Hong-Peng Li

Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (18)43.55 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Dermatan sulfate (DS) is synthesized from chondroitin sulfate (CS) by epimerization of glucuronic acid of CS to yield iduronic acid. In the present study, the role of CS and DS was examined in mice that received transection of nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway followed by injection of glycosaminoglycan degrading enzymes into the lesion site. Two weeks after injury, fibrotic and glial scars were formed around the lesion, and transected axons did not regenerate beyond the fibrotic scar. Injection of chondroitinase ABC (ChABC), which degrades both CS and DS, completely suppressed the fibrotic scar formation, reduced the glial scar, and promoted the regeneration of dopaminergic axons. Injection of the DS-degrading enzyme chondroitinase B (ChB) also yielded similar results. By contrast, injection of chondroitinase AC (ChAC), a CS-degrading enzyme, did not suppress the fibrotic and glial scar formation, but reduced CS immunoreactivity and promoted the axonal regeneration. Addition of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) to a co-culture of meningeal fibroblasts and cerebral astrocytes induces a fibrotic scar-like cell cluster. The effect of TGF-β1 on cluster formation was suppressed by treatment with ChABC or ChB, but not by ChAC. TGF-β1-induced cell cluster repelled neurites of neonatal cerebellar neurons, but addition of ChABC or ChAC suppressed the inhibitory property of clusters on neurite outgrowth. The present study is the first to demonstrate that DS and CS play different functions after brain injury: DS is involved in the lesion scar formation, and CS inhibits axonal regeneration.
    Journal of neurotrauma 03/2013; 30(5):413-25. · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The fibrotic scar formed after central nervous system injury has been considered an obstacle to axonal regeneration. The present study was designed to examine whether cell transplantation into a damaged central nervous system can reduce fibrotic scar formation and promote axonal regeneration. Nigrostriatal dopaminergic axons were unilaterally transected in rats and cultures of olfactory-ensheathing cells (OECs), and olfactory nerve fibroblasts were transplanted into the lesion site. In the absence of transplants, few tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive axons extended across the lesion 2 weeks after the transection. Reactive astrocytes increased around the lesion, and a fibrotic scar containing type IV collagen deposits developed in the lesion center. The immunoreactivity of chondroitin sulfate side chains and core protein of NG2 proteoglycan increased in and around the lesion. One and 2 weeks after transection and simultaneous transplantation, dopaminergic axons regenerated across the transplanted tissues, which consisted of p75-immunoreactive OECs and fibronectin-immunoreactive fibroblasts. Reactive astrocytes and chondroitin sulfate immunoreactivity increased around the transplants, whereas the deposition of type IV collagen and fibrotic scar formation were completely prevented at the lesion site. Transplantation of meningeal fibroblasts similarly prevented the formation of the fibrotic scar, although its effect on regeneration was less potent than transplantation of OECs and olfactory nerve fibroblasts. The present results suggest that elimination of the inhibitory fibrotic scar is important for neural regeneration.
    Journal of Neuroscience Research 08/2008; 86(14):3140-50. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chondroitin sulfate increases around a lesion site after central nervous system injury and is believed to be an impediment to axonal regeneration, because administration of chondroitinase ABC, a chondroitin sulfate-degrading enzyme, promotes axonal regeneration of central neurons. To examine the physiological role of chondroitin sulfate up-regulation after injury, the nigrostriatal dopaminergic axons were unilaterally transected in mice, and chondroitinase ABC was then injected into the lesion site. In mice transected only, tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive axons did not extend across the lesion at 1 or 2 weeks after the transection. Immunoreactivities of chondroitin sulfate side chains and core protein of NG2 proteoglycan increased in and around the lesion site, and a fibrotic scar containing type IV collagen deposits developed in the lesion center. In contrast, in mice transected and treated with chondroitinase ABC, numerous tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive axons were regenerated across the lesion at 1 and 2 weeks after the transection. In these animals, chondroitin sulfate immunoreactivity remarkably decreased, and immunoreactivity of 2B6 antibody, which recognizes the stub of degraded chondroitin sulfate side chains, was enhanced. Furthermore, the formation of a fibrotic scar and a glia limitans that surrounds the former was completely prevented, although type IV collagen immunoreactivity remained in newly formed blood capillaries around the lesion site. We discuss the question of whether the chondroitin sulfate is acting as a direct inhibitor of axonal regeneration or whether the observed changes are due to a prevention of the fibrotic scar formation and a rearrangement of astrocytic membranes.
    Journal of Neuroscience Research 03/2007; 85(3):536-47. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rats of the Jcl: Wistar-TgN (ARGHGEN) 1Nts strain (Mini rats) are transgenic animals carrying an antisense RNA transgene for rat growth hormone (GH); they show poor somatic growth and a low blood GH level compared to age-matched wild-type Wistar (non-Mini) rats. The purpose of the present study was to investigate age-related changes in growth hormone-immunoreactive (GH-IR) cells in the anterior pituitary gland (AP) of Mini rats at four, six, and eight weeks of age. The body weight and size of the GH-IR cells of Mini rats was significantly lower than that of non-Mini rats at six and eight weeks of age; however, this difference was not observed at four weeks of age. The AP volume and the number of GH-IR cells in Mini rats were significantly smaller than those of the age-matched non-Mini rats at the three ages. These results suggest that the abnormal development of GH-IR cells in the AP induced by the GH antisense RNA transgene is responsible for the poor somatic growth and the low blood GH levels in Mini rats.
    Congenital Anomalies 01/2007; 46(4):188-93. · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of gold thioglucose (GTG) administration on neurons containing feeding-related peptides in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus was examined in mice. Intraperitoneal GTG injection increased the body weight and produced a hypothalamic lesion that extended from the ventral part of the ventromedial nucleus to the dorsal part of the arcuate nucleus. Neurons containing proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) present in the dorsal part of the arcuate nucleus were destroyed by GTG. In addition, the peptide-containing fibers that extended from the remaining arcuate neurons were degenerated at the lesion site. The number of POMC-containing fibers in the paraventricular nucleus, dorsomedial nucleus, and lateral hypothalamus was found to have decreased significantly when examined at 2 days and 2 weeks after the GTG treatment. In contrast, the number of NPY-containing fibers in the lateral hypothalamus remained unchanged after the GTG treatment, probably because of the presence of an unaffected NPY-containing fiber pathway passing through the tuberal region and projecting onto the lateral hypothalamus. The number of NPY-immunoreactive fibers in the paraventricular and dorsomedial nuclei showed a moderate but significant decrease at 2 days after the GTG treatment, but it recovered to the normal levels 2 weeks later. The NPY-containing fibers were found to have regenerated across the lesion site 2 weeks later, and this might contribute to the recovery of the NPY-immunoreactive fibers in these regions. The present results first demonstrate that POMC- and NPY-containing neurons in the arcuate nucleus respond differently to the lesion produced by the GTG treatment.
    The Journal of Comparative Neurology 12/2006; 499(1):120-31. · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The hippocampal formation has been shown to be particularly vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of chronic ethanol consumption. It was hypothesized that this damage was due to the disruption of the expression of neurotrophic factors and certain other proteins within the hippocampus. By using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques, this study aimed to determine whether chronic ethanol consumption could alter the mRNA expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and oligodendrocyte myelin glycoprotein (OMgp) in the hippocampus. Wistar male rats received an unrestricted access to a liquid diet containing 5% (v/v) ethanol as the sole source of fluid from 10 to 29 weeks of age. Control rats had unlimited access to a liquid diet containing an isocaloric amount of sucrose. We found that chronic ethanol consumption did not cause significant changes in the levels of mRNA for BDNF and GDNF. However, OMgp mRNA showed a significant deficit in ethanol-treated animals. It is suggested that this deficit may be related to the demyelination that is commonly observed in human alcoholics and that this may contribute to the functional and cognitive deficits.
    Neuroscience Letters 11/2006; 406(1-2):76-80. · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to elucidate regional differences in the vulnerability of cerebellar foliations of rats exposed to X-irradiation. Effects of X-irradiation on foliations were examined with respect to histological changes in Purkinje cells and Bergmann glial fibers by calbindin-D28k (CB) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemistry, respectively. Wistar rats were exposed to X-irradiation (1.5 Gy) on postnatal day (PND) 1. At 3 weeks of age, the cerebellum was examined. The cerebella of rats exposed to X-irradiation showed smaller and abnormal foliations compared with controls. Fewer cerebellar foliations due to fusion with neighboring folia were observed in folia I-III and VIa-VII. Moreover, the extent of such abnormalities was more severe in the latter folia. CB-immunoreactive (IR) Purkinje cells exhibited thin, short, disoriented dendrites that had invaded the granular layer or white matter. On the other hand, GFAP-IR Bergmann glial fibers had not extended their processes into the molecular layer perpendicular to the pial surface, and they appeared thin and disoriented. Accordingly, the above cerebellar abnormalities were more severe in folia I-III, VIa-VII and X than in other regions. In contrast to the histological alterations in these folia, there were no apparent qualitative differences in folia IV-V between X-irradiated and controls. These findings indicate regional difference in the vulnerability of cerebellar folia to X-irradiation. Such differences might be attributed to the cerebellar neurogenetic gradient.
    Neuroscience Letters 08/2006; 402(1-2):86-91. · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic ethanol consumption has adverse effects on the central nervous system. Hippocampus is one of the target sites of ethanol neurotoxicity. Hippocampal damage is known to result in impairment of learning and memory. This study was aimed to determine whether chronic ethanol consumption could alter the expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) mRNAs in the hippocampus. Male Wistar rats were given unrestricted access to a liquid diet containing 5% (v/v) ethanol as the sole fluid source for 19 weeks beginning at 10 weeks of age. The expression levels of BDNF and GDNF mRNAs in the hippocampus were analyzed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. The present study revealed that chronic ethanol consumption did not result in significant changes in the expression levels of BDNF and GDNF mRNAs. Our present results showed no significant alteration in the expression of these neurotrophic factors; these results will lead to further studies to examine the possible alterations in the gene expression of various neurotrophins that are related to hippocampal functions including learning and memory.
    Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica 06/2006; 83(1):1-6.
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    ABSTRACT: The expression of calcium binding proteins (CaBPs) has been linked to protection of neurons. The present study investigated the effects of monocular enucleation on the distribution of parvalbumin immunoreactive (PV-IR) neurons and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive (GFAP-IR) astrocytes in both the dorsal (dLGN) and ventral (vLGN) regions of the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). Our results demonstrated an increase in PV-IR neuronal density on the contralateral vLGN at 1-week post-enucleation (PE), which was maintained without significant change for 12 weeks. By contrast, PV-IR neurons in dLGN decreased significantly at all time point examined. The number of GFAP-IR astrocytes showed an initial increase from 1 to 4 weeks PE and then gradually decreased until 48 weeks in both regions of the LGN with contralateral side predominance. The present results suggest that monocular enucleation results in variable expression of PV-IR neurons and GFAP-IR astrocytes in the LGN complex, which may play an important role in neuronal degeneration and neuroplasticity of the rat visual system.
    Neuroscience Letters 04/2006; 395(2):149-54. · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of the thalamocortical pathway in the cerebral neocortex of normal and reeler mutant mice. During normal development of the mouse neocortex, thalamic axons immunoreactive for the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 rarely invaded the cortical plate and ran centered in the subplate which is immunoreactive for neurocan, a brain-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. On the other hand, in homozygous reeler mutant mice, thalamic axons took an aberrant course to run obliquely through the cortical plate. Injection of bromodeoxyuridine at embryonic day 11 specifically labeled subplate neurons in normal mice, whilst in the reeler neocortex it labeled cells scattered in the cortical plate as well as in the superficial layer (superplate). Neurocan immunoreactivity was associated with the bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells in the superplate, as well as being present in oblique bands within the cortical plate, along which L1-bearing thalamic axons preferentially ran. The present results support our previous hypothesis proposed for normal rats that a heterophilic molecular interaction between L1 and neurocan is involved in determining the thalamocortical pathway within the neocortical anlage [T. Fukuda et al. (1997) Journal of Comparative Neurology, 382, 141-152].
    European Journal of Neuroscience 01/2006; 22(11):2689-96. · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stereology is a group of mathematical and statistical methods that allows the extrapolation of three-dimensional structural information from two-dimensional sections (or slices). This allows researchers to derive important quantitative structural information, such as the volume, surface area or numbers of particular particles (e.g. cells) within defined regional boundaries. The need for such quantitative information in biology is of particular importance when evaluating the influence of various experimental treatments on specific organs, tissues and cells in the body. Knowledge of such changes has given important insights into the neural substrates that may be responsible for the functional and behavioral consequences of a disparate range of experimental treatments. Here, we describe some of these methods as applied to quantifying the total numbers of cells in defined regions of the hippocampal formation. The methods used for this evaluation were, first, the Cavalieri principle, which was used to determine the volumes of the various subdivisions of the rat hippocampus, and, second, the 'physical disector' method, which was used to estimate the numerical density of neurons within each subdivision. Once these values were derived, it was but a simple task to multiply them together to obtain estimates for the total numbers of cells in the given hippocampal region. We found that 16-and 30-day-old normal male rats had 176 800 and 152 700 pyramidal cells in the CA1 region, respectively. This decrease in the neuronal number was statistically significant. However, in the CA2 + CA3 region, there were approximately 169 300 and 149 600 pyramidal cells in 16- and 30-day-old normal male rats, respectively, which was not significantly different. In the dentate gyrus, there were approximately 36 700 neurons in the hilus region and 483 000 granule cells in the granule cell layer, irrespective of the age of the rats. There were no significant differences between these estimates of hilus neurons and granule cells.
    Anatomical Science International 10/2005; 80(3):153-62. · 0.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of monocular enucleation on the calbindin-D 28k (CB) and c-Fos immunoreactive (IR) neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) complex of adult rats. The enucleation resulted in neuronal degeneration and decrease of neurons in the LGN complex. Our study demonstrated a decrease of CB-IR neuronal density on the contralateral side of the ventral (vLGN) and dorsal LGN (dLGN) until 12 weeks post-enucleation (PE). On the ipsilateral side, CB-IR neuronal density in the dLGN and vLGN showed significant and continuous decrease until 48 and 12 weeks PE, respectively. In an additional experiment, c-Fos-IR neurons were increased at 2 days PE in the vLGN with ipsilateral predominance. At 7 days, c-Fos-IR neurons on the ipsilateral vLGN were still higher than those of pre-enucleated rats. The present results suggest that monocular enucleation affects the expression of the CB and c-Fos in the LGN complex. It is indicated that these may play an important role in the neuronal degeneration and neuroplasticity of the subvisual system in rats.
    Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica 06/2005; 82(1):9-18.
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    ABSTRACT: Prenatal X-ray irradiation is known to result in severe defects of neuronal migration and laminar formation in the cerebral cortex. We examined the formation of cortical afferent and efferent pathways in rats that had been exposed to X-ray irradiation (1.0 Gy) at embryonic day 14 (E14), by birthdating with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and axonal labeling with 1-1'-dioctodecyl-3,3,3',3'- tetramethyl-indocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI), in addition to immunohistochemical staining for various axonal markers including neurofilament, and cell adhesion molecules L1 and TAG-1. The results obtained were as follows. (i) The neuroepithelium formed germinal rosettes and concavities in the cortical anlage from 2 days after irradiation. Neurons generated in the neuroepithelium accumulated to form subcortical heterotopia and obstructed pathway formation in the intermediate zone, resulting in an aberrant trajectory of TAG-1-immunoreactive cortical efferent axons. (ii) In rats exposed to X-ray irradiation at E14, cystic cavities were formed in the cortex-striatum boundary region between E15 and E17, probably because of delayed cell death of neurons generated at E14. These cavities transiently interrupted both cortical afferent (L1-positive) and efferent (TAG-1-positive) axons. (iii) X-ray irradiation at E14 partially destroyed subplate neurons (transient targets of thalamic afferent axons) and disturbed the arrangement of the subplate layer. This resulted in a misrouting of neurofilament- and L1-immunoreactive thalamocortical axons that obliquely traversed the cortical plate to run up to the superficial layer. The present study demonstrates for the first time that X-ray irradiation during initial cortical development causes multiple defects in the formation of cortical afferent and efferent pathways.
    European Journal of Neuroscience 05/2005; 21(7):1847-58. · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the mechanism of the age-related failure of regeneration of transected axons, nigrostriatal dopaminergic axons were unilaterally transected in the lateral hypothalamus in adult mice and in immature mice aged postnatal days 7, 14, and 21. Ten days after the transection, tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive axons had regenerated from caudally to rostrally across the lesion site in mice transected at postnatal day 7, whereas they stopped and did not extend across the lesion site in mice transected at postnatal day 14 or older. Reactive astrocytes bearing chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans were observed around the lesion in mice transected at all ages. However, a fibrotic scar containing type IV collagen-immunoreactive deposits, which was consistently formed at the lesion site in mice transected at postnatal day 14 or older, was not formed in mice lesioned at postnatal day 7. When 2,2'-dipyridyl, an inhibitor of collagen synthesis, was injected into the lesion site at the time of transection in both postnatal day 14 and adult mice, the deposition of type IV collagen and the formation of a fibrotic scar were completely prevented, and large numbers of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive axons extended across the lesion and reinnervated the striatum. These results imply that the fibrotic scar formed in the lesion site is a crucial impediment to the regeneration of ascending dopaminergic axons in adult mice and suggest that type IV collagen is required for the development of the fibrotic response to adult brain injury.
    Journal of Neuroscience Research 05/2005; 80(2):191-202. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of maternal deprivation (MD) during early postnatal life on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level were investigated in the present study. Wistar rats were assigned to either maternal deprivation or mother-reared control (MRC) groups. MD manipulation was achieved by separating rat pups from their mothers for 3h a day during postnatal days (PND) 10-15. At 16, 20, 30, and 60 days of age, the level of BDNF mRNA in the hippocampal formation of each group was determined using real-time PCR analysis. Early postnatal maternal deprivation of rat pups resulted in a significant increase in body weight at 60 days of age. The expression of BDNF mRNA in the hippocampus was significantly decreased at 16 days of age, and increased at 30 and 60 days of age. These data indicate that even a brief period of maternal deprivation during early postnatal life can affect hippocampal BDNF expression.
    Neuroscience Letters 12/2004; 372(1-2):68-73. · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) has long been recognized as the central mammalian circadian pacemaker that controls behavioral and physiological processes. The role of the SCN in circadian rhythms has been the subject of a wide range of physiological and behavioral studies, although the influence of homeostasis rhythms (such as fluctuating hormone levels) on the SCN of the hypothalamus is not entirely clear. The present study was undertaken to examine the morphological interactions between astroglial and neuronal elements in the SCN of mice after either a short-term excessive testosterone treatment (ETT) or castration, using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and immediate early gene c-fos as well as calbindin-D28k (CB) immunohistochemistry. Both ETT and castration resulted in a significant increase in the accumulation of reactive astrocytes and Fos-imunoreactivity (IR), especially in the dorsomedial (DM) sub-region of the SCN. However, CB-IR neurons in the examined brain regions showed little change. These findings indicate that the DM sub-region of the SCN may be a possible center of hormonal regulation via a hypothalamic neuroendocrine circuit, and that a non-photic stimuli mechanism might play a role in circadian rhythm regulation.
    Brain Research 10/2004; 1020(1-2):130-9. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Morphological features and functional implications of projections of the parabrachial nucleus to the central nucleus of the amygdala were investigated in the rat. The anatomical study was based on injections of the tracers horseradish peroxidase and biotinylated dextran amine. An extremely dense concentration of labeled fibers was found in the lateral and lateral capsular subdivisions of the central nucleus of the amygdala, originating mainly from the external lateral and ventral lateral subnuclei of the parabrachial nucleus. The parabrachial fibers exhibited the morphological characteristic of forming dense pericellular terminal arborizations. The functional implications of this pathway in cardiovascular functions were verified using Fos protein induction in response to hypotension induced by continuous intravenous administration of hydralazine-hydrochloride. In this paradigm, Fos immunoreactivity was found to be confined to the lateral and lateral capsular subdivisions of the central nucleus of the amygdala. Double immunostaining methods were used to visualize, at the electron microscopic level, terminals labeled by biotinylated dextran amine and Fos cell labeling. With this approach, we were able to confirm that Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala receive axosomatic terminals from the parabrachial nucleus. The present findings point out that parabrachial inputs to the central nucleus of the amygdala play a relevant role in regulating cardiovascular function.
    Brain Research Bulletin 09/2004; 64(2):171-80. · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We used immunohistochemistry to examine possible molecular interactions between the subplate and growing thalamocortical axons in rat fetuses. In the cortical anlage of embryonic day 16 (E16), the subplate first appeared below the cortical plate. Among chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, phosphacan was uniformly distributed throughout the cortical wall, whereas neurocan was localized only in the subplate at E16. Neural cell adhesion molecules, NCAM-H, TAG-1, and L1, were detected in the cortical anlage. Both cortical neurons and growing axons were diffusely immunopositive for NCAM-H, and TAG-1 immunoreactivity was found on immature neurons and cortical efferent axons but not on thalamocortical axons. L1 immunoreactivity was specifically localized on the growing thalamocortical axons. When the locations of neurocan and L1 were compared in the developing cortex, L1-bearing axons were found to extend to neurocan-immunopositive regions; neurocan immunoreactivity was intense in the subplate at E16, when small numbers of L1-immunoreactive thalamocortical axons began to invade the cortex. At E17, many L1-positive axons were observed in the subplate that expressed neurocan specifically. Double immunostaining showed that L1-positive axons and neurocan immunoreactivity overlapped in the subplate at E17. After E18, neurocan expression gradually extended to the lower part of the cortical plate; it extended to the entire cortex by E21, 1 day before birth. By E21, L1-bearing axons had invaded the lower part of the cortical plate. The present study demonstrated that the neurocan expression precedes growth of L1-bearing thalamocortical afferent fibers. Because neurocan can bind to L1 molecule in vitro, these results suggest that neurocan and L1 play some important roles in pathfinding of the thalamocortical afferent fibers during rat corticogenesis. J. Comp. Neurol. 382:141-152, 1997. © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    The Journal of Comparative Neurology 12/1998; 382(2):141 - 152. · 3.66 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

190 Citations
43.55 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2005–2008
    • Tokyo Metropolitan Institute
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2004–2007
    • Kagawa University
      • Faculty of Medicine
      Miki, Hyogo-ken, Japan
  • 1998
    • Keio University
      • Department of Anatomy
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan