M Scott Lucia

University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado, United States

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Publications (111)786.64 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Accumulating evidence suggests that chronic prostatic inflammation may lead to prostate cancer development. Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) is highly expressed in the prostate and has been associated with inflammation and tumorigenesis.METHODS To examine the relationship between GDF-15 and prostatic inflammation, GDF-15 expression was measured by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining in human prostatectomy specimens containing inflammation. The relationship between GDF-15 and specific inflammatory cells was determined using non-biased computer image analysis. To provide insight into a potential suppressive role for GDF-15 in inflammation, activation of inflammatory mediator nuclear factor of kappa B (NFκB) was measured in PC3 cells.RESULTSGDF-15 expression in luminal epithelial cells was decreased with increasing inflammation severity, suggesting an inverse association between GDF-15 and inflammation. Quantification of IHC staining by image analysis for GDF-15 and inflammatory cell markers revealed an inverse correlation between GDF-15 and CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD68+, and inos+ leukocytes. GDF-15 suppressed NFκB activity in luciferase reporter assays. Expression of the NFκB target, interleukin 8 (IL-8), was downregulated by GDF-15.CONCLUSIONS The inverse relationship between GDF-15 and inflammation demonstrates a novel expression pattern for GDF-15 in the human prostate and suppression of NFκB activity may shed light on a potential mechanism for this inverse correlation. Prostate © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    The Prostate 10/2014; · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic analysis of bladder cancer has revealed a number of frequently altered genes, including frequent alterations of the telomerase (TERT) gene promoter, although few altered genes have been functionally evaluated. Our objective is to characterize alterations observed by exome sequencing and sequencing of the TERT promoter, and to examine the functional relevance of histone lysine (K)-specific demethylase 6A (KDM6A/UTX), a frequently mutated histone demethylase, in bladder cancer.
    Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 09/2014; 20(18):4935-48.
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction The diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer have changed dramatically in the prostate specific antigen era. We are now faced with the clinical dilemma of over diagnosis and overtreatment. Targeted focal therapy offers a potential middle ground between the binary choices of active surveillance and the whole gland treatments of radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy. Methods A PubMed® search was performed using the terms “targeted focal therapy,” “focal therapy,” “hemiablation” and “transperineal mapping biopsy” to locate studies and reviews published after 2000 pertaining to targeted focal therapy of the prostate. Key articles were selected and included in this review, which covers the practical aspects of targeted focal therapy for prostate cancer. Results Three international, multidisciplinary consensus statements were located which provide best practice for patient selection in ongoing and future trials of targeted focal therapy. Other studies located for the review elaborate on the best techniques to properly stage a case of histologically confirmed prostate cancer under consideration for focal therapy and summarize outcomes reported to date in the literature. Conclusions Phase I and II studies of targeted focal therapy for prostate cancer have demonstrated safety and efficacy. With improved imaging and standardized patient selection criteria, phase III study is under way, perhaps setting the stage for a new era of prostate cancer therapy for many individuals.
    Urology Practice. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The occurrence of clear cell tumors in the bladder is not uncommon. Clear cell dysplasia is well-described and characterized by focal replacement of transitional mucosa by cells with abundant clear cytoplasm, nuclear enlargement, and a granular chromatin pattern. Clear cells can also be seen in clear cell adenocarcinoma, which is rare, comprising 0.5% to 2.0% of the reported bladder carcinomas. Other clear cell tumors found in the bladder to be considered in the differential diagnosis are tumors of Mullerian origin and metastatic lesions, such as renal cell carcinoma, clear cell sarcoma, and malignant melanoma. Clear cell urothelial carcinoma is exceedingly rare, with only nine clinical cases described in the literature.
    Journal of medical case reports. 08/2014; 8(1):275.
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    ABSTRACT: The "Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain" (MAPP) Research Network was established by the NIDDK to better understand the pathophysiology of urologic chronic pelvic pain syndromes (UCPPS), to inform future clinical trials and improve clinical care. The evolution, organization, and scientific scope of the MAPP Research Network, and the unique approach of the network's central study and common data elements are described.
    BMC Urology 08/2014; 14(1):58. · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: : Urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS) may be defined to include interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). The hallmark symptom of UCPPS is chronic pain in the pelvis, urogenital floor, or external genitalia often accompanied by lower urinary tract symptoms. Despite numerous past basic and clinical research studies there is no broadly identifiable organ-specific pathology or understanding of etiology or risk factors for UCPPS, and diagnosis relies primarily on patient reported symptoms. In addition, there are no generally effective therapies. Recent findings have, however, revealed associations between UCPPS and "centralized" chronic pain disorders, suggesting UCPPS may represent a local manifestation of more widespread pathology in some patients. Here, we describe a new and novel effort initiated by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) of the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) to address the many long standing questions regarding UCPPS, the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP) Research Network. The MAPP Network approaches UCPPS in a systemic manner, in which the interplay between the genitourinary system and other physiological systems is emphasized. The network's study design expands beyond previous research, which has primarily focused on urologic organs and tissues, to utilize integrated approaches to define patient phenotypes, identify clinically-relevant subgroups, and better understand treated natural history and pathophysiology. Thus, the MAPP Network provides an unprecedented, multi-layered characterization of UCPPS. Knowledge gained is expected to provide important insights into underlying pathophysiology, a foundation for better segmenting patients for future clinical trials, and ultimately translation into improved clinical management. In addition, the MAPP Network's integrated multi-disciplinary research approach may serve as a model for studies of urologic and non-urologic disorders that have proven refractory to past basic and clinical study. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01098279 "Chronic Pelvic Pain Study of Individuals with Diagnoses or Symptoms of Interstitial Cystitis and/or Chronic Prostatitis (MAPP-EP)"
    BMC Urology 08/2014; 14(1):57. · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between the length of the polymorphic trinucleotide CAG microsatellite repeats in exon 1 of the AR gene and the risk of prostate cancer containing TMPRSS2:ETS fusion genes. This nested case-control study came from subjects enrolled in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial and included 195 biopsy-proven prostate cancer cases with a known TMPRSS2:ETS status and 1344 matched controls. There was no association between the CAG repeat length and the risk of TMPRSS2:ETS-positive (odds ratio, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.91-1.04) or TMPRSS2:ETS-negative prostate cancer (odds ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.97-1.11) and in patients with low- or high-grade disease. Our findings suggested that AR CAG repeats are not associated with TMPRSS2:ETS formation in prostate cancer.
    Urology 05/2014; · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic inflammation is hypothesized to influence prostate cancer development, although a definitive link has not been established. Prostate cancer cases (N = 191) detected on a for-cause (clinically indicated) or end-of-study (protocol directed) biopsy, and frequency-matched controls (N = 209), defined as negative for cancer on an end-of-study biopsy, were sampled from the placebo arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. Inflammation prevalence and extent in benign areas of biopsy cores were visually assessed using digital images of hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations. Of note, 86.2% of cases and 78.2% of controls had at least one biopsy core (of three assessed) with inflammation in benign areas, most of which was chronic. Men who had at least one biopsy core with inflammation had 1.78 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-3.06] times the odds of prostate cancer compared with men who had zero cores with inflammation. The association was stronger for high-grade disease (Gleason sum 7-10, N = 94; OR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.06-4.71). These patterns were present when restricting to cases and controls in whom intraprostatic inflammation was the least likely to have influenced biopsy recommendation because their prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was low (<2 ng/mL at biopsy). Inflammation, most of which was chronic, was common in benign prostate tissue, and was positively associated with prostate cancer, especially high grade. The association did not seem to be due to detection bias. This study supports an etiologic link between inflammation and prostate carcinogenesis, and suggests an avenue for prevention by mitigating intraprostatic inflammation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 23(5); 1-10. ©2014 AACR.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers &amp Prevention 04/2014; · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Prospective cohort studies support that statin drug users have a lower risk of aggressive prostate cancer. Whether statin drug use influences risk of screen-detected disease is less clear, possibly because of complex detection biases. Thus, we investigated this association in a setting in which men had low baseline serum PSA concentration and were screened annually. Methods: We conducted a cohort study of 9,457 men aged ≥55 years old at randomization to the placebo arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. The men reported new use of medications quarterly. We estimated the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of prostate cancer (N=574 in 62,192 person-years) for use of a statin drug and duration of use during the trial using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: Over seven years of follow up, use of a statin drug during the trial was not associated with risk of total (HR=1.03, 95% CI 0.82-1.30), lower- (HR=0.96, 95% CI 0.71-1.29), or higher-grade (HR=1.27, 95% CI 0.85-1.90) prostate cancer. Duration of use during follow-up also was not associated with risk of total (P-trend=0.7), lower- (P-trend=0.5), or higher- (P-trend=0.2) grade disease. Conclusion: These prospective results do not support the hypothesis that statin drugs protect against prostate cancer in the setting of regular prostate cancer screening.
    The Journal of urology 01/2014; · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To investigate the association between the length of the polymorphic trinucleotide CAG microsatellite repeats in exon 1 of the AR gene and the risk of prostate cancer containing TMPRSS2:ETS fusion genes. Methods This nested case-control study came from subjects enrolled in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial and included 195 biopsy-proven prostate cancer cases with a known TMPRSS2:ETS status and 1344 matched controls. Results There was no association between the CAG repeat length and the risk of TMPRSS2:ETS–positive (odds ratio, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.91-1.04) or TMPRSS2:ETS–negative prostate cancer (odds ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.97-1.11) and in patients with low- or high-grade disease. Conclusion Our findings suggested that AR CAG repeats are not associated with TMPRSS2:ETS formation in prostate cancer.
    Urology 01/2014; · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: The CCP signature test (Prolaris) quantifies a patient's risk of disease progression and prostate cancer-specific mortality using a gene expression-based cell cycle progression (CCP) score. This study evaluated the potential clinical utility of the CCP test in a U.S.-based clinical setting. Methods: Urologists who participated in a prospective clinical study were sent a retrospective questionnaire to assess the value of the CCP test result. Fifteen board-certified urologists participated in the study, representing 15 distinct community urology group practices. Questionnaires were received for 294 evaluable patients. All patients had localized prostate cancer (T1-T3b, N0, M0). Results: Physicians found the CCP score valuable and indicated that 55% of tests generated a mortality risk that was either higher or lower than expected. Physicians also indicated that 32% of test results would lead to a definite or possible change in treatment. The data suggest that the test would have the net effect of shifting patients from more aggressive treatment to more conservative treatment. This was evidenced by the significant association between change in treatment and lower CCP scores (p<0.002) and by the fact that 62% of tests likely to lead to a definite or possible change in treatment had mortality risks lower than the physician expected versus only 10% with risks higher than expected. Study Limitations: This study measured the retrospectively-assessed likelihood of change in treatment as estimated by the physician, not the actual change in treatment. Conclusions: The CCP score adds meaningful new information to risk assessment for localized prostate cancer patients. Real-world use of the test is likely to lead to a change in treatment in a significant portion of tested patients, particularly by shifting patients towards more conservative management. This could reduce overtreatment of patients with less aggressive disease, decreasing patient morbidity and costs for payers and the healthcare system.
    Current Medical Research and Opinion 12/2013; · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context.-Use of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) 2005 modified Gleason score may result in higher scores compared with the classic Gleason scoring system. Objective.-To compare scores derived using the 2 scoring systems. Design.-On-study and for-cause biopsies were centrally reviewed and assigned a classic Gleason score in the Reduction by Dutasteride of prostate Cancer Events trial. Positive biopsies were reviewed by an independent pathologist in a secondary review using the ISUP 2005 modified Gleason score. The independent pathologist also recorded a classic Gleason score. Results.-In total, 1482/1507 (98%) positive biopsy results were independently reviewed. Scores assigned by the 2 pathologists (classic versus modified) agreed in 83% (1230 of 1481) of cases; 99% (1471 of 1481) of cancers were within ±1 of their previous score. Of discordant cases, similar numbers of biopsies were upgraded and downgraded in the secondary review, with minor differences in the score distributions. Interobserver agreement was good, with κ values ranging from 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56-0.67) to 0.70 (95% CI, 0.65-0.76). The overall number of high-grade tumors (Gleason score 8-10; n = 48) remained constant between reviews, with 3 fewer cases in the placebo group (n = 16) and 3 more in the dutasteride group (n = 32) in the secondary review. When comparing the independent pathologist's modified scores versus the classic, 17 of 1481 cancers (1.1%) were upgraded (including 9 of 17 upgrades [53%] to high-grade tumors). Conclusions.-This analysis showed similar score distributions between the classic and modified Gleason scoring systems. The differences seen between the 2 pathologists' scores likely reflect differences in interpretation rather than the scoring system chosen.
    Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine 12/2013; 137(12):1740-1746. · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Whether atrophy is a precursor to high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) and cancer is controversial. A virtual slide set comprising 48 prostatectomy cases was used to investigate associations among the amounts and spacing of these entities. Foci of atrophy without inflammation (A), atrophy with inflammation (AI), cancer (by patterns), and HGPIN were digitally annotated. Atrophy's proximity to cancer and HGPIN was assessed with two measurements: abutment (touching) or nearness (≤2 μm without touching). Area sums per specimen were computed for A, AI, cancer, and HGPIN. Abutment rates of AI and A foci to cancer were 23% versus 21% (p = NS); for nearness, 29% of AI foci were near to cancer versus 12% of A (P = .0001). Abutment or nearness of A and AI to HGPIN were in the 1.4% to 2.4% range. When A, AI, or HGPIN abutted cancer, it was disproportionately to Gleason grade 3 cancer foci even after adjusting for the lesser frequency of higher-grade cancer foci. Area sums of A, AI, or (A + AI) per specimen showed no correlations with those of HGPIN, and mostly negative ones with area sum and with tumor volume of cancer. In conclusion, atrophy with inflammation showed some preferential spatial association to cancer, although area sums of atrophy with or without inflammation correlated negatively with those of cancer. These divergent spatial associations suggest that atrophy and inflammation in biopsy specimens may have clinical relevance. The frequency of inflammatory atrophy (AI) merging with HGPIN was far less than reported previously, weakening the theory that AI gives rise to HGPIN.
    Human pathology 10/2013; · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prostate biopsies are usually taken from the peripheral rather than anterior region of the prostate. Consequently, tumors originating from the anterior apical region and transition zones may be under-sampled. We examined whether addition of transrectal anterior biopsy (TAB) would improve efficacy of prostate biopsies. Simulations of TAB and sextant biopsy (SB) were performed using computer models of 86 autopsy prostates (AP) and 40 radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens. TAB was obtained bilaterally from apex, mid, and base regions by advancing the biopsy needle 5 mm-35 mm beyond the prostatic capsule. A phase I clinical trial with 114 patients was conducted to determine the performance of an extended biopsy protocol consisting of TAB, SB, and laterally-directed biopsy (LDB). The overall cancer detection rates of SB and TAB were 33% and 55% for AP series (p = 0.00003); 60% and 88% for RP series (p = 0.006). Alternatively, SB + bilateral apical TAB and SB + bilateral mid TAB had cancer detection rates of 45% and 42% for AP series; 80% and 78% for RP series. The extended biopsy protocol detected cancer in 33% (38/114) of patients with 29, 25, and 15 diagnosed by SB, LDB, and bilateral apical TAB, respectively. Patients diagnosed by bilateral apical TAB versus SB (p = 0.01) and LDB (p = 0.02) were statistically significant. Without bilateral apical TAB, the overall cancer detection rate decreased to 30% (34/114). Inclusion of bilateral TAB from apical region for first time and repeat prostate biopsies may increase diagnosis of prostate cancer. The clinical significance of these findings needs further investigations and clinical follow up.
    The Canadian Journal of Urology 10/2013; 20(5):6897-6906. · 0.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), finasteride significantly reduced the risk of prostate cancer but was associated with an increased risk of high-grade disease. With up to 18 years of follow-up, we analyzed rates of survival among all study participants and among those with prostate cancer. We collected data on the incidence of prostate cancer among PCPT participants for an additional year after our first report was published in 2003 and searched the Social Security Death Index to assess survival status through October 31, 2011. Among 18,880 eligible men who underwent randomization, prostate cancer was diagnosed in 989 of 9423 (10.5%) in the finasteride group and 1412 of 9457 (14.9%) in the placebo group (relative risk in the finasteride group, 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 0.76; P<0.001). Of the men who were evaluated, 333 (3.5%) in the finasteride group and 286 (3.0%) in the placebo group had high-grade cancer (Gleason score, 7 to 10) (relative risk, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.37; P=0.05). Of the men who died, 2538 were in the finasteride group and 2496 were in the placebo group, for 15-year survival rates of 78.0% and 78.2%, respectively. The unadjusted hazard ratio for death in the finasteride group was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.97 to 1.08; P=0.46). Ten-year survival rates were 83.0% in the finasteride group and 80.9% in the placebo group for men with low-grade prostate cancer and 73.0% and 73.6%, respectively, for those with high-grade prostate cancer. Finasteride reduced the risk of prostate cancer by about one third. High-grade prostate cancer was more common in the finasteride group than in the placebo group, but after 18 years of follow-up, there was no significant between-group difference in the rates of overall survival or survival after the diagnosis of prostate cancer. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute.).
    New England Journal of Medicine 08/2013; 369(7):603-10. · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-directed monoclonal antibody cetuximab is the only targeted therapy approved for the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), but is only effective in a minority of patients. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been implicated as a drug resistance mechanism in multiple cancers, and the EGFR and Hedgehog pathways (HhP) are relevant to this process, but the interplay between the two pathways has not been defined in HNSCC. Here we show that HNSCC cells that were naturally sensitive to EGFR inhibition over time developed increased expression of the HhP transcription factor GLI1 as they became resistant after long-term EGFR inhibitor exposure. This robustly correlated with an increase in Vimentin expression. Conversely, the HhP negatively regulated an EGFR-dependent, EMT-like state in HNSCC cells, and pharmacological or genetic inhibition of HhP signaling pushed cells further into an EGFR-dependent phenotype, increasing expression of ZEB1 and VIM. In vivo treatment with cetuximab resulted in tumor shrinkage in four out of six HNSCC patient-derived xenografts; however they eventually re-grew. Cetuximab in combination with the HhP inhibitor IPI-926 eliminated tumors in two cases and significantly delayed re-growth in the other two cases. Expression of EMT genes TWIST and ZEB2 was increased in sensitive xenografts suggesting a possible resistant mesenchymal population. In summary, we report that EGFR-dependent HNSCC cells can undergo both EGFR-dependent and -independent EMT and HhP signaling is a regulator in both processes. Cetuximab plus IPI-926 forces tumor cells into an EGFR-dependent state delaying or completely blocking tumor recurrence.
    Cancer Research 04/2013; · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis and whether IGFs interact with androgen-suppressing agents in relation to prostate carcinogenesis is unclear. This nested case-control study (n = 1,652 cases/1,543 controls) examined whether serum IGF1, IGF2, IGFBP2, IGFBP3, and the IGF1:IGFBP3 ratio were associated with prostate cancer in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of finasteride for prostate cancer prevention. Presence or absence of cancer was determined by prostate biopsy. Baseline serum was assayed for IGF-axis analytes using ELISA. Logistic regression estimated ORs and 95% confidence intervals for risk of total, low-grade (Gleason 2-6) and high-grade (Gleason 7-10) cancers. Results were stratified by intervention assignment. In both the placebo and finasteride arms, serum IGF1, IGF2, IGFBP3, and the IGF1:IGFBP3 ratio were not associated with prostate cancer. However, men in the highest versus lowest quartile of serum IGFBP2 had a 48% (P(trend) = 0.02) and 55% (P(trend) = 0.01) increased risk for total and low-grade cancers, respectively. These IGFBP2 associations were attenuated and no longer statistically significant in the finasteride arm. Our results suggest that in general, serum IGF-axis analytes were not associated with prostate cancer risk in the PCPT in which presence or absence of all cancers was biopsy-determined. The exception was the finding that high serum IGFBP2 is a risk factor for low-grade disease, which was attenuated for men on finasteride. Further research is needed to understand better the risk incurred by high IGFBP2 and whether androgen-suppressing agents such as finasteride influence aspects of IGFBP2 physiology relevant to prostate carcinogenesis. Cancer Prev Res; 1-9. ©2012 AACR.
    Cancer Prevention Research 01/2013; · 4.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) and the CCN family member, connective tissue growth factor (CCN2), are associated with cardiac disease, inflammation and cancer. The precise role and signaling mechanism for these factors in normal and diseased tissues remains elusive. Here we demonstrate an interaction between GDF-15 and CCN2 using yeast two-hybrid assays and have mapped the domain of interaction to the von Willebrand factor type C domain of CCN2. Biochemical pull down assays using secreted GDF-15 and His-tagged CCN2 produced in PC-3 prostate cancer cells confirmed a direct interaction between these proteins. To investigate the functional consequences of this interaction, in vitro angiogenesis assays were performed. We demonstrate that GDF-15 blocks CCN2-mediated tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVEC) cells. To examine the molecular mechanism whereby GDF-15 inhibits CCN2-mediated angiogenesis, activation of α(V) β(3) integrins and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) was examined. CCN2-mediated FAK activation was inhibited by GDF-15 and was accompanied by a decrease in α(V) β(3) integrin clustering in HUVEC cells. These results demonstrate, for the first time, a novel signaling pathway for GDF-15 through interaction with the matricellular signaling molecule CCN2. Furthermore, antagonism of CCN2 mediated angiogenesis by GDF-15 may provide insight into the functional role of GDF-15 in disease states. J. Cell. Biochem. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 12/2012; · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Extended transrectal ultrasound guided biopsies (TRUSB) of the prostate may not accurately convey true morphometric information and Gleason score (GS) of prostate cancer (PCa) and the clinical use of template-guided (5-mm grid) transperineal mapping biopsies (TPMBs) remains controversial. METHODS: We correlated the clinical-pathologic results of 1,403 TPMB cores obtained from 25 men diagnosed with PCa with 64 cancer lesions found in their corresponding radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens. Special computer models of three-dimensional, whole-mounted radical prostatectomy (3D-WMRP) specimens were generated and used as gold standard to determine tumor morphometric data. Between-sample rates of upgrade and downgrade (highest GS and a novel cumulative GS) and upstage and downstage (laterality) were determined. Lesions ≥ 0.5 cm(3) or GS ≥ 7 were considered clinically significant. RESULTS: From 64 separate 3D-WMRP lesions, 25 had significant volume (mean 1.13 cm(3) ) and 39 were insignificant (mean 0.09 cm(3) ) (P < 0.0001); 18/64 lesions were missed by TPMB, but only one was clinically significant with GS-8 (0.02 cm(3) ). When comparing the cumulative GS of TPMB versus RP, 72% (n = 18) had identical scores, 12% (n = 3) were upgraded, and only 16% (n = 4) were downgraded. Laterality of TPMB and RP was strongly correlated, 80% same laterality, 4% were up-staged, and 16% down-staged. CONCLUSIONS: Our clinical-pathology correlation showed very high accuracy of TPMB with a 5-mm grid template to detect clinically significant PCa lesions as compared with 3D-WMRP, providing physicians and patients with a reliable assessment of grade and stage of disease and the opportunity to choose the most appropriate therapeutic options. Prostate © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    The Prostate 11/2012; · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Androgen deprivation therapy is frequently used to treat patients with advanced prostate cancer. New therapies for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer have drawn increased attention to serum and intratumoral testosterone levels. The present review examines the role of testosterone in prostate cancer progression, discusses the nuances and potential pitfalls in measuring serum testosterone using available assays, and summarizes current data relevant to the arguments for and against achieving and maintaining the lowest possible testosterone levels during androgen deprivation therapy, including the adverse effects of such treatment. Incorporating this information, we have made recommendations incorporating testosterone evaluation and its effect on the clinical decision-making process.
    Urology 07/2012; 80(4):754-62. · 2.42 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

8k Citations
786.64 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001–2014
    • University of Colorado
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension
      • • Department of Medicine
      Denver, Colorado, United States
  • 2012
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2009
    • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
      • Division of Cancer Medicine
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 2003–2009
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
      • Department of Urology
      San Antonio, TX, United States
  • 2006
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2005
    • Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
      • Department of Urology
      Lubbock, TX, United States
  • 2004
    • Wayne State University
      • Department of Pathology
      Detroit, MI, United States