Bob S Hu

Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, United States

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Publications (49)170.83 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To develop a rapid single-breath-hold 3D late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method, and demonstrate its feasibility in cardiac patients. An inversion recovery dual-density 3D stack-of-spirals imaging sequence was developed. The spiral acquisition was 2-fold accelerated by self-consistent parallel imaging reconstruction (SPIRiT), which resulted in a total scan time of 12 heartbeats. Field map-based linear off-resonance correction was incorporated to the SPIRiT reconstruction. The 3D spiral LGE scans were performed in 15 patients who were referred for clinically ordered cardiac MR examinations that included the standard 2D multislice LGE imaging. Image sharpness and overall quality were qualitatively assessed based on 5-point scales. Scar-induced hyper-LGE was identified in 4 out of the 15 patients by both 3D spiral and 2D multislice LGE tests. On average over all datasets (n = 15), the image sharpness scores were 3.9 (3D spiral) and 4.0 (2D multislice), and the image quality scores were 4.1 (3D spiral) and 4.0 (2D multislice) with no significant difference in both metrics (paired t-test; P > 0.1). The average scar contrast enhancement ratios were 0.72 and 0.75 in 3D and 2D images, respectively (n = 4). The average difference of fractional scar volumes measured in 3D and 2D images was 4.3% (n = 3). Stack-of-spiral acquisition combined with non-Cartesian SPIRiT parallel imaging enables rapid 3D LGE MRI in a 12 heartbeat-long breath-hold.J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 11/2013; · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To develop a new velocity-selective (VS) excitation pulse sequence which is robust to field inhomogeneity, and demonstrate its application to non-contrast-enhanced peripheral MR angiography (MRA). METHODS: The off-resonance-robust VS saturation pulse is designed by incorporating 180° refocusing pulses into the k-space-based reference design and tailoring sequence parameters in a velocity region of interest. The VS saturation pulse is used as magnetization preparation for non-contrast-enhanced peripheral MRA to suppress background tissues but not arterial blood based on their velocities. Non-contrast-enhanced peripheral MRA using the proposed VS preparation was tested in healthy volunteers and a patient with arterial stenosis. RESULTS: Calf angiograms obtained using the new VS preparation show more uniform background suppression than the reference VS preparation, as demonstrated by larger mean values and smaller standard deviations of artery-to-vein and artery-to-muscle contrast-to-noise ratios (71.0 ± 11.4 and 75.3 ± 12.1 versus 61.7 ± 22.7 and 58.5 ± 27.8). Two-station peripheral MRA using the new VS preparation identifies stenosis of the femoral and popliteal arteries in the patient, as validated by digital subtraction angiography. CONCLUSION: Non-contrast-enhanced MRA using the new VS magnetization preparation can reliably provide high angiographic contrast in the lower extremities with significantly improved immunity to field inhomogeneity. Magn Reson Med, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 11/2013; 70(5):spcone. · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To implement a nonrigid autofocus motion correction technique to improve respiratory motion correction of free-breathing whole-heart coronary magnetic resonance angiography acquisitions using an image-navigated 3D cones sequence. 2D image navigators acquired every heartbeat are used to measure superior-inferior, anterior-posterior, and right-left translation of the heart during a free-breathing coronary magnetic resonance angiography scan using a 3D cones readout trajectory. Various tidal respiratory motion patterns are modeled by independently scaling the three measured displacement trajectories. These scaled motion trajectories are used for 3D translational compensation of the acquired data, and a bank of motion-compensated images is reconstructed. From this bank, a gradient entropy focusing metric is used to generate a nonrigid motion-corrected image on a pixel-by-pixel basis. The performance of the autofocus motion correction technique is compared with rigid-body translational correction and no correction in phantom, volunteer, and patient studies. Nonrigid autofocus motion correction yields improved image quality compared to rigid-body-corrected images and uncorrected images. Quantitative vessel sharpness measurements indicate superiority of the proposed technique in 14 out of 15 coronary segments from three patient and two volunteer studies. The proposed technique corrects nonrigid motion artifacts in free-breathing 3D cones acquisitions, improving image quality compared to rigid-body motion correction. Magn Reson Med, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 09/2013; · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 01/2013; 15(1). · 4.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography is a promising alternative to the established contrast-enhanced approach as it reduces patient discomfort and examination costs and avoids the risk of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Inflow-sensitive slab-selective inversion recovery imaging has been used with great promise, particularly for abdominal applications, but has limited craniocaudal coverage due to inflow time constraints. In this work, a new non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography method using velocity-selective inversion preparation is developed and applied to renal and abdominal angiography. Based on the excitation k-space formalism and Shinnar-Le-Roux transform, a velocity-selective excitation pulse is designed that inverts stationary tissues and venous blood while preserving inferiorly flowing arterial blood. As the magnetization of the arterial blood in the abdominal aorta and iliac arteries is well preserved during the magnetization preparation, artery visualization over a large abdominal field of view is achievable with an inversion delay time that is chosen for optimal background suppression. Healthy volunteer tests demonstrate that the proposed method significantly increases the extent of visible arteries compared with the slab-selective approach, covering renal arteries through iliac arteries over a craniocaudal field of view of 340 mm. Magn Reson Med, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 06/2012; · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Noninvasive visualization of the coronary arteries in vivo is one of the most important goals in cardiovascular imaging. Compared to other paradigms for coronary MR angiography, a free-breathing three-dimensional whole-heart iso-resolution approach simplifies prescription effort, requires less patient cooperation, reduces overall exam time, and supports retrospective reformats at arbitrary planes. However, this approach requires a long continuous acquisition and must account for respiratory and cardiac motion throughout the scan. In this work, a new free-breathing coronary MR angiography technique that reduces scan time and improves robustness to motion is developed. Data acquisition is accomplished using a three-dimensional cones non-Cartesian trajectory, which can reduce the number of readouts 3-fold or more compared to conventional three-dimensional Cartesian encoding and provides greater robustness to motion/flow effects. To further enhance robustness to motion, two-dimensional navigator images are acquired to directly track respiration-induced displacement of the heart and enable retrospective compensation of all acquired data (none discarded) for image reconstruction. In addition, multiple cardiac phases are imaged to support retrospective selection of the best phase(s) for visualizing each coronary segment. Experimental results demonstrate that whole-heart coronary angiograms can be obtained rapidly and robustly with this proposed technique. Magn Reson Med, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 05/2012; · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Three-dimensional cardiac magnetic resonance perfusion imaging is promising for the precise sizing of defects and for providing high perfusion contrast, but remains an experimental approach primarily due to the need for large-dimensional encoding, which, for traditional 3DFT imaging, requires either impractical acceleration factors or sacrifices in spatial resolution. We demonstrated the feasibility of rapid three-dimensional cardiac magnetic resonance perfusion imaging using a stack-of-spirals acquisition accelerated by non-Cartesian k-t SENSE, which enables entire myocardial coverage with an in-plane resolution of 2.4 mm. The optimal undersampling pattern was used to achieve the largest separation between true and aliased signals, which is a prerequisite for k-t SENSE reconstruction. Flip angle and saturation recovery time were chosen to ensure negligible magnetization variation during the transient data acquisition. We compared the proposed three-dimensional perfusion method with the standard 2DFT approach by consecutively acquiring both data during each R-R interval in cardiac patients. The mean and standard deviation of the correlation coefficients between time intensity curves of three-dimensional versus 2DFT were 0.94 and 0.06 across seven subjects. The linear correlation between the two sets of upslope values was significant (r = 0.78, P < 0.05). Magn Reson Med, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 05/2012; · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: When evaluating the severity of valvular stenosis, the peak velocity of the blood flow is routinely used to estimate the transvalvular pressure gradient. One-dimensional Fourier velocity encoding effectively detects the peak velocity with an ungated time series of spatially resolved velocity spectra in real time. However, measurement accuracy can be degraded by the pulsatile and turbulent nature of stenotic flow and the existence of spatially varying off-resonance. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of improving the peak velocity detection capability of one-dimensional Fourier velocity encoding for stenotic flow using a novel echo-shifted interleaved readout combined with a variable-density circular k-space trajectory. The shorter echo and readout times of the echo-shifted interleaved acquisitions are designed to reduce sensitivity to off-resonance. Preliminary results from limited phantom and in vivo results also indicate that some artifacts from pulsatile flow appear to be suppressed when using this trajectory compared to conventional single-shot readouts, suggesting that peak velocity detection may be improved. The efficiency of the new trajectory improves the temporal and spatial resolutions. To realize the proposed readout, a novel multipoint-traversing algorithm is introduced for flexible and automated gradient-waveform design. Magn Reson Med, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 03/2012; · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 02/2012; 14 Suppl 1:P250. · 4.44 Impact Factor
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    Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 02/2012; 14 Suppl 1:P237. · 4.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Accurate depiction of the vessels of the lower leg, foot or hand benefits from suppression of bright MR signal from lipid (such as bone marrow) and long-T1 fluid (such as synovial fluid and edema). Signal independence of blood flow velocities, good arterial/muscle contrast and arterial/venous separation are also desirable. The high SNR, short scan times and flow properties of balanced steady-state free precession (SSFP) make it an excellent candidate for flow-independent angiography. In this work, a new magnetization-prepared 3D SSFP sequence for flow-independent peripheral angiography is presented. The technique combines a number of component techniques (phase-sensitive fat detection, inversion recovery, T2-preparation and square-spiral phase-encode ordering) to achieve high-contrast peripheral angiograms at only a modest scan time penalty over simple 3D SSFP. The technique is described in detail, a parameter optimization performed and preliminary results presented achieving high contrast and 1-mm isotropic resolution in a normal foot.
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging 06/2011; 29(8):1119-24. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To propose a new noncontrast-enhanced flow-independent angiography sequence based on balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) that produces reliable vessel contrast despite the reduced blood flow in the extremities. The proposed technique addresses a variety of factors that can compromise the exam success including insufficient background suppression, field inhomogeneity, and large volumetric coverage requirements. A bSSFP sequence yields reduced signal from venous blood when long repetition times are used. Complex-sum bSSFP acquisitions decrease the sensitivity to field inhomogeneity but retain phase information, so that data can be processed with the Iterative Decomposition of Water and Fat with Echo Asymmetry and Least-Squares Estimation (IDEAL) method for robust fat suppression. Meanwhile, frequent magnetization preparation coupled with parallel imaging reduces the muscle and long-T(1) fluid signals without compromising scan efficiency. In vivo flow-independent peripheral angiograms with reliable background suppression and high spatial resolution are produced. Comparisons with phase-sensitive bSSFP angiograms (that yield out-of-phase fat and water signals, and exploit this phase difference to suppress fat) demonstrate enhanced vessel depiction with the proposed technique due to reduced partial-volume effects and improved venous suppression. Magnetization-prepared complex-sum bSSFP with IDEAL fat/water separation can create reliable flow-independent angiographic contrast in the lower extremities.
    Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 04/2011; 33(4):931-9. · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As a noninvasive modality, MR is attractive for in vivo skin imaging. Its unique soft tissue contrast makes it an ideal imaging modality to study the skin water content and to resolve the different skin layers. In this work, the challenges of in vivo high-resolution skin imaging are addressed. Three 3D Cartesian sequences are customized to achieve high-resolution imaging and their respective performance is evaluated. The balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) and gradient echo (GRE) sequences are fast but can be sensitive to off-resonance artifacts. The fast large-angle spin echo (FLASE) sequence provides a sharp depiction of the hypodermis structures but results in more specific absorption rate (SAR). The effect of increasing the field strength is assessed. As compared to 1.5 T, signal-to-noise ratio at 3 T slightly increases in the hypodermis and almost doubles in the dermis. The need for fat/water separation is acknowledged and a solution using an interleaved three-point Dixon method and an iterative reconstruction is shown to be effective. The effects of motion are analyzed and two techniques to prevent motion and correct for it are evaluated. Images with 117 x 117 x 500 microm(3) resolution are obtained in imaging times under 6 min.
    Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 02/2010; 63(3):790-6. · 3.27 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Urology - J UROL. 01/2009; 181(4):783-783.
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    ABSTRACT: Balanced steady-state free precession (SSFP) imaging is limited by off-resonance banding artifacts, which occur with periodicity 1/TR in the frequency spectrum. A novel balanced SSFP technique for widening the band spacing in the frequency response is described. This method, called wideband SSFP, utilizes two alternating repetition times with alternating RF phase, and maintains high SNR and T(2)/T(1) contrast. For a fixed band spacing, this method can enable improvements in spatial resolution compared to conventional SSFP. Alternatively, for a fixed readout duration this method can widen the band spacing, and potentially avoid the banding artifacts in conventional SSFP. The method is analyzed using simulations and phantom experiments, and is applied to the reduction of banding artifacts in cine cardiac imaging and high-resolution knee imaging at 3T.
    Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 12/2007; 58(5):931-8. · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An ungated spiral phase-contrast (USPC) method was used to measure cardiac output (CO) rapidly and conveniently. The USPC method, which was originally designed for small peripheral vessels, was modified to assess CO by measuring flow in the ascending aorta (AA). The modified USPC used a 12-interleaf spiral trajectory to acquire full-image data every 283 ms with 2-mm spatial resolution. The total scan time was 5 s. For comparison, a triggered real-time (TRT) method was used to indirectly calculate CO by measuring left-ventricular (LV) volume. The USPC and TRT measurements from all normal volunteers agreed. In a patient with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), high CO was measured with USPC, which agreed well with the invasive cardiac-catheterized measurement. In normal volunteers, CO dropped about 20-30% with Valsalva maneuvering, and increased about 100% after exercise. Continuous 28-s cycling between Valsalva maneuvering and free-breathing showed that USPC can temporally resolve physiological CO changes.
    Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 09/2006; 56(2):432-8. · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multislice breath-held coronary imaging techniques conventionally lack the coverage of free-breathing 3D acquisitions but use a considerably shorter acquisition window during the cardiac cycle. This produces images with significantly less motion artifact but a lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). By using the extra SNR available at 3 T and undersampling k-space without introducing significant aliasing artifacts, we were able to acquire high-resolution fat-suppressed images of the whole heart in 17 heartbeats (a single breath-hold). The basic pulse sequence consists of a spectral-spatial excitation followed by a variable-density spiral readout. This is combined with real-time localization and a real-time prospective shim correction. Images are reconstructed with the use of gridding, and advanced techniques are used to reduce aliasing artifacts.
    Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 03/2006; 55(2):371-9. · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CMR is valuable in the evaluation of congenital heart disease (CHD). Traditional flow imaging sequences involve cardiac and respiratory gating, increasing scan time and susceptibility to arrhythmias. We studied a real-time color-flow CMR system for the detection of flow abnormalities in 13 adults with CHD. All 16 congenital flow abnormalities previously detected by echocardiography were visualized using color-flow CMR, including atrial septal defects (n = 4), ventricular septal defects (n = 9), aortic coarctation (n = 1), Blalock-Taussig shunt (n = 1) and Fontan shunt (n = 1). Real-time color-flow CMR can identify intra- and extra-cardiac flow abnormalities in adults with congenital heart disease.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 02/2006; 8(6):809-15. · 4.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PurposeTo study the feasibility of a combined high spatial and temporal resolution real-time spiral MRI sequence for guiding coronary-sized vascular interventions.Materials and Methods Eight New Zealand White rabbits (four normal and four with a surgically-created stenosis in the abdominal aorta) were studied. A real-time interactive spiral MRI sequence combining 1.1 × 1.1 mm2 in-plane resolution and 189-msec total image acquisition time was used to image all phases of an interventional procedure (i.e., guidewire placement, balloon angioplasty, and stenting) in the rabbit aorta using coronary-sized devices on a 1.5 T MRI system.ResultsReal-time spiral MRI identified all rabbit aortic stenoses and provided high-temporal-resolution visualization of guidewires crossing the stenoses in all animals. Angioplasty balloon dilatation and deployment of coronary-sized copper stents in the rabbit aorta were also successfully imaged by real-time spiral MRI.Conclusion Combining high spatial and temporal resolution with spiral MRI allows real-time MR-guided vascular intervention using coronary-sized devices in a rabbit model. This is a promising approach for guiding coronary interventions. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 10/2005; 22(5):687 - 690. · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In areas of highly pulsatile and turbulent flow, real-time imaging with high temporal, spatial, and velocity resolution is essential. The use of 1D Fourier velocity encoding (FVE) was previously demonstrated for velocity measurement in real time, with fewer effects resulting from off-resonance. The application of variable-density sampling is proposed to improve velocity measurement without a significant increase in readout time or the addition of aliasing artifacts. Two sequence comparisons are presented to improve velocity resolution or increase the velocity field of view (FOV) to unambiguously measure velocities up to 5 m/s without aliasing. The results from a tube flow phantom, a stenosis phantom, and healthy volunteers are presented, along with a comparison of measurements using Doppler ultrasound (US). The studies confirm that variable-density acquisition of kz-kv space improves the velocity resolution and FOV of such data, with the greatest impact on the improvement of FOV to include velocities in stenotic ranges.
    Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 10/2005; 54(3):645-55. · 3.27 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

766 Citations
677 Downloads
2k Views
170.83 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1992–2013
    • Stanford University
      • • Magnetic Resonance Systems Research Laboratory
      • • Department of Electrical Engineering
      • • Division of Cardiovascular Medicine
      Palo Alto, CA, United States
    • Stanford Medicine
      • Division of Cardiovascular Medicine
      Stanford, CA, United States
  • 2004–2012
    • Palo Alto Medical Foundation
      Palo Alto, California, United States
  • 2011
    • Brigham Young University - Provo Main Campus
      • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      Provo, UT, United States
  • 2005–2007
    • University of Southern California
      • Department of Electrical Engineering
      Los Angeles, CA, United States