson
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    ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are adult-derived multipotent stem cells that have been derived from almost every tissue. They are classically defined as spindle-shaped, plastic-adherent cells capable of adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic differentiation. This capacity for trilineage differentiation has been the foundation for research into the use of MSC to regenerate damaged tissues. Recent studies have shown that MSC interact with cells of the immune system and modulate their function. Although many of the details underlying the mechanisms by which MSC modulate the immune system have been defined for human and rodent (mouse and rat) MSC, much less is known about MSC from other veterinary species. This knowledge gap is particularly important because the clinical use of MSC in veterinary medicine is increasing and far exceeds the use of MSC in human medicine. It is crucial to determine how MSC modulate the immune system for each animal species as well as for MSC derived from any given tissue source. A comparative approach provides a unique translational opportunity to bring novel cell-based therapies to the veterinary market as well as enhance the utility of animal models for human disorders. The current review covers what is currently known about MSC and their immunomodulatory functions in veterinary species, excluding laboratory rodents.
    Comparative medicine 01/2013; 63(3):207-17. · 1.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anaplasma phagocytophilum, a member of the family Anaplasmataceae, is the tick-transmitted obligate intracellular bacterium that causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis. The life cycle of A. phagocytophilum is biphasic, transitioning between the noninfectious reticulate cell (RC) and the infectious dense-cored (DC) forms. We analyzed the bacterium's DC surface proteome by selective biotinylation of surface proteins, neutravidin affinity purification, and mass spectrometry. Transcriptional profiling of selected outer membrane protein candidates over the course of infection revealed that aph_0248 (designated asp14 [14-kDa A. phagocytophilum surface protein]) expression was upregulated the most during A. phagocytophilum cellular invasion. asp14 transcription was induced during transmission feeding of A. phagocytophilum infected ticks on mice and was upregulated when the bacterium engaged its receptor, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1. Asp14 localized to the A. phagocytophilum surface and was expressed during in vivo infection. Treating DC organisms with Asp14 antiserum or preincubating mammalian host cells with GST-Asp14 significantly inhibited infection of host cells. Moreover, preincubating host cells with GST-tagged forms of both Asp14 and outer membrane protein A, another A. phagocytophilum invasin, pronouncedly reduced infection relative to treatment with either protein alone. The Asp14 domain that is sufficient for cellular adherence and invasion lies within the C-terminal 12 to 24 amino acids and is conserved among other Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species. These results identify Asp14 as an A. phagocytophilum surface protein that is critical for infection, delineate its invasion domain, and demonstrate the potential of targeting Asp14 in concert with OmpA for protecting against infection by A. phagocytophilum and other Anaplasmataceae pathogens.
    Infection and immunity 10/2012; · 4.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the tick-transmitted obligate intracellular bacterium that causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA). A. phagocytophilum binding to sialyl Lewis x (sLe(x)) and other sialylated glycans that decorate P selectin glycoprotein 1 (PSGL-1) and other glycoproteins is critical for infection of mammalian host cells. Here, we demonstrate the importance of A. phagocytophilum outer membrane protein A (OmpA) APH_0338 in infection of mammalian host cells. OmpA is transcriptionally induced during transmission feeding of A. phagocytophilum-infected ticks on mice and is upregulated during invasion of HL-60 cells. OmpA is presented on the pathogen's surface. Sera from HGA patients and experimentally infected mice recognize recombinant OmpA. Pretreatment of A. phagocytophilum organisms with OmpA antiserum reduces their abilities to infect HL-60 cells. The OmpA N-terminal region is predicted to contain the protein's extracellular domain. Glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tagged versions of OmpA and OmpA amino acids 19 to 74 (OmpA(19-74)) but not OmpA(75-205) bind to, and competitively inhibit A. phagocytophilum infection of, host cells. Pretreatment of host cells with sialidase or trypsin reduces or nearly eliminates, respectively, GST-OmpA adhesion. Therefore, OmpA interacts with sialylated glycoproteins. This study identifies the first A. phagocytophilum adhesin-receptor pair and delineates the region of OmpA that is critical for infection.
    Infection and immunity 08/2012; 80(11):3748-60. · 4.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing study: Autologous cellular therapy products including adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF), bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNs), cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMNs) and platelet rich plasma are options for treatment of acute orthopaedic lesions while mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are culture expanded. These products may contribute to healing by secreting matrix proteins or growth factors, but they may also act on endogenous MSCs to facilitate healing. Objectives: To determine the effects of cell therapy products on MSCs function in vitro. The hypothesis was that cell therapy products promote MSCs functions including proliferation, migration and mediator release. Methods: Fat, bone marrow (BM), cord blood and platelets were obtained from 6 Quarter Horses. The BM-MSCs and their autologous cell therapy products were co-incubated in transwells. Mesenchymal stem cells proliferation, migration, gene expression and cytokine concentrations were determined. Results: All cell therapy products increased MSCs proliferation, but SVF induced significantly more proliferation than any other product. Also SVF elicited more MSCs chemotaxis and, along with BMMNs, significantly more MSCs chemoinvasion. Cord blood mononuclear cells stimulated MSCs to produce high concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2) ). Stromal vascular fraction and platelet lysate did not stimulate MSCs but SVF and platelet lysate themselves contained high concentrations of PGE(2) and IL-6 (SVF) and TGF-β1 (platelet lysate). Conclusions: Autologous cell products variably stimulate MSCs functions with 2 primary patterns apparent. Products either contained preformed mediators that may have intrinsic healing function, or products stimulated MSCs to secrete mediators. Potential relevance: The specific clinical indications for these products may differ to include administration as a sole treatment modality prior to MSCs injection for intrinsic cell and cytokine activity (i.e. SVF) or administration concurrently with MSCs to activate MSCs for treatment of chronic lesions (i.e. CBMNs).
    Equine Veterinary Journal 07/2012; · 2.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising cellular therapeutic for the treatment of a variety of disorders. On transplantation, MSCs interact with diverse extracellular matrices (ECMs) that vary dramatically in topographic feature type, size and surface order. In order to investigate the impact of these topographic cues, surfaces were fabricated with either isotropically ordered holes or anisotropically ordered ridges and grooves. To simulate the biologically relevant nano through micron size scale, a series of topographically patterned substrates possessing features of differing pitch (pitch=feature width+groove width) were created. Results document that the surface order and size of substratum topographic features dramatically modulate fundamental MSC behaviors. Topographically patterned (ridge+groove) surfaces were found to significantly impact MSC alignment, elongation, and aspect ratio. Novel findings also demonstrate that submicron surfaces patterned with holes resulted in increased MSC alignment to adjacent cells as well as increased migration rates. Overall, this study demonstrates that the presentation of substratum topographic cues dramatically influence MSC behaviors in a size and shape dependent manner. The response of MSCs to substratum topographic cues was similar to other cell types that have been studied previously with regards to cell shape on ridge and groove surfaces but differed with respect to proliferation and migration. This is the first study to compare the impact of anisotropically ordered ridge and groove topographic cues to isotropically order holed topographic cues on fundamental MSC behaviors across a range of biologically relevant size scales.
    Experimental Cell Research 07/2012; 318(19):2438-45. · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hematologic and serum biochemical data collected must be interpreted by comparison with normal reference intervals generated from healthy animals, within a similar population, because many blood parameters are influenced by diet, environment, and stress. Species-specific reference intervals for the endangered island fox (Urocyon littoralis) are not available. We reviewed hematology and serum biochemistry panels from 280 island foxes sampled from 1999-2008 and established normal reference intervals from clinically healthy foxes using a nonparametric approach. Blood parameters were analyzed for differences in age, sex, island of origin, and captivity status. Alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase activities, as well as calcium and phosphorus concentrations, were significantly higher in juveniles than in adults, but total protein and globulin concentration was lower for juveniles than for adults. Lymphocyte and eosinophil counts, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration, in foxes from the northern Channel islands of California, USA (Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, and San Miguel) were higher when compared with foxes from Santa Catalina Island to the south. Higher lymphocyte and eosinophil numbers in the northern island foxes may be associated with increased levels of parasitism on the northern islands. Differences in BUN concentration in both free-ranging and captive foxes may reflect dietary differences among islands. Although aggressive conservation programs have been enacted, island foxes are still susceptible to infectious and neoplastic diseases and, potentially, to toxins. Island fox species-specific reference intervals will enable managers and veterinarians to better care for sick and injured foxes and will contribute to future population health monitoring.
    Journal of wildlife diseases 07/2012; 48(3):583-92. · 1.27 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

726 Citations
211.58 Total Impact Points


  • 1996–2014
    • University of California, Davis
      • • Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology (VM)
      • • Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences (VM)
      • • Wildlife Health Center
      • • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      • • Center for Comparative Medicine
      • • School of Medicine
      Davis, California, United States
  • 2012
    • CSU Mentor
      Long Beach, California, United States
  • 2010–2012
    • Virginia Commonwealth University
      • Department of Microbiology & Immunology
      Richmond, VA, United States
  • 2011
    • Johns Hopkins University
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • University of Georgia
      • Department of Large Animal Medicine
      Athens, GA, United States
  • 2002–2008
    • University of Minnesota Duluth
      Duluth, Minnesota, United States
  • 2006
    • University of Minnesota Twin Cities
      • Department of Veterinary Population Medicine
      Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States
  • 2005–2006
    • University of Minnesota Morris
      • College of Veterinary Medicine
      Saint Paul, Minnesota, United States