Anurag Maheshwari

Osaka Medical College, Takatuki, Ōsaka, Japan

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Publications (21)132.02 Total impact

  • Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 05/2015; 81(5):AB267. DOI:10.1016/j.gie.2015.03.1363 · 4.90 Impact Factor
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    Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 05/2013; 77(5):AB187-AB188. DOI:10.1016/j.gie.2013.03.440 · 4.90 Impact Factor
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    Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 05/2013; 77(5):AB281. DOI:10.1016/j.gie.2013.03.703 · 4.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with glycogen storage disease (GSD) who undergo liver transplantation (LT) have not been well defined. In this study, our objective was to determine the outcome of LT in patients with GSD and compare it with a comparable group of patients without GSD (matched controls). UNOS data from 1986 to 2007 were used for this study. For each GSD patient (n = 95; men 62%) who was transplanted, three patients (n = 285, men 60%) without GSD (case controls) matched for age ± five yr, year of transplantation and donor risk index (DRI) ± 0.2 were identified from the UNOS database in a random manner. Unadjusted patient survival was determined by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and significance determined by log-rank test. The mean age of the group was 17.9 yr. GSD patients had lower BMI (22 vs. 24, p = 0.002), lower serum bilirubin (2.7 vs. 13.5 mg/dL, p < 0.0001), higher serum albumin (3.7 vs. 3.1 g/dL, p < 0.0001), and higher wait-list time (239 vs. 74 d, p < 0.0001) compared to case controls. Recipient age and DRI were similar between the groups. Tumors were more common in GSD group (13.7% vs. 5%). Patient survival was significantly better (p = 0.024) in GSD group at one, five, and 10 yr (82%, 76%, and 64%) than non-GSD (73%, 65%, and 59%) group. In this matched-control study, patients who underwent LT for GSD had a better long-term survival than a comparable group of patients without GSD.
    Clinical Transplantation 11/2011; 26(3):432-6. DOI:10.1111/j.1399-0012.2011.01549.x · 1.49 Impact Factor
  • Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 04/2011; 73(4). DOI:10.1016/j.gie.2011.03.1044 · 4.90 Impact Factor
  • Anurag Maheshwari, Paul J Thuluvath
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    ABSTRACT: Liver disease and endocrine disorders, both common in the general population, have a bidirectional and complex relationship. Certain liver diseases are more commonly associated with endocrine disorders, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, autoimmune hepatitis, and primary biliary cirrhosis. There may be an association between hepatitis C and type 2 diabetes mellitus as well as thyroid disorders, and sex hormonal preparations may cause specific hepatic lesions. The presence of relative adrenal insufficiency in patients with end-stage liver disease may have therapeutic implications in patients admitted with acute-on-chronic liver failure. The objective of this review is to focus on the effect of endocrine disorders on liver.
    Clinics in liver disease 02/2011; 15(1):55-67. DOI:10.1016/j.cld.2010.09.008 · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular cancer (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer in the world with an estimated incidence of more than 650,000 cases per year. The major risk factor associated with the development of HCC is cirrhosis caused by viral hepatitis B or C and chronic alcohol consumption. The overall prognosis of patients with HCC remains poor with 5-year survival estimates that range between 0% and 10%. This dismal prognosis is mainly the result of the advanced stage of HCC at presentation and the background cirrhosis. Systematic screening of high-risk patients is key to an early diagnosis of HCC allowing for the use of an appropriate treatment modality. This article briefly reviews the current guidelines for surveillance and diagnosis of HCC in high-risk patients and the potential role of endoscopic ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration for the diagnosis of small HCC.
    Clinics in liver disease 05/2010; 14(2):325-32. DOI:10.1016/j.cld.2010.03.014 · 2.70 Impact Factor
  • Anurag Maheshwari, Paul J Thuluvath
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    ABSTRACT: The World Health Organization estimates that about 170 million people are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Blood transfusions from unscreened donors and unsafe therapeutic procedures are the major modes of HCV transmission in the developing world, and injection drug use accounts for most newly diagnosed HCV infections in the developed countries. Acute infection with HCV leads to symptomatic hepatitis in only a minority of patients, and recent studies suggest that spontaneous clearance of virus is higher in symptomatic acute hepatitis C infection. Pooled data from various studies suggest that higher sustained viral clearance rates could be achieved with a shorter course of antiviral treatment in the early stages of chronic HCV infection. This article examines the diagnosis of acute infection and critically appraises the various treatment regimens.
    Clinics in liver disease 02/2010; 14(1):169-76; x. DOI:10.1016/j.cld.2009.11.007 · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular (CV) disease has a significant impact on post-liver transplantation (LT) survival. Finding surrogate markers for occult CV disease would improve CV assessment in the LT evaluation. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of microvascular disease (MVD) and the utility of both microalbuminuria and the homeostatic model for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for assessing the presence of MVD in potential LT recipients. In this study, we examined the prevalence of MVD in 72 diabetics and 71 nondiabetics; both groups were matched for age, sex, race, and etiology of cirrhosis while awaiting LT. We prospectively collected data including fasting serum insulin and glucose levels, urine creatinine and microalbumin, and macrovascular and microvascular complications. MVD was present in 58 (40.5%) patients; MVD was more common in diabetics (n = 45, 62.5%) than nondiabetics (n = 13, 18.3%). The presence of diabetes mellitus (DM; P = 0.03), insulin use (P = 0.002), and duration (months) of DM (85.3 +/- 96.1 versus 22.1 +/- 46.3, P < 0.0001), hypertension (51.3 +/- 101.5 versus 22.7 +/- 58.2, P = 0.03), and hypertriglyceridemia (7.2 +/- 17.4 versus 3.8 +/- 18.5, P = 0.04) were associated with MVD. Significant microalbuminuria had a sensitivity of 85%, a specificity of 100%, and a positive predictive value of 100% for the presence of MVD. HOMA-IR also was associated with MVD (P = 0.0001). In conclusion, at our center, 62.5% of DM patients and 18% of non-DM patients awaiting LT have MVD. Patients with DM, significant microalbuminuria, or an elevated HOMA-IR should undergo rigorous CV assessment prior to LT.
    Liver Transplantation 09/2009; 15(9):1036-42. DOI:10.1002/lt.21798 · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may have worse outcomes after liver transplantation (LT) because of more aggressive tumor biology. In this study, we determined the post-LT survival of HCC patients with and without HCV using United Network for Organ Sharing data from January 1994 to March 2008. Patients with HCC were stratified into HCV (HCC-HCV) and non-HCV (HCC-non-HCV) groups. In the era before the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD), there were 1237 HCC patients (780, HCV; 373, non-HCV; 84, unknown HCV status), and during the MELD era, there were 4933 HCC patients (3272, HCV; 1348, non-HCV; 313, unknown). In the pre-MELD era, 5-year graft (58.6% versus 53.7%) and patient (61.7% versus 59.3%) survival rates were marginally higher for HCC-non-HCV patients than for HCC-HCV patients. In the MELD era also, 5-year graft (61.2% versus 55.5%) and patient (63.7% versus 58.2%) survival rates were marginally higher for HCC-non-HCV patients than for HCC-HCV patients. In patients without HCC, pre-MELD and MELD era graft/patient survival rates for non-HCV patients were higher than those for HCV patients. The differences in survival rates for HCC patients with and without HCV were lower than those for non-HCC patients stratified by their HCV status. HCV had no additional negative impact on the post-LT survival of patients with HCC, and this was further confirmed by multivariate analysis. In conclusion, the survival of HCC patients has remained unchanged in the past 2 decades. HCV patients have a lower survival rate than non-HCV patients, regardless of their HCC status, but HCV has no additional negative impact on survival in patients with HCC.
    Liver Transplantation 07/2009; 15(7):754-62. DOI:10.1002/lt.21744 · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    Sumita Verma, Anurag Maheshwari, Paul Thuluvath
    Hepatology 04/2009; 49(4):1396-7. DOI:10.1002/hep.22894 · 11.19 Impact Factor
  • Anurag Maheshwari, Stuart Ray, Paul J Thuluvath
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    ABSTRACT: Symptomatic acute hepatitis C occurs in only about 15% of patients who are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Acute hepatitis C is most often diagnosed in the setting of post-exposure surveillance, or seroconversion in high-risk individuals (eg, health-care professionals or injecting drug users) previously known to be seronegative. Although transmission via transfusion and injecting drug use has declined in developed countries, unsafe blood products and medical practices continue to increase transmission of HCV in many developing countries. Clinically, acute hepatitis C can increase concentrations of alanine aminotransferase to ten times the upper limit of normal but almost never causes fulminant hepatic failure. Diagnosis of HCV infection in the acute phase is difficult since production of antibodies against HCV can be delayed by up to 12 weeks, and about a third of infected individuals might not have detectable antibody at the onset of symptoms. Therefore, testing for HCV RNA by PCR is the only reliable test for the diagnosis of acute infection. Symptomatic patients with jaundice have a higher likelihood of spontaneous viral clearance than do asymptomatic patients, and thus should be monitored for at least 12 weeks before initiating antiviral therapy. By contrast, asymptomatic patients have a much lower chance of spontaneous clearance, and might benefit from early antiviral therapy. Antiviral therapy for 12 weeks is generally effective in treating patients who are HCV RNA negative after 4 weeks of treatment; lengthier courses could be needed for those who relapse or fail to show early virological clearance.
    The Lancet 07/2008; 372(9635):321-32. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61116-2 · 45.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biliary complications after liver transplantation (LT) using organs retrieved from donors after cardiac death are not well characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the severity of biliary complications and outcomes after donation after cardiac death liver transplantation (DCD-LT). A retrospective evaluation of 20 DCD-LTs from 1997-2006 was performed. The recipient age was 53+/-8.7, and the donor age was 35+/-11 years. The warm ischemia time, cold ischemia time, peak alanine aminotransferase level, and peak aspartate aminotransferase level were 33+/-12 minutes, 8.7+/-2.7 hours, 1757+/-1477 U/L, and 4020+/-3693 U/L, respectively. The bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase levels at hospital discharge after LT were 3.2+/-5.4 mg/dL and 248+/-200 U/L, respectively. During a median follow-up of 7.5 months (range: 1-73), 5 patients (25%; 1 death after re-LT) died (3 from sepsis, 1 from recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma at 4 months, and 1 from a cardiac event at 46 months), and additionally, 4 patients (20%) required re-LT (1 because of hepatic artery thrombosis, 1 because of primary graft nonfunction, and 2 because of biliary strictures). Twelve (60%) developed biliary complications, and of these, 11 (55%) had serious biliary complications. The biliary complications were as follows: a major bile leak for 2 patients (10%; both eventually underwent retransplantation), anastomotic strictures for 5 patients (25%), hilar strictures for 7 patients (35%), extrahepatic donor duct strictures for 9 patients (45%), intrahepatic strictures for 10 patients (50%), stones for 1 patients (5%), casts for 7 patients (35%), and debris for 2 patients (10%). More than 1 biliary complication was seen in most patients, and these were unpredictable and required multiple diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Serious biliary complications are common after DCD-LT, and research should focus on identifying donor and recipient factors that predict and prevent serious biliary complications.
    Liver Transplantation 12/2007; 13(12):1645-53. DOI:10.1002/lt.21212 · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Calcineurin inhibitor (CI)-associated renal dysfunction has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality after liver transplantation. In this retrospective study, we compared the efficacy, safety, and renal protective effect of sirolimus monotherapy (Group A; n = 26) with sirolimus in combination (Group B; n = 34) with steroids and/or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in liver transplant recipients who were switched from CI. Patients were switched abruptly or over a period of 2-4 weeks and followed for 17 +/- 10 months. Preconversion renal biopsies in five of six patients showed histological features consistent with CI nephrotoxicity. Serum creatinine increased in the year prior to conversion from 1.7 +/- 0.4 to 2.1 +/- 0.7 mg/dl (P = 0.009) and improved thereafter (1 month, 1.7 +/- 0.6, P < 0.001; 6 months, 1.6 +/- 0.5, P < 0.001; last follow-up, 1.7 +/- 0.9, P = 0.02); only four patients showed a significant decline in renal function after conversion. Seven (11.3%) patients experienced acute rejection (Group A, two; Group B, five; P = NS) and this resulted in the discontinuation of sirolimus in one patient. Fifty-four adverse events occurred in 40 (67%) patients, with similar numbers of adverse events in Group A and Group B. Most episodes of rejection (5/7; 71%), adverse events (45/54; 83%), and discontinuations (5/8; 63%) occurred within 6 months of conversion. We conclude that both sirolimus monotherapy and sirolimus in combination with prednisone and/or MMF are efficacious and safe in liver transplant recipients. Conversion to sirolimus was associated with an immediate improvement in renal function that was sustained during the follow-up.
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences 10/2006; 51(10):1677-84. DOI:10.1007/s10620-005-9026-8 · 2.55 Impact Factor
  • Anurag Maheshwari, Paul J Thuluvath
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    ABSTRACT: Cryptogenic cirrhosis (CC), literally meaning cirrhosis of obscure or unknown origin, is a diagnosis of exclusion. The circumstantial evidence indicates that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is perhaps one of the important causes of CC. There is also evidence, especially from the European literature, that some patients with CC may have undiagnosed or burnt-out autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Other rare causes may include "unknown" viral (non-A, non-B, non-C) hepatitis, and occult alcoholism. In this review, we examine the role of NAFLD and other causes in the pathogenesis of CC, and the impact of obesity on patients with chronic liver disease.
    The American Journal of Gastroenterology 04/2006; 101(3):664-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2006.00478.x · 9.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primary prophylaxis with nonselective beta-blockers in high-risk subjects has been shown to be effective in reducing both esophageal variceal bleeding and mortality. Recently it has been suggested that band ligation may be a better option for primary prophylaxis. We compared nonselective beta-blockers with band ligation in patients with large varices (F2, F3) and elevated hepatic venous wedge pressure gradient (HVWPG, > or = 12 mm Hg). All patients were prospectively followed for variceal bleeding, mortality, and treatment-related complications. Based on previous published studies, we estimated that 90 patients in each arm would be required to show a difference in bleeding rate. The study was prematurely terminated when we realized that our estimated sample size was inadequate to show a difference based on the observed bleeding rate. At the time of termination, 31 patients (Child A, 11; B, 14; C, 6), with a mean HVWPG of 19 +/- 9.1 mm Hg, were randomized to either band ligation (group A; n = 16) or beta-blockers (group B; n = 15). Baseline demographics of both groups were similar and the mean follow-up period was 27.4 +/- 12.9 months. During the follow-up, two patients in group A and one patient in group B had bleeding. Nine patients (29%; group A, six; group B, three; P = ns) died due to non-bleeding-related causes and five (16%) patients (group A, three; group B, two) underwent liver transplantation. Treatment-related complication were minimal in both groups. Despite the selection of high-risk patients, the observed bleeding rate was much lower than anticipated. Based on our observed bleeding rates, 424 patients would be required in each arm to show a difference between band ligation and beta-blocker therapy.
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences 03/2005; 50(2):407-10. DOI:10.1007/s10620-005-1619-8 · 2.55 Impact Factor
  • Anurag Maheshwari, Paul J Thuluvath
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    ABSTRACT: Orocaecal transit (OCT) time is delayed in patients with cirrhosis, but the reasons for this remain unclear. We hypothesized that autonomic neuropathy (AN) may explain the delay in OCT. METHODS: We determined OCT and autonomic function tests (AFT) in 48 patients (Child A-15, B-27, C-6) with cirrhosis of various aetiologies. AFT were categorized as normal, borderline, or abnormal. OCT was measured using the lactulose hydrogen (H2) breath test. OCT was defined as the time from baseline when there was a rise in H2 levels of >20 ppm over baseline or >10 ppm over baseline sustained over 2 consecutive time points. RESULTS: Based on OCT, patients were separated into those with delayed OCT (>90 min, group I) and normal OCT (< or = 90 min, group II). Mean OCT time of patients in group I was 169.7+/-49.7 min vs. 84.4+/-12.1 min in group II. Baseline clinical characteristics of patients with and without AN, and those with normal and delayed OCT were similar. Presence of mild encephalopathy did not have an effect on OCT. AN was seen more frequently in group I than group II [16/32 (50%) vs. 3/16 (19%), p=0.03]. Logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of AN was the only independent variable associated with delayed OCT (OR 7.3, CI 1.3-39.4, p=0.02). Conclusion: Our study showed that the presence of AN was associated with delayed OCT in patients with cirrhosis.
    Autonomic Neuroscience 03/2005; 118(1-2):135-9. DOI:10.1016/j.autneu.2005.02.003 · 1.37 Impact Factor
  • Anurag Maheshwari, Anil Thomas, Paul J Thuluvath
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    ABSTRACT: Autonomic neuropathy (AN) is common in patients with chronic liver disease. For hitherto unknown reasons, in longitudinal studies, the presence of AN has been found to be an independent predictor of mortality in patients with cirrhosis. We hypothesized that patients with AN are more likely to develop hepatic encephalopathy (HE) due to prologed intestinal transit time. In this study, we examined the incidence of new-onset HE in patients with and without AN. Seventy-two patients (Child A/B/C = 35/31/6) without evidence of HE at the time of autonomic function testing (AFT) were followed for 39.5 +/- 27.3 months. The end point of the study was the development of new onset HE. Patients were followed until death or liver transplantation. Of the 72 patients, 42 (58%) patients did not develop HE (group A) while 30 (42%) developed HE (group B) during the follow-up. Both groups had similar baseline demographics. AN was more common in group B (27/30; 90%) compared to group A (28/42; 67%) (P = 0.02). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a trend toward a higher incidence of HE in patients with AN. Mortality was higher in group B (12/30; 40%) compared to group A (8/42; 19%) (P = 0.04). Patients with AN were more likely to develop new onset HE. Although an independent effect of AN on HE was not established in this study, we speculate that delayed intestinal transit secondary to AN may explain the higher incidence of HE in patients with AN.
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences 11/2004; 49(10):1584-8. DOI:10.1023/B:DDAS.0000043368.73042.b0 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    Anurag Maheshwari, Hwan Y Yoo, Paul J Thuluvath
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    ABSTRACT: Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are reported to have the best outcomes after liver transplantation. Based on excellent 5-yr survival results after transplantation, it has been suggested that PSC patients may benefit from "preemptive" transplantation to reduce the risk of cholangiocarcinoma. In this study, we compared 10-yr survival of patients with PSC and PBC using a large database after adjusting for other confounding risk factors. The United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database of all patients who had liver transplantation from 1987 to 2001 was used for analysis after excluding patients with multiple organ transplantation, children, and incomplete data. Patients with PSC (n = 3,309) were younger than those with PBC (n = 3,254). Retransplantation rate was high in PSC (12.4%vs 8.5%; p< 0.01), and PSC was an independent predictor for retransplantation on multivariate analysis. Cox regression analysis showed that PSC patients had significantly lower graft and patient survival compared to PBC patients after adjusting for other risk factors. Lower survival in PSC became apparent 7 yr after transplantation. Patients with PSC had a higher retransplantation rate and lower survival when compared to PBC. Based on this analysis, we do not recommend preemptive liver transplantation for patients with PSC.
    The American Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2004; 99(3):538-42. DOI:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2004.04050.x · 9.21 Impact Factor
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    Anurag Maheshwari, Rajnish Mishra, Paul J Thuluvath
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    ABSTRACT: Anemia is common after liver transplantation, with the incidence ranging from 4.3% to 28.2% depending on the criteria used to define anemia. The cause of anemia is unidentified in the majority of patients, and it is likely to be multifactorial. Immunosuppressive-medication-induced bone marrow suppression is perhaps the most common cause of unexplained anemia. Chronic blood loss, iron deficiency, hemolysis, and renal insufficiency are other potential causes of chronic anemia. Rare causes, somewhat unique to transplantation, include aplastic anemia, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and lymphoproliferative disease. Anemia due to immunosuppressive medication is challenging, since almost all drugs currently used for this purpose cause anemia, but the renal-sparing property of sirolimus may benefit the subgroup in which renal insufficiency is contributing to anemia. Aplastic anemia is seen in young patients transplanted for non-A, non-B, non-C, fulminant hepatic failure. It is thought to be immunologically mediated, secondary to an unknown viral infection, and is associated with a grave prognosis. GVHD is another infrequent (approximately 1% of transplant recipients) but serious cause of severe anemia that carries a dismal prognosis. Lymphoproliferative disorder, too may rarely rare cause anemia and it may respond to reduction of immunosuppression. Recipients of solid-organ transplants do not mount a significant increase in erythropoietin in response to anemia. In conclusion, though there are no data on the response of anemia to erythropoietin in liver transplant recipients, it appears to benefit other solid-organ-transplant recipients with anemia.
    Liver Transplantation 02/2004; 10(2):165-73. DOI:10.1002/lt.20031 · 3.79 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

500 Citations
132.02 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011
    • Osaka Medical College
      • First Department of Internal Medicine
      Takatuki, Ōsaka, Japan
    • Mercy Medical Center
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2010
    • Mercy Medical Center
      Мейсон-Сити, Iowa, United States
  • 2003–2009
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Medicine
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2004
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      • Department of Medicine
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States