[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We tested the strategy of mTOR inhibitors with calcineurin inhibitor minimization in renal transplant recipients with known chronic allograft dysfunction.
In this open-label, single-arm study, renal transplant patients were recruited after biopsy-confirmed chronic allograft dysfunction in the absence of acute rejection episode within 2 months, with proteinuria <0.8 g/day, and serum creatinine <220 μmol/L or estimated glomerular filtration rate >40 mL/min/1.73 m(2). They were converted to everolimus (aiming for trough everolimus level 3-8 ng/mL) with cyclosporine minimization, to assess the effect on renal function, rate of glomerular filtration rate decline, and longitudinal transplant biopsy at 12 months.
Seventeen Chinese patients (median transplant duration, 4.2 years) were recruited; no patients discontinued study medication. The mean slope of the glomerular filtration rate over time was -4.31±6.65 mL/min/1.73 m(2) per year in the year before everolimus, as compared with 1.29±5.84 mL/min/1.73 m(2) per year in the 12 months of everolimus therapy, a difference of 5.61 mL/min/1.73 m(2) per year (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40-10.8) favoring everolimus therapy (P=0.036). Serial renal biopsy histology showed significant decrease of tubular atrophy (15.7%±11.3% versus 7.1%±7.3%, P=0.005) and interstitial fibrosis (14.8%±11.5% versus 7.2%±8.2%, P=0.013). Intrarenal expression of TGF-β1 mRNA showed a nonsignificant decrease after everolimus treatment.
In renal transplant recipients with biopsy-confirmed chronic allograft dysfunction, we found a significant beneficial effect of everolimus rescue therapy and calcineurin inhibitor minimization strategy on the improvement of glomerular filtration rate decline rate. In secondary analysis, everolimus was shown to slow down the disease progression by reducing the tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis scoring.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Kidney transplant recipients have increased risk of cancers when compared with the general population. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is extremely important in Asia where hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is endemic. The aim is to study the epidemiological and clinical aspects of all de novo HCC in our kidney transplant recipients. Moreover, various preventive strategies which may help to optimize the outcome will also be discussed. A retrospective review of all patients who developed HCC after kidney transplantation between May 1972 and December 2011 in Hong Kong, based on the data from Hong Kong Renal Registry. After a follow-up period of 40,246 person-years, 20 patients (males 15: females 5) developed HCC. The annual incidence was 49.7/100,000 persons per year. Among them, 16 were HBV carriers, 2 were hepatitis C (HCV) carriers and 2 had HBV and HCV co-infection. Presence of HBV infection was associated with 78-fold higher risk for HCC development. Majority (85%) were asymptomatic when HCC was diagnosed by ultrasound or alpha-fetoprotein surveillance. All patients diagnosed by surveillance received active treatment while 2/3 of symptomatic patients could only receive symptomatic care and died rapidly. In conclusion, HBV infection is the major etiological factor for HCC development in kidney transplant recipients in HBV endemic areas. Regular HCC surveillance appeared to be able to detect early stage cancers which are amenable to treatment and offer the best hope of cure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES. To examine knowledge of chronic kidney disease in the general public. DESIGN. Cross-sectional telephone survey. SETTING. Hong Kong. PARTICIPANTS. Community-dwelling adults who spoke Chinese in Hong Kong. RESULTS. The response rate was 47.3% (516/1091) out of all subjects who were eligible to participate. The final survey population included 516 adults (55.6% female), of whom over 80% had received a secondary level of education or higher. Close to 20% of the participants self-reported a diagnosis of hypertension. Few (17.8%) realised the asymptomatic nature of chronic kidney disease. Less than half of these individuals identified hypertension (43.8%) or diabetes (44.0%) as risk factors of kidney disease. Awareness of high dietary sodium as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease was high (79.5%). CONCLUSIONS. The public in Hong Kong is poorly informed about chronic kidney disease, with major knowledge gaps regarding the influence of hypertension on kidney disease. We are concerned about the public's unawareness of hypertension being a risk factor for kidney disease. Future health education should target areas of knowledge deficits.
Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi / Hong Kong Academy of Medicine 03/2014; DOI:10.12809/hkmj134134
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although calcimimetics cinacalcet can reduce parathyroid hormone level and control secondary hyperparathyroidism in end-stage renal disease patients, risk of vascular calcification remains high. Whether cinacalcet can further reduce vascular damage or arterial stiffness is unknown.
We studied the effect of cinacalcet in 33 peritoneal dialysis patients with inadequately controlled secondary hyperparathyroidism despite standard treatment. The primary outcome was the aortic pulse wave velocity at 26 and 52 months after cinacalcet treatment. The pulse wave velocity was compared with that of a matched control cohort of 37 peritoneal dialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.
Thirty-three patients completed the cinacalcet treatment, after median dialysis duration of 1.0 year. Significant improvement of parathyroid hormone level was achieved after 52 weeks, from 87.5 ± 28.7 pmol/L to 34.5 ± 45.5 pmol/L (P < 0.0001). Serial carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity did not differ between cinacalcet treatment group and control group (general linear model with repeated measures, P = 0.19). Among patients receiving cinacalcet, the average carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity increased from 10.46 ± 2.12 m/s at baseline to 11.41 ± 2.79 m/s at 52 weeks (P = 0.001). The change in carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity over 1 year had no significant correlation with the final parathyroid hormone level or change in parathyroid hormone level.
Among prevalent patients receiving peritoneal dialysis and with hyperparathyroidism, a reduction of 60.6% parathyroid hormone level after cinacalcet treatment for one year did not reduce the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. (ClinicalTrial.gov number, NCT01143987 [ClinicalTrial.gov].).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis secondary to Gordonia species is rare. Few studies have assessed either treatment or clinical outcomes.Methods
We reviewed all Gordonia peritonitis episodes occurring in a single dialysis unit from 1994 to 2013.ResultsDuring the study period, 4 episodes of Gordonia peritonitis were recorded. All were male patients. One patient responded to vancomycin therapy. One patient had refractory peritonitis despite vancomycin, but responded to imipenem and amikacin combination therapy. One patient had relapsing peritonitis and required catheter removal. The fourth patient had an elective Tenckhoff catheter exchange. No patient died of peritonitis. Causative organism was not fully identified until 7 to 18 days of peritonitis.Conclusions
Gordonia species is increasingly recognized to cause serious infections. In patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis, Gordonia peritonitis should be considered in case of refractory Gram positive bacilli peritonitis, especially when the exact organism could not be identified one week after the onset of peritonitis. A close liaison with microbiologist is needed for a timely diagnosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical benefits of using icodextrin during acute peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis are uncertain. On the premise that high glucose concentration might jeopardize the peritoneal defense during peritonitis, icodextrin administration during acute peritonitis could have the potential to improve the peritonitis outcome whilst improving ultrafiltration.
We conducted a single-center, open-label, randomized controlled trial in which 53 adult continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients underwent randomization to receive either icodextrin or original glucose-based dialysis solution. The primary outcome measure was the peritoneal dialyzate white cell count on Day 3. Secondary outcome measures comprised the need of additional hypertonic exchanges, fluid control as denoted by changes in body weight, and the clinical outcome of peritonitis including 30-day and 120-day all-cause mortality.
Between icodextrin and control treatment groups, there were no statistically significant differences in the peritoneal dialyzate white cell count on day (1829 versus 987/mm(3), P = 0.13). There was neither improvement in primary cure rate (31.8 versus 32.3%, P = 1.00), nor was there any change in 120-day mortality after icodextrin use (13.6 versus 12.9%, P = 1.00). However, requirement of hypertonic dialysis exchange was much more frequent in the control group than in those randomized to icodextrin (35.5 versus 0%, P = 0.001). Body weight did not change significantly in the icodextrin group, but body weight in the control group increased from 63.3 ± 14.5 kg at baseline to 64.2 ± 14.2 kg at Day 5 (P = 0.0002) and 65.2 ± 14.1 kg at Day 10 (P < 0.0001).
As compared with glucose-based peritoneal dialysis solution, use of icodextrin achieved better ultrafiltration and fluid control during acute peritonitis complicating continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, although we found no evidence of a worthwhile clinical benefit on peritonitis resolution. (ClinicalTrial.gov number, NCT0104446 [ClinicalTrial.gov].).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A territory-wide diabetes management program (Risk Assessment Management Program - RAMP) was recently established, providing comprehensive management for all diabetics, helping to delineate current level of control and complications prevalence among primary care diabetic patients in Hong Kong.
This cross-sectional study captured anonymous clinical data from RAMP patients. Data obtained include sociodemographic details, type of diabetes, illness duration, family history, drug usage, coexisting illnesses, diabetic complications and other clinical parameters.
Data from 15,856 type 2 diabetic patients were analyzed. 57.1% were above 60 years old, with mean disease duration of 7.3 years. Hypertension was the commonest coexisting chronic illness (57.6%). 30.2% and 61.8% have their systolic and diastolic pressure controlled to below 130 mmHg and 80 mmHg respectively. Over half (51.5%) had an HbA1c level of less than 7.0%. 88.4% did not achieve target lipid level. 15% were on diet control alone . Only 22.2% were on statins. In patients with microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria, 40.7% and 54.5% were on angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) respectively. 12.9%, 38.8% and 2.4% had diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy respectively. Overall, 37.9%, 7.3% and 0.4% had single, two and three concurrent microvascular complications respectively.
The level of diabetic control is comparable with other developed countries. We demonstrated a high prevalence of microvascular complications among Chinese primary care patients despite achieving adequate HbA1c levels, highlighting the importance of managing all aspects of diabetes including weight, lipid and blood pressure. Efforts to improve holistic management must be tailored according to the needs of our population, with the challenges that the majority have low educational background and in the older age group.
BMC Family Practice 01/2014; 15(1):8. DOI:10.1186/1471-2296-15-8 · 1.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) represents an important but underused strategy for patients who are beginning dialysis treatment worldwide. The development of a health care model that encourages increased use of PD is hampered by a lack of expertise and absence of pragmatic strategies. This article provides a brief review of a PD-first initiative that was implemented in Hong Kong more than 25 years ago and issues related to this policy. Clinical studies and research by the authors' and other teams around the world have shown evidence that, as a home-based dialysis therapy, PD can improve patient survival, retain residual kidney function, lower infection risk, and increase patient satisfaction while reducing financial stress to governments by addressing the burden of managing the growing number of patients with end-stage renal disease. Achieving a successful PD-first policy requires understanding inherent patient factors, selecting patients carefully, and improving technique-related factors by training physicians, nurses, patients, and caregivers better. Dialysis centers have the important role of fostering expertise and experience in PD patient management. Dialysis reimbursement policy also can be helpful in providing sufficient incentives for choosing PD. However, despite successes in improving patient survival, PD treatment has limitations, notably the shortcoming of technique failure. Potential strategies to and challenges of implementing a PD-first policy globally are discussed in this review. We highlight 3 important elements of a successful PD-first program: nephrologist experience and expertise, peritoneal dialysis catheter access, and psychosocial support for PD patients.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases 06/2013; 62(5). DOI:10.1053/j.ajkd.2013.03.038 · 5.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis secondary to Campylobacter organisms is uncommon. Few studies have assessed either treatment or clinical outcomes. METHODS: We reviewed all Campylobacter peritonitis episodes occurring in a single dialysis unit from 1994 to 2011. RESULTS: During the study period, 12 episodes of Campylobacter peritonitis (0.45% of all peritonitis episodes) were recorded. Diarrhea was uncommon (8.3%). The overall primary response rate was 91.7%; the complete cure rate was 75.0%. Among 6 patients who failed to respond to standard antibiotics by day 5, all improved after administration of an oral macrolide (erythromycin or clarithromycin). Of those 6 patients, 5 experienced a complete cure, and 1 patient experienced relapse of culture-negative peritonitis. No patient required Tenckhoff catheter removal or temporary hemodialysis support. The 30-day mortality was 0%. CONCLUSIONS: Campylobacter peritonitis might not respond to first-line conventional antibiotics, and an oral macrolide is recommended if Campylobacter is confirmed. The findings from our analysis do not support the use of fluoroquinolone, which is associated with a high resistance rate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Manystudies have shown that kidney transplant recipients have a higher incidence of cancers when compared with general population. However, most data on the posttransplant malignancies (PTM) are derived from Western literature and large population-based studies are rare. There is also lack of information about the posttransplant cancer-specific mortality rate. We conducted a population-based study of 4895 kidney transplants between 1972 and 2011, with data from the Hong Kong Renal Registry. Patterns of cancer incidence and mortality in our kidney transplant recipients were compared with those of the general population using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) respectively. With 40 246 person-years of follow-up, 299 PTM was diagnosed. The SIR of all cancers was 2.94 (female 3.58 and male 2.58). Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), kidney, and bladder cancers had the highest SIRs. The overall SMR was 2.3 (female 3.4 and male 1.7) and the highest SMR was NHL. The patterns of PTM differ among countries. Increases in cancer incidence can now translate into similar increases in cancer mortality. NHL is important in our kidney transplant recipients. Strategies in cancer screening in selected patient groups are needed to improve transplant outcomes.
American Journal of Transplantation 08/2012; 12(11). DOI:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2012.04209.x · 6.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A survey of seven countries has found a striking difference in dialysis reimbursement policies, even when data were adjusted for gross domestic product per capita. Although increased reimbursement is perceived to be a valuable incentive for certain treatments, this perception is not supported by current data and alternative strategies to promote home-based dialysis should be pursued.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to gain an understanding of patient concerns while on a transplantation waiting list in areas with long transplant waiting time.
The study population comprised patients with organ failure on the transplant waiting list in Hong Kong. They were invited to complete a questionnaire survey. Demographic data and waiting time were collected. Respondents rated their chance of getting transplanted, their subjective concerns and feelings, level of happiness and support received.
A total of 442 patients on the waiting list for kidney, liver, lung and heart-lung transplants completed the questionnaire survey. The majority of patients (93.0%) were waiting for kidney transplantation. More than half of the respondents (63.3%) had been waiting for more than 3 years. Patients with longer transplant waiting times had lower self-estimated chance of receiving a transplant (P = 0.004). Self-estimated chance of getting transplanted was positively associated with the happiness score (P < 0.0001). Issues of most concerns to the patients waiting for organ transplants were: inconvenience of therapy (48.2%), disease progression (47.9%), burden to family (59.5%) and financial difficulties (52.3%). More female patients on the waiting list (50.0% vs 25.7% in male) reported concerns about suffering associated with the illnesses. 21.7% of patients considered the level of support received inadequate.
Our patients had long waiting time for transplantation, which is associated with a lower perceived chance of getting a transplant. Attention to more psychosocial support to these patients waiting for organ transplant is important. Promoting and improving organ donation would be the ultimate way to help these patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: In 2009, 1659 patients with end‐stage renal failure in Hong Kong were waiting for a renal transplant. The overall number of renal transplants carried out locally remains low, with an even lower number being live donor donations. Yet, live donor kidney transplantation yields results that are consistently superior to those of deceased donor kidney transplantation, and laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) is increasingly accepted worldwide as a safe and preferred surgical option. We aim to evaluate the outcome of LDN in our setting, and to compare with that of deceased donors in this retrospective review.Patients and Methods: A total of 12 patients received LDN over the study period of 2006–2009. Standard left transperitoneal LDN was carried out. Grafts including three with double vessels were prepared using the bench technique. The postoperative outcomes up to 1 year for both the donors and the recipients were studied. Contemporary results for the 47 deceased donor kidneys were studied and compared.Results: All donors had an eventful recovery. The operating time was 225.0 ± 67.4 min. The hospital stay was 5.6 ± 2.3 days. The recipient outcomes including hospital stay and creatinine levels at discharge and 1 year were 11 days, 121 umol/L and 116 umol/L, respectively. Specifically, no ureteric stricture or graft loss was noted at the 1‐year follow up. Recipient complications included haematoma (1 patient), renal artery stenosis (1 patient) and redo of vascular anastomosis (1 patient). In contrast, the deceased donor graft recipients had a hospital stay of 11 days, and creatinine levels of 205 umol/L on discharge and 205 umol/L at 1 year, respectively. The delayed graft function rates for the live donor and deceased donors group were 0% and 14.9%, whereas the 1‐year graft survival rates were 100% and 87.2% respectively.Conclusion: The results showed that the donor morbidity rate was low, as reflected by the short hospital stay. Also, the overall parameters of recipients were good. In particular, no ureteric stricture was noted, and graft survival was 100% at 1 year. Living donor kidney transplant program using the laparoscopic technique is a viable option to improve the pool of kidneys for transplantation.
Surgical Practice 02/2012; 16(1). DOI:10.1111/j.1744-1633.2011.00575.x · 0.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This Review focuses on the changing epidemiology of infections among patients with end-stage renal disease who are undergoing dialysis. In particular, bloodstream infections related to vascular access in patients undergoing hemodialysis, and peritonitis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis, are highlighted. Gram-positive (staphylococcal and enterococcal) bloodstream infections and Gram-negative peritonitis (especially extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing organisms) contribute substantially to excess health-care use owing to infection caused by dialysis access. Although the management of peritoneal-dialysis-related peritonitis has been hampered by a dearth of randomized, controlled studies, epidemiological data have provided useful information. To overcome the problem of differing methods used to monitor infections within various dialysis centers, uniform reporting systems for vascular-access-related infection and peritoneal-dialysis-related peritonitis, as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis, respectively, are discussed. Infections unrelated to the port of entry for dialysis are also examined, namely hepatitis and respiratory infection. To address the disease burden, we examine the infection-related mortality as well as the implications for subsequent cardiovascular mortality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although thiazide-type diuretics can promote a positive calcium balance, thiazide can be associated with hyponatraemia, which is recently linked with heightened fracture risk. We examine the chance of developing fracture in patients with and without hyponatraemia after taking thiazide diuretics.
In this single-centre retrospective study, we followed up a previously published cohort of patients with (n= 223) and without (n= 216) thiazide-induced hyponatraemia.
A total of 61 osteoporotic fractures was recorded during a mean follow-up period of 82 months. Using univariate regression analysis, the hazard ratio of thiazide-induced hyponatraemia was 1.78 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-3.03; P= 0.033). Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, however, showed that age, body mass index and diabetes mellitus were the only independent predictors of osteoporotic fractures. No association of a history of thiazide-induced hyponatraemia and risk of fracture was evident in the final model.
Since a history of thiazide-induced hyponatraemia is associated with osteoporotic fracture in univariate but not multivariate analyses, an alternative explanation is that confounding factors of older age and low body mass index accounted for the apparently increased risk of osteoporotic fracture in patients with thiazide-induced hyponatraemia.
Internal Medicine Journal 12/2011; 42(7):760-4. DOI:10.1111/j.1445-5994.2011.02642.x · 1.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Conversion of standard-release tacrolimus to prolonged-release once-daily tacrolimus is often performed in a 1:1 (mg:mg) manner. We sought to determine the safety and efficacy of this conversion strategy in Chinese renal transplant recipients.
In this single-center study, 16 stable renal transplant recipients were observed for 1 year after a milligram to milligram switch from standard-release to prolonged-release tacrolimus formulation. Trough blood tacrolimus level and graft function were serially monitored.
Mean daily dose of tacrolimus was 0.040 ± 0.018 mg/kg before conversion. After conversion, we observed a significant decrease in trough tacrolimus levels, from 4.5 ± 2.2 ng/mL to 3.4 ± 1.1 ng/mL (p = 0.046) at 1 month, and from 4.5 ± 2.2 ng/mL to 3.3 ± 1.1 ng/mL (p = 0.01) at 12 months. After 12 months, 44% of patients (n = 7) experienced a decrease in tacrolimus blood levels of more than 20%. All patients maintained stable graft function otherwise, without acute rejection.
Our findings confirm that trough tacrolimus blood level can decrease following a 1:1 (mg:mg) conversion from standard-release to prolonged-release tacrolimus formulation in Chinese patients. Close monitoring of the drug levels and clinical condition seems to be warranted after medication switch.
從標準釋放型 tacrolimus 轉換至一天一次延長釋放型 tacrolimus 通常是按 1:1 (mg:mg) 的比例進行；以下研究以華裔腎臟移植接受者為對象，對此轉換法的功效及安全性作出調查。
本研究於單一院所進行，參與者為 16 位穩定的腎臟移植接受者，從標準釋放型轉換至延長釋放型 tacrolimus (按 1:1 之 mg:mg 比例) 後接受 1 年的持續追蹤，內容包括 tacrolimus 谷底血液濃度及植入腎臟功能。
轉換前，tacrolimus 之平均劑量為 0.040 ± 0.018 mg/kg；轉換後，tacrolimus 谷底濃度呈現明顯下降：1 個月時從 4.5 ± 2.2 ng/mL 至 3.4 ± 1.1 ng/mL (p = 0.046)，12 個月時從 4.5 ± 2.2 ng/mL 至 3.3 ± 1.1 ng/mL (p = 0.01)。在經過 12 個月後，44% 的病人 (n = 7) 呈現 >20% 的 tacrolimus 血液濃度降幅。然而，所有病人的植入腎臟均維持穩定的功能，未出現急性排斥現象。
本研究證實在華裔病人間，從標準釋放型 tacrolimus 按 1:1 (mg:mg) 比例轉換至延長釋放型 tacrolimus 後，tacrolimus 谷底濃度會有所下降，因此理應有需要在轉換後密切監察病人的藥物濃度及臨床狀況。
Hong Kong Journal of Nephrology 10/2011; 13(2):64-67. DOI:10.1016/j.hkjn.2011.09.007
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypokalemic hypertension is a common condition leading to the diagnosis of secondary hypertension. We report the case of a 60-year-old woman for whom the diagnosis of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease arose during the investigation of possible hyperaldosteronism. Activation of the renin system, as supported by recent studies, can explain the mechanism of hypokalemia and hypertension in this inherited cystic kidney disorder. Clinicians should be aware of this relatively uncommon clinical phenomenon of secondary hypertension in polycystic kidney disease. Increased understanding of the disorder's underlying mechanism should lay the foundation for better appreciation of potentially effective blood pressure treatments. The availability of a direct renin inhibitor may redirect research toward finding a remedy for this troublesome disease.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases 09/2011; 59(2):270-2. DOI:10.1053/j.ajkd.2011.08.020 · 5.76 Impact Factor